A genetic history of continuity and mobility in the Iron Age central Mediterranean

Omino

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J2a
The Iron Age was a dynamic period in central Mediterranean history, with the expansion of Greek and Phoenician colonies and the growth of Carthage into the dominant maritime power of the Mediterranean. These events were facilitated by the ease of long-distance travel following major advances in seafaring. We know from the archaeological record that trade goods and materials were moving across great distances in unprecedented quantities, but it is unclear how these patterns correlate with human mobility. Here, to investigate population mobility and interactions directly, we sequenced the genomes of 30 ancient individuals from coastal cities around the central Mediterranean, in Tunisia, Sardinia and central Italy. We observe a meaningful contribution of autochthonous populations, as well as highly heterogeneous ancestry including many individuals with non-local ancestries from other parts of the Mediterranean region. These results highlight both the role of local populations and the extreme interconnectedness of populations in the Iron Age Mediterranean. By studying these trans-Mediterranean neighbours together, we explore the complex interplay between local continuity and mobility that shaped the Iron Age societies of the central Mediterranean

(New results)
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-023-02143-4
 
Individual IDCountryPopulationlocalityDate RangeLatitudeLongitudeBiological SexMitochondrial haplogrouY-haplogroupY-chr haplogroup SNPGenome-wide CoveraSnps covereUDG TreatmentTomb IDSequencing strategy
R10337.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi150.5 calBCE - 3 calCE42.254211.7576MALER0aR2aR-L2661.11159764700Partial (30 minutes)6176/2WGS
R10338.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 3 calCE42.254211.7576MALEJ1c3R1b1a2a1a2bR-U1521.17425789280Partial (30 minutes)6176/4WGS
R10339.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi160 calBCE - 49 calBCE42.254211.7576MALEH1eR1b1a2a1aR-P3110.66256552990Partial (30 minutes)6176/5WGS
R10340.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 3 calCE42.254211.7576MALEX2d1R1b1a2R-M2691.06056746474Partial (30 minutes)6176 A2WGS
R10341.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi160 calBCE - 49 calBCE42.254211.7576MALEH2a2a1J1aJ-CTS53681.06404746922Partial (30 minutes)6176 A3WGS
R10342.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi157.5 calBCE - 44.5 calBCE42.254211.7576MALEK1a4gR1b1a2R-M2691.273821308Partial (30 minutes)6176 FWGS
R10343.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 3 calCE42.254211.7576FEMALEH4a1----1.19948798322Partial (30 minutes)6176 GWGS
R10344.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 538 calBCE42.254211.7576MALEJ1c3R1b1a2a1a2R-P3120.611106521818Partial (30 minutes)6242WGS
R10359.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi366.5 calBCE - 200.5 calBCE42.254211.7576FEMALEJ1c3----1.2945797155Partial (30 minutes)Tarquinia Monterozzi, 61WGS
R10361.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 3 calCE42.254211.7576MALEHV0+195R1b1a2a1a2R-P3121.92751970460Partial (30 minutes)Tarquinia Monterozzi, 61WGS
R10363.SGItalyCentral Italy Iron AgeTarquinia Monterozzi389 calBCE - 207 calBCE42.254211.7576MALET2b+150G2a2b2a1a1b1aG-CTS21001.19997796985Partial (30 minutes)Tarquinia Ripagretta, 61WGS
R11102.SGItalyCentral Italy Bronze AgePian Sultano1923 calBCE - 1770 calBCE42.026311.9483FEMALEU5b2b----0.742777600397Partial (30 minutes)Ind. B, Crepaccio IIWGS
R11104.SGItalyCentral Italy Bronze AgePian Sultano1923 calBCE - 1614.5 calBCE42.026311.9483MALEH1cI2a1a1I-M261.25803816234Partial (30 minutes)Ind. D, Crepaccio IIWGS
R11105.SGItalyCentral Italy Bronze AgePian Sultano1734.5 calBCE - 1614.5 calBCE42.026311.9483FEMALEH1c----1.26082816704Partial (30 minutes)Ind. E, Crepaccio IIWGS
R11107.SGItalyCentral Italy Bronze AgePian Sultano1923 calBCE - 1614.5 calBCE42.026311.9483FEMALEX2b+226----0.709928582030Partial (30 minutes)33, Crepaccio IIWGS
R11746.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane733 calBCE - 411.5 calBCE36.961511.0804MALET2bR1bR-M3431.31061829717Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 1/97 Ind. DWGS
R11749.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEH2a----0.953878693285Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 1/10WGS
R11751.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane728.5 calBCE - 409.5 calBCE36.961511.0804MALEH7a1J2b2J-M2411.3619845941Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 1/9WGS
R11753.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane656 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804MALEH1agJ2bJ-M121.12923769057Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 2/00 Cranio 4BWGS
R11755.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEM1a1b1----0.759005600644Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 2/05 Cranio 2WGS
R11759.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 540.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEU6a6b----0.948381694944Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 2/06 Ind. AWGS
R11776.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEHV0+195----0.876806664439Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 4/3WGS
R11778.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEL3e2b----0.818563627527Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 4/87 Ind. BWGS
R11780.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane748 calBCE - 414.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEH1----1.51558892053Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 4/87 Ind. DWGS
R11790.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEHV13a----0.93022692022Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 15/C2 Ind. AWGS
R11791.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane742 calBCE - 411 calBCE36.961511.0804FEMALEI5----0.951482695040Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 15/CWGS
R11793.SGTunisiaTunisia Iron AgeKerkouane761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE36.961511.0804MALEH74J2a1J-L261.07236746073Partial (30 minutes)Tomb 15/C2 Ind. EWGS
R11828.SGItalySardinia Bronze AgeSant'Imbenia1115 calBCE - 984.5 calBCE40.59388.2045MALEU5b3a2I2a1a1a1I-L1600.944593699022Partial (30 minutes)S. Imbenia_7489/T1WGS
R11829.SGItalySardinia Bronze/Iron AgSant'Imbenia1004.5 calBCE - 909.5 calBCE40.59388.2045FEMALEHV0a----0.9887715139Partial (30 minutes)S. Imbenia_7489/T2WGS
R11835.SGItalySardinia Iron AgeSant'Imbenia800.5 calBCE - 774.5 calBCE40.59388.2045MALEK1a2H3H-Z58571.08048753188Partial (30 minutes)S. Imbenia_7494/T3WGS
 
Are there any significant new results?
 
This just shows that knowledge in uniparental analysis should absolutely be mandatory in the field of population genetics. Nor should arguing with macrohaplogroups to lump together uniparentals that have the last common ancestor in the Paleolithic be acceptable. Especially in 2023.
Some of the statements especially regarding the European haplogroups in cosmopolitan Kerkouane are clear falsehoods. J2b-L283 has nothing to do with Phoenicians and everything with Europe especially the Western Balkans and Italy. ID 11746 R1b-V88>PF6287 did not expand with the Bell Beakers into Kerkouane, and is definitely not responsible for the dispersal of recent steppe auDNA. There is no discrepancy between the paternal lineages and autosomal DNA in that port site as three out of 4 males carry recent European Y DNA, namely:

ID R11751 ~569 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240>PH1602
ID R11753 ~530 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240
ID R11793 ~583 calBCE J2a-Y14434>Z35779

Samples carrying the J2b-L283 haplogroup and likewise being in the nonlocal cluster is no coincidence. Also, totally fading out the Western Balkans when addressing transadriatic seafaring throughout the Bronze to Iron Age is really ignorant.
It is also senseless given the above data to make a Y DNA chart of a North African site with 4 samples out of which three have recent paternal and autosomal European ancestry and claim it is somehow representative of the local North African groups.

"...,we did not detect individuals with large amounts of Levantine ancestry at Kerkouane."
And neither Levatine Y DNA dear Moots et al.

So much for the supposedly Punic paternal expansion in Southern Europe, turns out we are just seeing a bunch of European mercenaries in these sites.

Closest geographic J2b-L283 samples to Kerkouane are found in Bronze Age Sardinia, Italy and its hg. branch in Dalmatia whereas closest hg. branch to J2a-Y14434>Z35779 also regarding geographic proximity has been found in Bronze Age Chania, Crete and Kyklades Greece.


Distance to: Tunisia_Punic:R11776
3.12713927 GRC_Mycenaean_Palace_of_Nestor_BA_father.or.son.I13518:I13506_d
3.33694471 GRC_Mycenaean_Kastrouli_BA:I13428
4.23210350 Himera_480_BC_Battle_Med:I7218


Distance to: Tunisia_Punic:R11753
2.48163253 BGR_ChL:I2428
5.02369386 Himera_409_BC_Battle_Med:I7223
6.16958670 Armenoi_Crete:I9123:Lazaridis_2017


Distance to: Tunisia_Punic:R11749
3.81869088 Armenoi_Crete:I9123:Lazaridis_2017
5.50995463 I8204:Olalde_2019
5.73688069 I8475:Olalde_2019


These Punics seem pretty Greek.

But not only just Greek, higher steppe Greek like Armenoi_Crete.

cetina-core-clear.png
 
I have reworked the data table that Valerius posted above to make it easier to read without having to scroll left and right. I deleted the less interesting columns, removed the ridiculous half years in the dating (it's not as if carbon dating was so accurate as half a year mattered), shortened the population name and sorted the table by historical period. As a visual thinker, I also couldn't help myself colouring the Y-haplogroups. :embarassed:

Sample IDPopulationLocalityDate RangemtDNAY-DNAY SNP
R11102BA Central ItalyPian Sultano1923 - 1770 calBCEU5b2b----
R11104BA Central ItalyPian Sultano1923 - 1614 calBCEH1cI2a1a1I-M26
R11105BA Central ItalyPian Sultano1734.5 - 1614 calBCEH1c----
R11107BA Central ItalyPian Sultano1923 - 1614 calBCEX2b+226----
R11828BA SardiniaSant'Imbenia1115 - 984 calBCEU5b3a2I2a1a1a1I-L160
R11829BA/IA SardiniaSant'Imbenia1004 - 909 calBCEHV0a----
R10337IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi150 calBCE - 3 calCER0aR2aR-L266
R10338IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 3 calCEJ1c3R1b1a2a1a2bR-U152
R10339IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi160 - 49 calBCEH1eR1b1a2a1aR-P311
R10340IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi759 - 3 calCEX2d1R1b1a2R-M269
R10341IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi160 - 49 calBCEH2a2a1J1aJ-CTS5368
R10342IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi157 - 45 calBCEK1a4gR1b1a2R-M269
R10343IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi759 calBCE - 3 calCEH4a1----
R10344IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi759 - 538 calBCEJ1c3R1b1a2a1a2R-P312
R10359IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi366 - 200 calBCEJ1c3----
R10361IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi759 - 3 calCEHV0+195R1b1a2a1a2R-P312
R10363IA Central ItalyTarquinia Monterozzi389 - 207 calBCET2b+150G2a2b2a1a1b1aG-CTS2100
R11835IA SardiniaSant'Imbenia800 - 774 calBCEK1a2H3H-Z5857
R11746IA TunisiaKerkouane733 - 411 calBCET2bR1bR-M343
R11749IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 405 calBCEH2a----
R11751IA TunisiaKerkouane728 - 409 calBCEH7a1J2b2J-M241
R11753IA TunisiaKerkouane656 - 405 calBCEH1agJ2bJ-M12
R11755IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 405 calBCEM1a1b1----
R11759IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 540 calBCEU6a6b----
R11776IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 405 calBCEHV0+195----
R11778IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 405 calBCEL3e2b----
R11780IA TunisiaKerkouane748 - 414 calBCEH1----
R11790IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 405 calBCEHV13a----
R11791IA TunisiaKerkouane742 - 411 calBCEI5----
R11793IA TunisiaKerkouane761 - 405 calBCEH74J2a1J-L26
 
By the way, the preprint of this paper was already discussed at length here.
 
Some of the statements especially regarding the European haplogroups in cosmopolitan Kerkouane are clear falsehoods. J2b-L283 has nothing to do with Phoenicians and everything with Europe especially the Western Balkans and Italy.

Actually J2b expanded from the Near to Southeast Europe in the (Late) Neolithic and Chalcolithic. By the Bronze Age it was found both in the Levant and Balkans. It's also possible that it was already in North Africa since the Neolithic or Copper Age, as it was Levantine farmers that colonised the region.

It would be wrong to say that J2b is exclusively Phoenician, but it's not exclusively European either. As always top level haplogroups don't tell us much. We have to look at the deep clades to be able to determine an individual's more recent origin.
 
Are there any significant new results?

No, it is the same paper that has already been discussed in the past several times over the past few years, on which several threads have already been created.

In a nutshell, Steppe ancestry in Prehistoric Etruria is present as early as 1900-1600 B.C., the samples from Pian Sultano (formerly Pian Sodano, Tolfa area, modern-day Latium) archaeologically have some materials from Appeninic Culture according to the paper but not clear if all the samples can be attribuited to the Appenninc culture (Pian Sultano is a complex necropolis, frequented from the Early Bronze Age to the Iron Age, in historical Etruscan times, linked since Prehistory to the Etruscans). In any case the study, as was the case of the previous studies, associates the strong presence of R1b in central Italy during the Iron Age to the Bell Beaker culture. So an Etruscan-like profile already exists around 2000-1600 BC. Etruscans were predominantly R1b, particularly R1b P312, R1b P311, R1b U152-L2, R1b U152... and G2a (maybe predominantly G2a L497), and perhaps also I2a1a, a marker that decreseas (found also in the Remedello culture if memory serves me). And it is the discovery of hot water that the closer we get to the end of the Second Iron Age more and more foreigners appear in the graves. In the case of R10337 and R10341, which are clearly two Levantines, and it is misleading to attribute them as a population to IA Central Italy, they are dated rather late, between the end of the 2nd century B.C. and the end of the 1st century B.C., when the Tarquinia area had already entered the orbit of Rome for at least a century and the process of Romanization had already begun. So here again it is a very serious mistake to try to derive information about the Etruscans more generally, since their presence may not even be due to the contacts the Etruscans had with the eastern Mediterranean but to those of the Romans. Adding to these new 11 analyzed samples from Tarquinia, the 11 samples analyzed for Antonio 2019, which also include Latin samples and a Protovillanovan sample from Abruzzo, does not help to bring clarity but only adds confusion in my opinion to an already very confusing paper on its own. Fortunately, some of the paper's raving remarks about Herodotus' tales seem to have been deleted already in the second version of the preprint.

Kerkouane, Tunisia. It is such a cosmpolitan site that it seems absurd to me that any consideration can be made about the Punics, which themselves were a rather diverse population that had assimilated various foreigners, Iberians, Sardinians, and many more. Interesting that geneticists continue to find no evidence in Punic sites of DNA linked to Lebanon and the Levant. This confirms that Punic and Phoenician were not exactly the same thing. I agree with Mount123 that J2b-L283 has nothing to do originally with the Phoenicians or the Punics, given that its presence in the early Bronze Age in the northern Balkans remains the best documented. The case of some older clades, more similar to those found in Sardinia, remains unclear, but here again ancient DNA will help us clarify the picture. J2b and J2b-L283 are not the same thing, and to date no evidence has been provided that J2b is related to the Phoenician expansion. I remind everyone that delusional studies have been published on the Phoenicians in the past that tried to associate J2 with the Phoenicians without providing any evidence, an unproved hypothesis by Lebanese geneticist Pierre A. Zalloua that continues to influence studies in a negative way.

Sant’Imbenia, Sardinia. There are so few new ones tested that no consideration can really be made.

As I have commented in the past, the basic idea that every foreign person who died in a place may have contributed to the subsequent generations is very weak. But geneticists like it so much because it is a very simple, not to say simplistic, idea. Not to mention that late Neolithic Morocco is still being used in this article as a proxy for North African ancestry, when it was the sample that came from a study that showed counter-migration during the Neolithic from Iberia to North Africa and thus has perhaps too high EEF values, which could inflate the supposed North African ancestry in non-North African samples.

Another really significant flaw in this paper, which aims to demonstrate movements, is the huge difference in dating between the samples, ranging from the Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age.
 
Actually J2b expanded from the Near to Southeast Europe in the (Late) Neolithic and Chalcolithic. By the Bronze Age it was found both in the Levant and Balkans. It's also possible that it was already in North Africa since the Neolithic or Copper Age, as it was Levantine farmers that colonised the region.

It would be wrong to say that J2b is exclusively Phoenician, but it's not exclusively European either. As always top level haplogroups don't tell us much. We have to look at the deep clades to be able to determine an individual's more recent origin.

If I understood what he meant, mount123 was referring to J2b-L283 only which I don't think is the same thing as J2b. They just have different timelines and trajectories.

Among the samples from Tunisia, how many are just J2b and how many are J2b-L283? I ask because I don't know.
 
Kerkouane, Tunisia. It is such a cosmpolitan site that it seems absurd to me that any consideration can be made about the Punics, which themselves were a rather diverse population that had assimilated various foreigners, Iberians, Sardinians, and many more. Interesting that geneticists continue to find no evidence in Punic sites of DNA linked to Lebanon and the Levant. This confirms that Punic and Phoenician were not exactly the same thing. I agree with Mount123 that J2b-L283 has nothing to do originally with the Phoenicians or the Punics, given that its presence in the early Bronze Age in the northern Balkans remains the best documented. The case of some older clades, more similar to those found in Sardinia, remains unclear, but here again ancient DNA will help us clarify the picture. J2b and J2b-L283 are not the same thing, and to date no evidence has been provided that J2b is related to the Phoenician expansion. I remind everyone that delusional studies have been published on the Phoenicians in the past that tried to associate J2 with the Phoenicians without providing any evidencea, an unproven idea by Lebanese geneticist Pierre A. Zalloua that continues to influence studies in a negative way.
Thank you @Pax Augusta for pointing that out, that is exactly what I meant with macrohaplogroup designations. Using such methodology is erronoeus and highly misleading.

I was not talking nor referring to other haplogroups under J2b-M102 as those have not been found in this particular site, so yes linking a European Y DNA, in this case J2b-L283, with the Levant is a total falsehood and does not coincide with archaeogentic data whatsoever.

You are very right in that there is great ancient DNA coverage for J2b-L283, with the oldest and highest density being in the Western Balkans and the data refutes claims as the above or in the paper very easily.
 
If I understood what he meant, mount123 was referring to J2b-L283 only which I don't think is the same thing as J2b. They just have different timelines and trajectories.

Among the samples from Tunisia, how many are just J2b and how many are J2b-L283? I ask because I don't know.
That is exactly what I was referring to.

There are two J2b-L283 samples and they belong to the following clades:

ID R11751 ~569 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240>PH1602
ID R11753 ~530 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240
 
That is exactly what I was referring to.

There are two J2b-L283 samples and they belong to the following clades:

ID R11751 ~569 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240>PH1602
ID R11753 ~530 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240


Thanks, mount123. These two are very unlikely to be Phoenician, Punic or Levantine in origin. It's the reverse, from Western Balkans arrived in northern Africa in some way.

https://www.yfull.com/tree/J-Z38240/
 
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That is exactly what I was referring to.

There are two J2b-L283 samples and they belong to the following clades:

ID R11751 ~569 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240>PH1602
ID R11753 ~530 calBCE J2b-L283>>Z615>Z597>Y15058>Z38240

The deep clade was not mentioned in the data table. If these are indeed the deep clades then there is no doubt that they are not Phoencian, but European. I'd say the most likely would be from an Italian source.
 
My top CheckFit for ancient G25 samples is Tarquinia IA @1.85.
 

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