Ancient Egyptian dna-Kraus et al

as far as i know Ramesses III of the 20th dynasty (1189-1077 BCE)
is predicted to be e1b1a
but we need snp test to be sure he was e1b1a .........:unsure:
there were greater Pharoahs than him by expanding the Egyptian empire
but he was great by winning the sea people on his own yard after they attacked egypt
(y)


p.s
should be interesting paper :)
and cool if the ancient Egyptians were closer
to levant neolithic and bronze age levant ....
that would finish the Afrocentric views i see in other forums once and for all :unsure:
 
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p.s
should be interesting paper :)
and cool if the ancient Egyptians were closer
to levant neolithic and bronze age levant ....
that would finish the Afrocentric views i see in other forums once and for all :unsure:


Well, not really. Afrocentrists on anthrogenica are already arguing for Natufian being a proper African component that is mislabed as "Western Eurasian" by geneticists. They claim that just because ancient Egyptians appear not to be closely related to modern SSAs that doesn‘t mean that they were not closely related to archaic yet unsampled African people. To them Basal Eurasian is most likely also an African component similar to ANA, etc. In addition to that, they assert that fully black Africans can have Caucasian facial features and straight hair without any Western Eurasian admixture(which is objectively wrong) and that the categories negroid, caucasiod, mongoloid or australoid are not real. Therefore to them ancient Egyptians having overwhelmingly Caucasian hair or being closely related to people from the Levant doesn't refute their conclusion that ancient Egyptians were native Africans.

 
Well, not really. Afrocentrists on anthrogenica are already arguing for Natufian being a proper African component that is mislabed as "Western Eurasian" by geneticists. They claim that just because ancient Egyptians appear not to be closely related to modern SSAs that doesn‘t mean that they were not closely related to archaic yet unsampled African people. To them Basal Eurasian is most likely also an African component similar to ANA, etc. In addition to that, they assert that fully black Africans can have Caucasian facial features and straight hair without any Western Eurasian admixture(which is objectively wrong) and that the categories negroid, caucasiod, mongoloid or australoid are not real. Therefore to them ancient Egyptians having overwhelmingly Caucasian hair or being closely related to people from the Levant doesn't refute their conclusion that ancient Egyptians were native Africans.


Africa is just a continent. You don't get to claim everything that every occurred on it or claim everybody on the continent is the same. Eurasia is a continent too but nobody would confuse the English with Japanese.

ANA and Basal Eurasians were probably isolated from SSA for a long time in North Africa and SW Asia respectively. Also their heirs are West Eurasians not Africans.
 
Does it say which haplogroups?
 
Id really like to know the demographics when Giza was being built. It seems the oldest mummies test were from about 2000 BC with haplogroups u5b2b5 and m1a1. The closest match for u5b2b5 seems to be a Phoenician in Lebenon while some m1a1 have been found on the upper Tigris at the Cimialo Sirti site.. Before that, I reckon mostly proto-Cushites
 
The closest match for u5b2b5 seems to be a Phoenician in Lebenon

No the closest matches are ancient samples from Spain (c.3500 BC), Switzerland (c.2900 BC), and Sardinia (c.2300 BC) which also have U5b2b5. The Phoenician mentioned in the paper was from Carthage; he had the related European mtDNA lineage U5b2c1.





“Here, we describe the biological sexing of a ~4000-year-old Egyptian mummy (…) The mtGenome profile independently obtained from the tooth by the FBI and HMS laboratories was identical … The haplotype belongs to mitochondrial DNA lineage U5b2b5. The Djehutynakht mtDNA sequence was compared to available ancient human DNA sequences … related U5b2b sequences have been observed in ancient human remains from Europe, and a haplogroup U5b2c1 haplotype was recently discovered in 2600-year-old remains from Phoenicia [Carthage]. When only the mtDNA sequences recovered from ancient Egyptian human remains are considered, the Djehutynakht sequence most closely resembles a U5a lineage from sample JK2903, a 2000-year-old skeleton from Abusir el-Meleq. … U5 was the dominant mitochondrial haplogroup found among hunter-gatherers in Europe.”

(Loreille et al. 2018) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867856/


"Loreille’s examination also showed that Djehutynakht’s DNA carried clues to another mystery. For centuries, archaeologists and historians have debated the origins of the ancient Egyptians and how closely related they were to modern people living in North Africa. To the researchers’ surprise, the governor’s mitochondrial DNA indicated his ancestry on his mother’s side, or haplogroup, was Eurasian. “No one will ever believe us,” Loreille recalls telling her colleague Jodi Irwin. “There’s a European haplogroup in an ancient mummy.”

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/...egyptian-ancient-mummy-tomb-a8286291.html?amp


'A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa' (Matisoo-Smith et al 2016)

“In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup (U5b2c1) … This result provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual. (…)

Haplogroup U5 is considered to be one of the most ancient haplogroups in Europe and is believed to have arisen there. It is not uncommon in Mesolithic European populations, particularly those from Central and Eastern Europe. (…)
Haplogroup U5b2c1 has been identified in both La Braña 1 and 2, the 7000 year-old remains recovered from the La Braña-Arintero site in León in Northwestern Spain.

All of the reported U5b2c1 carriers are of presumably (if not specifically stated) European ancestry, from Spain, Portugal, England, Ireland, Scotland, the United States and Germany. Three of the additional non-defining mutations found in our Phoenician, 5351G, 6023A, and 9869T, are shared with one “European” sample and an individual from central Portugal. Interestingly, our Phoenician sample is most closely related to the modern sample from central Portugal. (...)

Achilli, et al. (2015), using full mitochondrial genome sequencing identified a U5b1b1 cluster that grouped Amazigh (North African Berbers) and Saami. This cluster is based on the control region motif (16270–150) which is present at low frequencies in Amazigh, North African and nearly all European populations with the exception of the Scandinavian Saami where it is at about 48%. The divergence time of this cluster is around 8600 years ago (+/- 2400) consistent with an expansion from Franco-Cantabrian refuge which is believed to have been a major refuge for the European hunter-gatherers prior to their post LGM (Late Glacial Maximum) expansion. It is very plausible that descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers carried U5b1b1 and sister lineages across the Straits of Gibraltar into North Africa.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880306/
 
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No the closest matches are ancient samples from Spain (c.3500 BC), Switzerland (c.2900 BC), and Sardinia (c.2300 BC) which also have U5b2b5. The Phoenician mentioned in the paper was from Carthage; he had the related European mtDNA lineage U5b2c1.

Like I said, I was referring to demographics closer to the supposed time of Giza's construction, which was way before Carthage existed.

Biological Sexing of a 4000-Year-Old Egyptian Mummy Head to Assess the Potential of Nuclear DNA Recovery from the Most Damaged and Limited Forensic Specimens. 2018 The haplotype (deposited in GenBank under accession number MG736653) belongs to mitochondrial DNA lineage U5b2b5. The sequence closest to the mummy’s belongs to a contemporary individual from Lebanon.


Interesting stuff you posted though, which makes me wonder if the samples from Spain and Sardinia could have been Phoenician?
 
The sequence closest to the mummy’s belongs to a contemporary individual from Lebanon.

No, that's referring to a modern sample from Lebanon, which had U5b2. The ancient Phoenician sample is from Carthage. And like I said the closest ancient samples are from Europe, which have U5b2b5. All of these except one were published after the Loreille 2018 paper.


makes me wonder if the samples from Spain and Sardinia could have been Phoenician?


No, the samples from Spain date from 3500 BC, this is long before the Phoenicians. U5b2b5 is European in origin not Levantine.
 
No, that's referring to a modern sample from Lebanon, which had U5b2. The ancient Phoenician sample is from Carthage. And like I said the closest ancient samples are from Europe, which have U5b2b5. All of these except one were published after the Loreille 2018 paper.


No, the samples from Spain date from 3500 BC, this is long before the Phoenicians. U5b2b5 is European in origin not Levantine.

But actually due to Phoenician continuity: Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility 2018 And from Biological Sexing of a 4000-Year-Old Egyptian Mummy Head to Assess the Potential of Nuclear DNA Recovery from the Most Damaged and Limited Forensic Specimens. 2018: " Given limited available data and the fact that U5 is the dominant mitochondrial haplogroup found among hunter-gatherers in Europe [83, 84], the recovery of a haplogroup U5b2b5 sequence from the mummy of Djehutynakht raises the question of data authenticity, despite the molecular metrics suggesting otherwise. When the mummy’s mtDNA sequence is viewed in the context of modern mtDNA diversity, however, the observed U5 lineage could potentially reflect interactions between Egypt and the Near East that date as far back as the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods [85]. Trade between Egypt and the Near East is evidenced by, among other things, ceramic imports to Egypt [86]. In addition, dwellings similar to those found in Palestine suggest some immigration to Egypt from more arid Near Eastern areas from the late Predynastic to the Old Kingdom [85 87]. Both trade and immigration between Egypt and the Near East continued to increase over time. Demand in Egypt for cedar of Lebanon wood (a wood available and harvested in Lebanon and Syria during the MK) led to the further establishment of trade routes between Egypt and the Levant [85, 86]. It is interesting, and perhaps not coincidental, that the individual with the mtDNA sequence most similar to Djehutynakht comes from a Lebanese individual"

Now Im not sure where these U5b2b5 samples from Portugal and Spain were from but I bet theyre near the coast and of cultures that either originated and/or traded heavily with the Levantine peoples. For instance the Cardial culture, the Phoenicians, and the Iberians. Plus, we all know that the Hunter gatherers originated in the Levant too.
 
U5b2b5 came from Europe not from the Levant. The Lebanon sample is a modern sample, from within the last few years. It's not ancient DNA. (I checked YFull and it is U5b2b5 though https://www.yfull.com/mtree/U5b2b5/)

The Phoenician sample (U5b2c1) is from c.600 BC.


The Spanish sample (U5b2b5) dates from c.3500 BC.

So it's nonsensical to imagine it travelling 5,500 years backwards in time from Lebanon to Spain.
 
U5b2b5 came from Europe not from the Levant. The Lebanon sample is a modern sample, from within the last few years. It's not ancient DNA. (I checked YFull and it is U5b2b5 though )
The Phoenician sample (U5b2c1) is from c.600 BC.
The Spanish sample (U5b2b5) dates from c.3500 BC.
So it's nonsensical to imagine it travelling 5,500 years backwards in time from Lebanon to Spain.
The article says: "The [U5b2b5] sequence closest to the mummy’s belongs to a contemporary individual from Lebanon" which along with Sardinia have lots of continuity from the Levantine cultures such as PPNB, Phoenician, etc
And Im not imagining the Cardium Culture / proto-Phoenicians in SE coastal Spain. (Id show the map of the culture and trade route but I need 20 posts prior to sharing any images or links).
What seems backwards are attempts to make all advances come out of Europe including the Neolithic Expansion, early Egypt, and even the Clovis technology and then using radiomagic dating, Levantine haplogroups like X2, etc etc to attempt proving it.
 
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Distribution of mtDNA U5:



U5 peaks in northern Scandinavia/the Baltic region and in northern Spain/southern France among the Basques.


“The age of U5 is estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000 years old, roughly corresponding to the Gravettian culture (…) U5 was the predominant mtDNA of mesolithic Western Hunter Gatherers (…) Haplogroup U5 and its subclades U5a and U5b today form the highest population concentrations in the far north, among Sami, Finns, and Estonians. However, it is spread widely at lower levels throughout Europe. This distribution, and the age of the haplogroup, indicate individuals belonging to this clade were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe around 10,000 years ago (…) The modern Basques and Cantabrians possess almost exclusively U5b lineages”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_U_(mtDNA)#Haplogroup_U5



“Haplogroup U5 is considered to be one of the most ancient haplogroups in Europe and is believed to have arisen there… It is not uncommon in Mesolithic European populations, particularly those from Central and Eastern Europe... the highest frequency of the haplogroup U5b today is in the Iberian peninsula and U5b2c1 was also present there in Mesolithic hunter gatherers… It is very plausible that descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers carried U5b1b1 and sister lineages across the Straits of Gibraltar into North Africa.”

(Matisoo-Smith et al. 2016)


“With regards to the mtDNA, the high incidence of H1 and H3 in Northwest Africa, together with some other West European lineages (i.e. V and U5b), reveals a possible link with the postglacial expansion from the Iberian Peninsula, which not only directed north-eastward into the European continent, but also southward, beyond the Strait of Gibraltar, into North Africa. ... the maternal pool of Northern Africa appears to be characterized by at least two major components: (i) a Levantine contribution (i.e. haplogroups U6 and M1), associated with the return to Africa around 45 kya, and (ii) a more recent West European input associated with the postglacial expansion.”

(Ottoni et al. 2010)


"modern Basques and Cantabrians possess almost exclusively U5b lineages. What's more, all the Mesolithic U5 samples from Iberia whose subclade could be identified belonged to U5b.(...) Carriers of haplogroup U5 were part of the Gravettian culture, which experienced the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26,000 to 19,000 years ago). During this particularly harsh period, Gravettian people would have retreated into refugia in southern Europe, from which they would have re-expanded to colonise the northern half of the continent during the Late Glacial and postglacial periods. (...) founder effects among the populations of each LGM refugium would have amplified the regional division between U5b and U5a. U5b would have been found at a much higher frequency in the Franco-Cantabrian region."


U5b2b: found in Epigravettian Italy, in Epipalaeolithic south-eastern France, in Mesolithic Sicily and Croatia, in Neolithic France, Croatia and Ukraine, in EBA England, and in Bronze Age Poland.

U5b2b1: found in northern and central Europe / found in Mesolithic Sweden (Pitted Ware culture), in Early Neolithic France and Ukraine, in the Globular Amphora culture (LN Poland), in the Corded Ware culture (Chalcolithic Poland) and in Bronze Age Poland

U5b2b1a: found in Mesolithic Sicily

U5b2b2: found in EBA England

U5b2b3: found across western Europe / found in Megalithic Spain, Neolithic Italy and Late Neolithic France

U5b2b4: found in the England, Scandinavia, Germany and Poland

U5b2b5: found in Chalcolithic Sardinia and Spain, and in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom


https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_U5_mtDNA.shtml
 
Id really like to know the demographics when Giza was being built. It seems the oldest mummies test were from about 2000 BC with haplogroups u5b2b5 and m1a1. The closest match for u5b2b5 seems to be a Phoenician in Lebenon while some m1a1 have been found on the upper Tigris at the Cimialo Sirti site.. Before that, I reckon mostly proto-Cushites
Agree with you bro!
 
Distribution of mtDNA U5:



U5 peaks in northern Scandinavia/the Baltic region and in northern Spain/southern France among the Basques.


“The age of U5 is estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000 years old, roughly corresponding to the Gravettian culture (…) U5 was the predominant mtDNA of mesolithic Western Hunter Gatherers (…) Haplogroup U5 and its subclades U5a and U5b today form the highest population concentrations in the far north, among Sami, Finns, and Estonians. However, it is spread widely at lower levels throughout Europe. This distribution, and the age of the haplogroup, indicate individuals belonging to this clade were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe around 10,000 years ago (…) The modern Basques and Cantabrians possess almost exclusively U5b lineages”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_U_(mtDNA)#Haplogroup_U5



“Haplogroup U5 is considered to be one of the most ancient haplogroups in Europe and is believed to have arisen there… It is not uncommon in Mesolithic European populations, particularly those from Central and Eastern Europe... the highest frequency of the haplogroup U5b today is in the Iberian peninsula and U5b2c1 was also present there in Mesolithic hunter gatherers… It is very plausible that descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers carried U5b1b1 and sister lineages across the Straits of Gibraltar into North Africa.”

(Matisoo-Smith et al. 2016)


“With regards to the mtDNA, the high incidence of H1 and H3 in Northwest Africa, together with some other West European lineages (i.e. V and U5b), reveals a possible link with the postglacial expansion from the Iberian Peninsula, which not only directed north-eastward into the European continent, but also southward, beyond the Strait of Gibraltar, into North Africa. ... the maternal pool of Northern Africa appears to be characterized by at least two major components: (i) a Levantine contribution (i.e. haplogroups U6 and M1), associated with the return to Africa around 45 kya, and (ii) a more recent West European input associated with the postglacial expansion.”

(Ottoni et al. 2010)


"modern Basques and Cantabrians possess almost exclusively U5b lineages. What's more, all the Mesolithic U5 samples from Iberia whose subclade could be identified belonged to U5b.(...) Carriers of haplogroup U5 were part of the Gravettian culture, which experienced the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26,000 to 19,000 years ago). During this particularly harsh period, Gravettian people would have retreated into refugia in southern Europe, from which they would have re-expanded to colonise the northern half of the continent during the Late Glacial and postglacial periods. (...) founder effects among the populations of each LGM refugium would have amplified the regional division between U5b and U5a. U5b would have been found at a much higher frequency in the Franco-Cantabrian region."


U5b2b: found in Epigravettian Italy, in Epipalaeolithic south-eastern France, in Mesolithic Sicily and Croatia, in Neolithic France, Croatia and Ukraine, in EBA England, and in Bronze Age Poland.

U5b2b1: found in northern and central Europe / found in Mesolithic Sweden (Pitted Ware culture), in Early Neolithic France and Ukraine, in the Globular Amphora culture (LN Poland), in the Corded Ware culture (Chalcolithic Poland) and in Bronze Age Poland

U5b2b1a: found in Mesolithic Sicily

U5b2b2: found in EBA England

U5b2b3: found across western Europe / found in Megalithic Spain, Neolithic Italy and Late Neolithic France

U5b2b4: found in the England, Scandinavia, Germany and Poland

U5b2b5: found in Chalcolithic Sardinia and Spain, and in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom


https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_U5_mtDNA.shtml


Just the facts. Thank you Bro
 
Agree with you bro!

Thanks and as Philjames100 pointed out, the closest match was not actually an ancient Phoenician but I think Ive showed and will be showing that the sample shows a Phoenician descendant or at least from the Levant which would jive with the Hyskos invasion of what Im thinking was a Cushitic Egypt.

I hope they start testing more of the Old Kingdom Egyptians.
 
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Distribution of mtDNA U5:


U5 peaks in northern Scandinavia/the Baltic region and in northern Spain/southern France among the Basques.


“The age of U5 is estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000 years old, roughly corresponding to the Gravettian culture (…) U5 was the predominant mtDNA of mesolithic Western Hunter Gatherers (…) Haplogroup U5 and its subclades U5a and U5b today form the highest population concentrations in the far north, among Sami, Finns, and Estonians. However, it is spread widely at lower levels throughout Europe. This distribution, and the age of the haplogroup, indicate individuals belonging to this clade were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe around 10,000 years ago (…) The modern Basques and Cantabrians possess almost exclusively U5b lineages”




“Haplogroup U5 is considered to be one of the most ancient haplogroups in Europe and is believed to have arisen there… It is not uncommon in Mesolithic European populations, particularly those from Central and Eastern Europe... the highest frequency of the haplogroup U5b today is in the Iberian peninsula and U5b2c1 was also present there in Mesolithic hunter gatherers… It is very plausible that descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers carried U5b1b1 and sister lineages across the Straits of Gibraltar into North Africa.”


“With regards to the mtDNA, the high incidence of H1 and H3 in Northwest Africa, together with some other West European lineages (i.e. V and U5b), reveals a possible link with the postglacial expansion from the Iberian Peninsula, which not only directed north-eastward into the European continent, but also southward, beyond the Strait of Gibraltar, into North Africa. ... the maternal pool of Northern Africa appears to be characterized by at least two major components: (i) a Levantine contribution (i.e. haplogroups U6 and M1), associated with the return to Africa around 45 kya, and (ii) a more recent West European input associated with the postglacial expansion.”


"modern Basques and Cantabrians possess almost exclusively U5b lineages. What's more, all the Mesolithic U5 samples from Iberia whose subclade could be identified belonged to U5b.(...) Carriers of haplogroup U5 were part of the Gravettian culture, which experienced the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26,000 to 19,000 years ago). During this particularly harsh period, Gravettian people would have retreated into refugia in southern Europe, from which they would have re-expanded to colonise the northern half of the continent during the Late Glacial and postglacial periods. (...) founder effects among the populations of each LGM refugium would have amplified the regional division between U5b and U5a. U5b would have been found at a much higher frequency in the Franco-Cantabrian region."


U5b2b: found in Epigravettian Italy, in Epipalaeolithic south-eastern France, in Mesolithic Sicily and Croatia, in Neolithic France, Croatia and Ukraine, in EBA England, and in Bronze Age Poland.

U5b2b1: found in northern and central Europe / found in Mesolithic Sweden (Pitted Ware culture), in Early Neolithic France and Ukraine, in the Globular Amphora culture (LN Poland), in the Corded Ware culture (Chalcolithic Poland) and in Bronze Age Poland

U5b2b1a: found in Mesolithic Sicily

U5b2b2: found in EBA England

U5b2b3: found across western Europe / found in Megalithic Spain, Neolithic Italy and Late Neolithic France

U5b2b4: found in the England, Scandinavia, Germany and Poland

U5b2b5: found in Chalcolithic Sardinia and Spain, and in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom


Haplogroups U and H motifs among both the aboriginal North Africans and Scandinavians furthers my point.

Most would agree that Berbers including their U6 came from the Near East, particularly the Levant.

The Sami Haplogroup V is also believed to have originated in the Near East.

On the other hand, a lot of widespread haplogroup distribution such as H is actually autosomaly Indo-European so we can debate that origin too

The Gravettians are believed have developed from the Levantine Ahmarians

Megalithic people likely originated from the Natufians

Villabruna Cromagnons show close affiliations with Natufians who like the Cro-Magnons, came from the Levant.

I could go on and on.

Sorry I had to remove your links to post again
 
I think Ive showed and will be showing that the sample shows a Phoenician descendant or at least from the Levant.

No you haven't shown that.

which would jive with the Hyskos invasion of what Im thinking was a Cushitic Egypt.

Djehutynakht is from 2000 BC, that's before the Hyksos invasion.

Also, Cushitics are a different population to Egyptians, different language, etc.
 
No you haven't shown that.


Djehutynakht is from 2000 BC, that's before the Hyksos invasion.

Also, Cushitics are a different population to Egyptians, different language, etc.

Yes I think its likely and my last post surely addressed all your issues with it

Djehutynakht dates vary from around 2000 BC to 1837 BC. Interestingly, his coffin contained fifty model boats, was made of Cedar of Lebanon with decorations that display regional differences and chronological development dated to between the reigns of Sesostris I and Amenemhat II (ca. 1971-1895 BCE). echoesofegypt.peabody.yale.edu/hieroglyphs/coffin-panel-djehuty-nakht

Maybe you're thinking of the Hyksos takeover. I was referring to the peaceful Hyksos invasion at around 1900 BC and Biblical Archaeologist date the beginning of it quite a bit before this. "Especially from the second millennium BCE onwards, there were intense, historically- and archaeologically documented contacts, including the large-scale immigration of Canaanite populations, known as the Hyksos, into Lower Egypt, whose origins lie in the Middle Bronze Age Levant" Mumford, G. D. Egypt and the Levant, The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE Oxford (2014).

Nubians were reported to be more similar to Egyptians and Ethiopians in their Mitochondrial and Y-DNA lineages but close to Ethiopians in their overall genetic affinities. [101] Other studies have linked the ancient population of Sudan and parts of Egypt to the Horn of Africa, though this is not entirely conclusive and must be placed in the context of hypotheses informed by archaeological, linguistic, geographic and other data. In such contexts, the physical anthropological evidence indicates that early Nile Valley populations can be identified as part of an African lineage, but exhibiting local variation. [102][103][104][105][106]
 
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