Ancient European DNA

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Importance notice : this thread is no longer updated. Please check this page for all the ancient European Y-DNA and mtDNA discovered to date.

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Here is a summary of the samples of ancient DNA from Europe tested so far.

Ancient Greek DNA

mtDNA from Grave Circle B in Mycenae (3,600 years old)

- 1 haplogroup H2
- 1 haplogroup U5a1
- 2 haplogroup UK


Ancient British DNA

Cheddar Man (9,000 years old, England) => mtDNA haplogroup U5a

Medieval Anglo-Saxon DNA

Tracing the Phylogeography of Human Populations in Britain Based on 4th-11th Century mtDNA Genotypes

mtDNA

- 15 haplogroup H
- 1 haplogroup I
- 4 haplogroup J
- 1 haplogroup K
- 4 haplogroup T1
- 5 haplogroup T2
- 1 haplogroup T4
- 1 haplogroup T5
- 4 haplogroup U5a1
- 2 haplogroup U5a1a
- 2 haplogroup U5b
- 2 haplogroup V
- 2 haplogroup W
- 2 haplogroup X
- 2 haplogroup IWX

Ancient Celtic DNA

Ötzi the Iceman (3,000 years old - Austro-Italian border) => mtDNA haplogroup K1

Ancient Basque DNA

Late Antiquity Basque DNA (1,400 years old)

Y-DNA

- 4 haplogroup I2a
- 23 haplogroup R1b


Ancient German DNA

Lichtenstein Cave Bronze-Age Family (3,000 years old, Lower Saxony) :

Y-DNA

- 4 haplogroup I2b*
- 1 haplogroup R1a
- 1 haplogroup R1b

MtDNA

- 17 haplogroup H
- 5 haplogroup J (including 1 J1b1)
- 5 haplogroup T2
- 9 haplogroup U (including 1 U5b)


Eneolithic Corded Ware from Eulau (4,600 years old, Saxony)

Y-DNA

- 3 haplogroup R1a

MtDNA

- 1 haplogroup H
- 1 haplogroup I
- 1 haplogroup K1a2
- 3 haplogroup K1b
- 1 haplogroup U5b
- 2 haplogroup X2


Viking/Norse DNA

Evidence of Authentic DNA from Danish Viking Age Skeletons Untouched by Humans for 1,000 Years

MtDNA

=> 18 Viking-age skeletons from Galgedil & Kongemarken :

- 8 haplogroup H
- 2 haplogroup I
- 1 haplogroup J
- 1 haplogroup K
- 2 haplogroup T2
- 1 haplogroup U5a1a
- 1 haplogroup U7
- 1 haplogroup X2c

=> 21 Iron-Age skeletons from Bøgebjergård & Skovgaarde :

- 7 haplogroup H
- 2 haplogroup I
- 2 haplogroup J
- 2 haplogroup K
- 1 haplogroup R0a
- 1 haplogroup U2e
- 1 haplogroup U3a
- 1 haplogroup U5b1
- 1 haplogroup V


- Sven II Estridsen (c.1020-1074), the last Viking king of Denmark => mtDNA haplogroup H
 
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The mummies that was found in Germany (Corded Ware Culture) belong to R1a1 (SRY10831.2)

What is the difference between R1a (sry10831.2) and R1a1 (M198)?
That is to say, where there is R1a (sry10831.2)?
I know that R1a1 (M198) is very common in Asia: (India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan), in the Eastern Europe: (Hungary, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus,), In the Scandinavian countries: (Norway, Sweden), but R1a ( sry10831.2) is a puzzle. Where you can find this haplogroup? Which country?
 
The mummies that was found in Germany (Corded Ware Culture) belong to R1a1 (SRY10831.2)

What is the difference between R1a (sry10831.2) and R1a1 (M198)?
That is to say, where there is R1a (sry10831.2)?
I know that R1a1 (M198) is very common in Asia: (India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan), in the Eastern Europe: (Hungary, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus,), In the Scandinavian countries: (Norway, Sweden), but R1a ( sry10831.2) is a puzzle. Where you can find this haplogroup? Which country?

Almost all R1a people are now called R1a1a. The nomenclature changes year after year as new mutations are found. You could consider that R1a, R1a1 and R1a1a is basically the same thing.
 
Almost all R1a people are now called R1a1a. The nomenclature changes year after year as new mutations are found. You could consider that R1a, R1a1 and R1a1a is basically the same thing.


Are you sure?
We know that haplogroup E has many subgroups.
Can we say that there is no difference between E1b1b and E2?
I do not think ...
There are many other examples. Haplogroup Q..

It does not work. It means that Indians, Pakistanis, Kyrgyz, Poles, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, and even the islanders are all connected. I can not believe it ....:banghead:
Are you sure?
 
Are you sure?
We know that haplogroup E has many subgroups.
Can we say that there is no difference between E1b1b and E2?
I do not think ...
There are many other examples. Haplogroup Q..

It does not work. It means that Indians, Pakistanis, Kyrgyz, Poles, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, and even the islanders are all connected. I can not believe it ....:banghead:
Are you sure?

I am sure. R1a expanded to Europe and Asia from the steppes less than 5000 years ago. The mutations between R1a, R1a1 and R1a1a (2010 nomenclature) happened well before that. R1a1a is over 12,000 years old.

New subclades were identified recently and are named R1a1a1 to R1a1a7. The distribution isn't very clear yet, except for R1a1a7 which is most common in Slavic countries.
 
It is written that R1A is Indo-European, but .......
An American said that R1a was turkic because 50%-20% of descendants of the Khazars (jews aschenazi) belongs to R1a. We know that 60% of Kyrgyz, 50% Altaians belong to R1A. And About 60 or 50% of Hungarians belong to R1a.
How can we explain that?
 
Ashkenazi Jews are not from Kazhakstan
 
Are you sure?


It does not work. It means that Indians, Pakistanis, Kyrgyz, Poles, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, and even the islanders are all connected. I can not believe it ....:banghead:
Are you sure?

Why is it so hard to believe that these peoples, (actually only R1a part of their populations) had same grand, grand, gr..., father 13 000 years ago? Most of their genomes is a mixture of mother side with their mothers and fathers bringing huge varieties of other gens, to explain differences in looks and behaviours.
If you go farther back we might find one common ancestor to all people in Africa some 200 000 years ago. Can you believe this?
 
It is written that R1A is Indo-European, but .......
An American said that R1a was turkic because 50%-20% of descendants of the Khazars (jews aschenazi) belongs to R1a. We know that 60% of Kyrgyz, 50% Altaians belong to R1A. And About 60 or 50% of Hungarians belong to R1a.
How can we explain that?

You can't, mostly because the information source you have is wrong.
 
Why my source of information is wrong?
My source of information is wikipedia and some other sites.

For starters show me where did you find 50 to 20% R1a in Ashkenazi Jews.

Mind that Jews lived in Poland, Ukraine and Russia for at least 600 years. This is the place where they could have picked up some of the R1a haplogroup. Just in Poland there were 3 million Ashkenazi Jews before WW2.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Poland
 
I would confirm anything substantial posted on WiKI these days. A number of their population genetics sections have been invaded by hacks and off-the-wall types. Some of the information presented is totally incorrect or lacking necessary qualification. Review the research studies sited on Wikipedia DIRECTLY before formulating any conclusions.
 
It is written that R1A is Indo-European, but .......
An American said that R1a was turkic because 50%-20% of descendants of the Khazars (jews aschenazi) belongs to R1a. We know that 60% of Kyrgyz, 50% Altaians belong to R1A. And About 60 or 50% of Hungarians belong to R1a.
How can we explain that?

R1a is originally the main haplogroup of steppe people. It is possible that R1a was already present in Central Asia before the Indo-European expansion (I mean all the way from Eastern Europe to the Himalayas). But it is just as likely that R1a in Turkic people is of Indo-European origin. There is undeniable evidence that the Tarim mummies from Xinjiang were Indo-European (bronze weapons, tartan woollen clothes, fair hair) and yet the modern Uighur who have inherited of over 50% of IE haplogroups (R1a + R1b as well as mtDNA H, T, U3, U4, W and X2) are Turkic speakers. In Central Asia IE-speakers and Turkic speakers are found side by side, often mixed, and historically created alliances with each others. Anatolia itself, one of the oldest IE-speaking regions, and Greek-speaking until the end of Byzantine rule, became Turkish (and therefore Turkic) speaking without a major population replacement.
 
Is there a good Internet source describing differences and similarities, culturally and genetically through history between Huns, Turks, Tatars and Mongols?
 
R1a is originally the main haplogroup of steppe people. It is possible that R1a was already present in Central Asia before the Indo-European expansion (I mean all the way from Eastern Europe to the Himalayas). But it is just as likely that R1a in Turkic people is of Indo-European origin. There is undeniable evidence that the Tarim mummies from Xinjiang were Indo-European (bronze weapons, tartan woollen clothes, fair hair) and yet the modern Uighur who have inherited of over 50% of IE haplogroups (R1a + R1b as well as mtDNA H, T, U3, U4, W and X2) are Turkic speakers. In Central Asia IE-speakers and Turkic speakers are found side by side, often mixed, and historically created alliances with each others. Anatolia itself, one of the oldest IE-speaking regions, and Greek-speaking until the end of Byzantine rule, became Turkish (and therefore Turkic) speaking without a major population replacement.

The Indo-Europeans were assimilated by the Turkic peoples?

I have a question.
To which haplogroup belong Turkic peoples ?
Can we call a haplogroup Turkic ...?
Maybe Haplogroup Q, N or...?
Q1b (M378) Found in 5% of Ashkenazi Jews>>>> descendants of Khazars( khazars were a turkic people).
I noticed that almost all Turkic peoples (4% -70%) belong to this haplogroup.
Yes there are lots of subgroups, but...

Which is proto-Turkish?:banghead:
 
The Indo-Europeans were assimilated by the Turkic peoples?

I have a question.
To which haplogroup belong Turkic peoples ?
Can we call a haplogroup Turkic ...?
Maybe Haplogroup Q, N or...?
Q1b (M378) Found in 5% of Ashkenazi Jews>>>> descendants of Khazars( khazars were a turkic people).
I noticed that almost all Turkic peoples (4% -70%) belong to this haplogroup.
Yes there are lots of subgroups, but...

Which is proto-Turkish?:banghead:

Turkic people are ethnically mixed - in fact some of the most mixed people belonging to a same linguistic group. You can see that by the way they look, even within a same tribe. They have Y-DNA R1a, Q*, L, K, J, H, G, F, C3 and others (among these others, the Bashkirs, Turkmen, Nogais and Kumyks, all Turkic speakers, were reported by Lobov et al., Spencer Wells et al. and Marchani et al. to have respectively 47%, 37%, 25% and 20% of R1b).

Turkic language could be a sort of creole of IE and Altaic (e.g. Mongolian) languages. But I am not a specialist of Turkic languages and peoples.
 
:unsure:good question .. Dont you like Wiki?

The info is all over Internet, Wiki or not. One has to read through, than use a sieve to separate relevant and correct stuff from wrong and misleading. And this is the toughest part, usually I use statistics in my head and common sense, and throw it against any history knowledge I have and consider right. It takes lot of time and research. I was hoping someone did this work for me already. :grin:
 

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