Central Asia and the Scythians

Anfänger

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Ancient genomic time transect from the Central Asian Steppe unravels the history of the Scythians

Abstract

The Scythians were a multitude of horse-warrior nomad cultures dwelling in the Eurasian steppe during the first millennium BCE. Because of the lack of first-hand written records, little is known about the origins and relations among the different cultures. To address these questions, we produced genome-wide data for 111 ancient individuals retrieved from 39 archaeological sites from the first millennia BCE and CE across the Central Asian Steppe. We uncovered major admixture events in the Late Bronze Age forming the genetic substratum for two main Iron Age gene-pools emerging around the Altai and the Urals respectively. Their demise was mirrored by new genetic turnovers, linked to the spread of the eastern nomad empires in the first centuries CE. Compared to the high genetic heterogeneity of the past, the homogenization of the present-day Kazakhs gene pool is notable, likely a result of 400 years of strict exogamous social rules.


Link: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/13/eabe4414.full


Looks like there was a influx of "Persian"-related ancestry into Central Asia 600 BCE-500 CE. My guess is that is was related to the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire.


F4.large.jpg
 
So ancient Scythians derived their ancestry from BMAC-related people, not the Sintashta culture people.
 
Ancient genomic time transect from the Central Asian Steppe unravels the history of the Scythians

Abstract

The Scythians were a multitude of horse-warrior nomad cultures dwelling in the Eurasian steppe during the first millennium BCE. Because of the lack of first-hand written records, little is known about the origins and relations among the different cultures. To address these questions, we produced genome-wide data for 111 ancient individuals retrieved from 39 archaeological sites from the first millennia BCE and CE across the Central Asian Steppe. We uncovered major admixture events in the Late Bronze Age forming the genetic substratum for two main Iron Age gene-pools emerging around the Altai and the Urals respectively. Their demise was mirrored by new genetic turnovers, linked to the spread of the eastern nomad empires in the first centuries CE. Compared to the high genetic heterogeneity of the past, the homogenization of the present-day Kazakhs gene pool is notable, likely a result of 400 years of strict exogamous social rules.


Link: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/7/13/eabe4414.full


Looks like there was a influx of "Persian"-related ancestry into Central Asia 600 BCE-500 CE. My guess is that is was related to the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire.


View attachment 12619


according to Persians ..............they originated in Uzbekistan and migrated ( most ) to Iran circa 1000BC .............maybe this is related ancestry
 
according to Persians ..............they originated in Uzbekistan and migrated ( most ) to Iran circa 1000BC .............maybe this is related ancestry

You should look at the map more carefully, they were Persians who migrated from Iran to Uzbekistan, not vice versa.
 
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according to Persians ..............they originated in Uzbekistan and migrated ( most ) to Iran circa 1000BC .............maybe this is related ancestry

Yes, Persians originated in Central Asia but the study says 600 BCE-500 CE for the ancestry influx into Central Asia. It has to be related to the different Persian Empires expanding into these regions in historic times.

Other Highlights: - A Elite Hun burial from modern Hungary matches a Hun from western Kazakhstan.
- Medieval Turkic samples from Central Asia.
- Modern Kazahks are the result of medieval migrations and not descendants of the Scythians.
- Sarmatians originated in southern Ural region with minor East Eurasian ancestry compared to the Eastern Scythians.
 
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Really, more Scythians. They have now become the most studied Iron Age population! There were already some 40 samples (+ more Saka and Sarmatians) and now 111 more samples. On the other hand we have almost nothing from Iron Age Europe.
 
Some good points in this study:

  • Genetic ancestry modeling of the IA groups performed with qpWave and qpAdm confirmed that the steppe_MLBA groups adequately approximate the western Eurasian ancestry source in IA Scythians while the preceding steppe_EBA (e.g., Yamnaya and Afanasievo) do not (data file S4).
  • In the southern Kazakhstan region, the individuals from the Konyr Tobe site located in the ancient city of Otyrar Oasis show a different genetic turnover mostly characterized by an increase in Iranian-related genetic ancestry, most likely reflecting the influence of the Persian empires.
  • Sarmatians also require 15 to 20% Iranian ancestry while carrying substantially less Khovsgol and more steppe_MLBA-related ancestry than the eastern Scythian groups.
 
Sarmatians originated in southern Ural region with minor East Eurasian ancestry compared to the Eastern Scythians.

The sarmatian used ring pommel sword. It originated in sema turbino culture and continued to karasuk. And it spread to china bronze, tibet, the celts, and japan even if their shapes are different each other. As far as I am concerned, the sarmatian swords looks same as avar, korea and japan's. The most important thing is the ring which means heaven, sky and sun. These people were obsessed with sun. Whole scythian group has similar culture as weapon, horse harness and animal art. The animal art originated in okunevo culture. If I am allowed, I want to add one more culture, cannibalism to scythian culture according to historical and archaeological data, which seima turbino also had. Thus I hope scholars use seima turbino sample next time.

"Ring-pomelled swords appeared very early in the steppe sarmatian milieu and became widely spread. we can find these weapons across the whole of the sarmatian territory from the south ural up to the lower danube. the shape was formed inthe 3 rd century bc and spread into the north pontic region inthe second half of the 2 nd century bc."

5-c14cfab9db.jpg
 
Really, more Scythians. They have now become the most studied Iron Age population! There were already some 40 samples (+ more Saka and Sarmatians) and now 111 more samples. On the other hand we have almost nothing from Iron Age Europe.

has anyone finally confirmed if the sarmatians are an off-shoot of scythians or a separate branch that merged with scythians ?
 
I think this sarmatian is a sky god. His daggers seems to originate in karasuk:

019_szarmata_clip_image002_0001.jpg
Picture 2: Catacombs and tomb complex from Porogi


and celtic god?
One sample of early La Tène culture A from Putzenfeld am Dürrnberg, Hallein, Austria (ca 450–380 BC)
kelten-dna-putzenfeld-duerrnberg-grab-376.jpg
 

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