Dodecad Dodecad Project confirms North African ancestry into Portuguese...

It's funny because the attitude of geneticists online want to believe southern Europe is so different then the rest of europe, often Spanish and Portuguese are attacked. If that was the case we would be seeing scores of South Western europeans plotting reference populations with Moroccans, Algerians and other non european populations. This isn't the case at all however, there are many south western Europeans who plot closer to english than even South Italy or Greece. This isn't an anomaly, anyone who picks up a history book will know about ancient migrations from western europe into Iberia and close ties and the oldest alliance in the world between Portugal and England (the Portuguese-Anglo Alliance).
Despite these facts solidified by tangiable scientific study via DNA samples and multi million sample databases, people still think Spain and Portugal are so different than the rest of europe. We are unique and very similar at the same time. Not trying to say anyone is better than anyone else, just giving facts, unbiased by the way, because honestly screw disinformation. But yall can spew hate all you want, hopefully someone reading this has half a sense
 
All Europeans are pretty similar in a large scale picture, Finns and Saami being relative outliers, but that does not mean they cannot be easily and clearly distinguished (or at least their averages, not considering intermediary border populations and outliers). You just have to apply a higher resolution to see all the difference, because Europeans are ultimately much more homogeneous than people of many parts of Africa or even South Asia. But still if Iberians are "like Northwestern Europeans" only with minus 20% Atlantic admixture and much more Mediterranean contributions, and they only plot as a reference population for those people if you include the 20 (not 5 or 10) top results, then I am pretty sure they form their own cluster. That does not mean they are not similar to other West Europeans, but, well, it is just a fact they could never be mistaken (as an average population) with them. North Italians and Southwest French are much closer, though.
 
View attachment 10731
View attachment 10732
View attachment 10733

These are my results. Africa appears, evidently I am closer to Africa than other countries in Europe, and I did not expect a much higher percentage of Africa either because it is something that one feels in one way or another long before all this industry of genetic testing had developed.

Perhaps the view that foreigners have about Iberia is due in large part to the Black Legend, negative publicity. Romantic European travelers writers who traveled to Spain saw four monuments and a half and fantasized too much about Iberia influencing and forging an erroneous idea of Iberia in the European populations of the time. And finally the isolation of Spain during the Franco dictatorship. But really for us the 800 years of the Muslim era in Spain is only a paragraph in our vast history with which modern Spanish does not identify, perhaps because its end is carried out in an organized way unlike other peoples and cultures that they enter that they are diluted or they integrate without there being a so concrete plan as in the morisco case. For that reason there is a difference between what foreigners think and what Spaniards feel about this topic, so the best way to prove it is with evidence and facts simply by coming to the truth.
 
^^You're obviously not closer to African countries than to European countries. Look at your Oracle results and you'll see that.

Those are very minor percentages.
 
^^Yes, there are many Oracles and I have practically seen it. I do not know if there is one Oracle more effective or credible than another ...
 
View attachment 10737
You mean something like that?

No. Eurogenes K36 doesn't even have an oracle, probably because if it did it would be crap.

Try the Dodecad v3 or K12b, or MDLP K23b You'll get a pie chart. Then just click Oracle and you'll get a list of populations in order. The first one will be the closest and so on.
 
If you are Portuguese there should be no reference populations to Africa in the top 20 or 25
 
I am Portuguese with all of my ancestors from a small cluster of villages and I was wondering how much North African I would have in me. I was told on another forum that my North African DNA is very low for a Portuguese person, but I traced my family tree and almost all were from central Portugal at least as far back as the XV century, just from a very isolated region with low levels of exogamy and I found that the small villages were populated by "old Christians".

According to K11 0.66%
According to K13 I'm 0.16% Northeast African and 0.45% Sub-Saharan

According to Eurogenes Hunter Gatherer vs Farmer I am 0.37% Pygmy Hunter Gatherer and 0.34% Bantu Farmer with 0% East AFrican.
According to K15
 
^^
^^
This is mine

Dodecad V3

#PopulationPercent
1West_European41.22
2Mediterranean35.19
3West_Asian8.84
4East_European5.78
5Northwest_African4.69
6Southwest_Asian2.31
7East_African1.08

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Portuguese_Dodecad @ 11.601552
2 French_Dodecad @ 11.949672
3 French_HGDP @ 12.067084
4 N_Italian_Dodecad @ 13.783651
5 Spaniards_Behar @ 14.658201
6 IBS_1000Genomes @ 14.791160
7 Spanish_Dodecad @ 15.236301
8 Tuscan_Henn @ 15.961272
9 TSI_HapMap @ 16.220535
10 Tuscan_Xing @ 16.471422
11 CEU_HapMap @ 17.516108
12 North_Italian_HGDP @ 17.718433
13 French_Basque_HGDP @ 18.504568
14 N._European_Xing @ 19.202810
15 Orcadian_HGDP @ 19.765686
16 Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 20.101244
17 Orkney_1000 Genomes @ 20.168800
18 O_Italian_Dodecad @ 20.641006
19 Slovenian_Xing @ 20.835630
20 German_Dodecad @ 21.350168

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% North_Italian_HGDP +50% N._European_Xing @ 5.497065


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Portuguese_Dodecad +25% Argyll_1000 Genomes +25% Tuscan_Xing @ 2.486555

Using 4 populations approximation:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 C_Italian_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.339145
2 Greek_Dodecad + Norwegian_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad @ 2.354224
3 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Argyll_1000 Genomes + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.486555
4 German_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + TSI_HapMap @ 2.534276
5 German_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.580343
6 Cornwall_1000 Genomes + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Romanians_14_Behar @ 2.671138
7 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + TSI_HapMap + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.672774
8 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + N._European_Xing + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.677602
9 O_Italian_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.776633
10 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + TSI_HapMap + N._European_Xing @ 2.791146
11 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Argyll_1000 Genomes + Tuscan_Henn @ 2.791179
12 Ashkenazy_Jews_Behar + IBS_1000Genomes + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.807064
13 Greek_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.808544
14 Orkney_1000 Genomes + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.809613
15 German_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Henn @ 2.827001
16 British_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Romanians_14_Behar @ 2.845930
17 Orcadian_HGDP + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.849756
18 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + S_Italian_Sicilian_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.878843
19 Irish_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Romanians_14_Behar @ 2.889892
20 Ashkenazy_Jews_Behar + Portuguese_Dodecad + Spanish_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.899637

Done.

Elapsed time 0.3074 seconds.

---------------------------

I can't with that acronym

?
IBS=IBIZA
CEU=CEUTA
TSL=TESALIA
O=Oeste
 
^^
^^
This is mine

Dodecad V3

#PopulationPercent
1West_European41.22
2Mediterranean35.19
3West_Asian8.84
4East_European5.78
5Northwest_African4.69
6Southwest_Asian2.31
7East_African1.08

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Portuguese_Dodecad @ 11.601552
2 French_Dodecad @ 11.949672
3 French_HGDP @ 12.067084
4 N_Italian_Dodecad @ 13.783651
5 Spaniards_Behar @ 14.658201
6 IBS_1000Genomes @ 14.791160
7 Spanish_Dodecad @ 15.236301
8 Tuscan_Henn @ 15.961272
9 TSI_HapMap @ 16.220535
10 Tuscan_Xing @ 16.471422
11 CEU_HapMap @ 17.516108
12 North_Italian_HGDP @ 17.718433
13 French_Basque_HGDP @ 18.504568
14 N._European_Xing @ 19.202810
15 Orcadian_HGDP @ 19.765686
16 Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 20.101244
17 Orkney_1000 Genomes @ 20.168800
18 O_Italian_Dodecad @ 20.641006
19 Slovenian_Xing @ 20.835630
20 German_Dodecad @ 21.350168

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% North_Italian_HGDP +50% N._European_Xing @ 5.497065


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Portuguese_Dodecad +25% Argyll_1000 Genomes +25% Tuscan_Xing @ 2.486555

Using 4 populations approximation:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 C_Italian_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.339145
2 Greek_Dodecad + Norwegian_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad @ 2.354224
3 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Argyll_1000 Genomes + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.486555
4 German_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + TSI_HapMap @ 2.534276
5 German_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.580343
6 Cornwall_1000 Genomes + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Romanians_14_Behar @ 2.671138
7 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + TSI_HapMap + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.672774
8 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + N._European_Xing + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.677602
9 O_Italian_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.776633
10 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + TSI_HapMap + N._European_Xing @ 2.791146
11 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Argyll_1000 Genomes + Tuscan_Henn @ 2.791179
12 Ashkenazy_Jews_Behar + IBS_1000Genomes + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.807064
13 Greek_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.808544
14 Orkney_1000 Genomes + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.809613
15 German_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Henn @ 2.827001
16 British_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Romanians_14_Behar @ 2.845930
17 Orcadian_HGDP + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Tuscan_Xing @ 2.849756
18 Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + S_Italian_Sicilian_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.878843
19 Irish_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Portuguese_Dodecad + Romanians_14_Behar @ 2.889892
20 Ashkenazy_Jews_Behar + Portuguese_Dodecad + Spanish_Dodecad + Swedish_Dodecad @ 2.899637

Done.

Elapsed time 0.3074 seconds.

---------------------------

I can't with that acronym

?
IBS=IBIZA
CEU=CEUTA
TSL=TESALIA
O=Oeste

Hi friend Carlos.
I don't know if this is a good calculator. I am using it for the first time. These are my results:
Gedmatch.Com

Dodecad V3 4-Ancestors Oracle

This program is based on 4-Ancestors Oracle Version 0.96 by Alexandr Burnashev.
Questions about results should be sent to him at: [email protected]
Original concept proposed by Sergey Kozlov.
Many thanks to Alexandr for helping us get this web version developed.

The GEDmatch version of Oracle may give slightly different results from Dienekes version. The GEDmatch version uses FST weighting in its calculations.

Admix Results (sorted):

#PopulationPercent
1West_European36.11
2Mediterranean35.22
3West_Asian7.29
4Northwest_African5.44
5East_European4.56
6Southwest_Asian3.55
7Neo_African3.52
8Palaeo_African1.93
9Southeast_Asian1.20
10East_African1.17


Finished reading population data. 227 populations found.
12 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Portuguese_Dodecad @ 11.278077
2 N_Italian_Dodecad @ 13.352187
3 Tuscan_Henn @ 14.437673
4 Tuscan_Xing @ 14.843294
5 IBS_1000Genomes @ 14.988758
6 TSI_HapMap @ 15.070712
7 Spanish_Dodecad @ 15.658917
8 Spaniards_Behar @ 15.737614
9 North_Italian_HGDP @ 16.976906
10 French_Dodecad @ 17.123310
11 French_HGDP @ 17.415218
12 O_Italian_Dodecad @ 18.347452
13 Tuscan_HGDP @ 20.249239
14 French_Basque_HGDP @ 21.867590
15 CEU_HapMap @ 22.448521
16 Sardinian_HGDP @ 22.481668
17 Slovenian_Xing @ 22.769501
18 N._European_Xing @ 23.777786
19 C_Italian_Dodecad @ 24.287201
20 Orcadian_HGDP @ 24.748507

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Portuguese_Dodecad +50% Tuscan_Xing @ 7.691201


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% French_Dodecad +25% Algeria_Henn +25% N_Italian_Dodecad @ 3.100926


Using 4 populations approximation:
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 CEU_HapMap + French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad @ 2.617986
2 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.734952
3 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.753278
4 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orcadian_HGDP @ 2.769689
5 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + Orkney_1000 Genomes + Tuscan_HGDP @ 2.829372
6 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + Orcadian_HGDP + Tuscan_HGDP @ 2.836386
7 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orkney_1000 Genomes @ 2.859173
8 French_Basque_HGDP + German_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 2.874258
9 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + Tuscan_HGDP + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.888607
10 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + N._European_Xing @ 2.890436
11 CEU_HapMap + French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 2.897954
12 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + Orcadian_HGDP @ 2.937682
13 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + N._European_Xing @ 2.958951
14 Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + North_Italian_HGDP + Norwegian_Dodecad @ 2.977415
15 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + Orkney_1000 Genomes @ 2.985608
16 Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orkney_1000 Genomes + Spaniards_Behar @ 3.049607
17 Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orcadian_HGDP + Spaniards_Behar @ 3.050490
18 CEU_HapMap + French_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 3.082377
19 French_Dodecad + French_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad @ 3.100926
20 French_HGDP + French_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 3.123115

Done.

Elapsed time 0.4962 seconds.


But I'm not an European, as you know. I am a latin american that have the sweet spice of slaves and Indians (in the last case, i.e, the native americans, I'm not so sure :grin:)
Cheers :)

PS:
CEU means Northern Europeans from Utah;
TSI means Tuscans from Italy;
IBS means Iberian populations in Spain;
O_Italian means [FONT=&quot]Other Italian.[/FONT]
 
Last edited:
Hi friend Carlos.
I don't know if this is a good calculator. I am using it for the first time. These are my results:
Gedmatch.Com

Dodecad V3 4-Ancestors Oracle

This program is based on 4-Ancestors Oracle Version 0.96 by Alexandr Burnashev.
Questions about results should be sent to him at: [email protected]
Original concept proposed by Sergey Kozlov.
Many thanks to Alexandr for helping us get this web version developed.

The GEDmatch version of Oracle may give slightly different results from Dienekes version. The GEDmatch version uses FST weighting in its calculations.

Admix Results (sorted):

#PopulationPercent
1West_European36.11
2Mediterranean35.22
3West_Asian7.29
4Northwest_African5.44
5East_European4.56
6Southwest_Asian3.55
7Neo_African3.52
8Palaeo_African1.93
9Southeast_Asian1.20
10East_African1.17


Finished reading population data. 227 populations found.
12 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Portuguese_Dodecad @ 11.278077
2 N_Italian_Dodecad @ 13.352187
3 Tuscan_Henn @ 14.437673
4 Tuscan_Xing @ 14.843294
5 IBS_1000Genomes @ 14.988758
6 TSI_HapMap @ 15.070712
7 Spanish_Dodecad @ 15.658917
8 Spaniards_Behar @ 15.737614
9 North_Italian_HGDP @ 16.976906
10 French_Dodecad @ 17.123310
11 French_HGDP @ 17.415218
12 O_Italian_Dodecad @ 18.347452
13 Tuscan_HGDP @ 20.249239
14 French_Basque_HGDP @ 21.867590
15 CEU_HapMap @ 22.448521
16 Sardinian_HGDP @ 22.481668
17 Slovenian_Xing @ 22.769501
18 N._European_Xing @ 23.777786
19 C_Italian_Dodecad @ 24.287201
20 Orcadian_HGDP @ 24.748507

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Portuguese_Dodecad +50% Tuscan_Xing @ 7.691201


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% French_Dodecad +25% Algeria_Henn +25% N_Italian_Dodecad @ 3.100926


Using 4 populations approximation:
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 CEU_HapMap + French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad @ 2.617986
2 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.734952
3 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.753278
4 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orcadian_HGDP @ 2.769689
5 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + Orkney_1000 Genomes + Tuscan_HGDP @ 2.829372
6 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + Orcadian_HGDP + Tuscan_HGDP @ 2.836386
7 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orkney_1000 Genomes @ 2.859173
8 French_Basque_HGDP + German_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 2.874258
9 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + Tuscan_HGDP + Argyll_1000 Genomes @ 2.888607
10 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + N._European_Xing @ 2.890436
11 CEU_HapMap + French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 2.897954
12 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + Orcadian_HGDP @ 2.937682
13 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + N._European_Xing @ 2.958951
14 Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + North_Italian_HGDP + Norwegian_Dodecad @ 2.977415
15 French_Basque_HGDP + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP + Orkney_1000 Genomes @ 2.985608
16 Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orkney_1000 Genomes + Spaniards_Behar @ 3.049607
17 Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad + Orcadian_HGDP + Spaniards_Behar @ 3.050490
18 CEU_HapMap + French_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 3.082377
19 French_Dodecad + French_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + N_Italian_Dodecad @ 3.100926
20 French_HGDP + French_Dodecad + Algeria_Henn + North_Italian_HGDP @ 3.123115

Done.

Elapsed time 0.4962 seconds.


But I'm not an European, as you know. I am a latin american that have the sweet spice of slaves and Indians (in the last case, i.e, the native americans, I'm not so sure :grin:)
Cheers :)

PS:
CEU means Northern Europeans from Utah;
TSI means Tuscans from Italy;
IBS means Iberian populations in Spain;
O_Italian means Other Italian.



a lot of north portuguese and Galician are mixed with north Italians ................it goes back to the 14th century , when Venice ships used Portugal as a stopover heading to southampton, london and the netherlands.......many venetian captains where hired by the portuguese king as well ...like ancestor of

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_da_Mosto

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alvise-Ca-da-Mosto .......................Ca means house .......so, Alvise from the house ( family ) of da Mosto
Alvise is Luis in venetian

A few genoese also hired themselves out to the portuguese

so you could have ancestors from both areas
 
a lot of north portuguese and Galician are mixed with north Italians ................it goes back to the 14th century , when Venice ships used Portugal as a stopover heading to southampton, london and the netherlands.......many venetian captains where hired by the portuguese king as well ...like ancestor of

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_da_Mosto

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alvise-Ca-da-Mosto .......................Ca means house .......so, Alvise from the house ( family ) of da Mosto
Alvise is Luis in venetian

A few genoese also hired themselves out to the portuguese

so you could have ancestors from both areas

Thanks for the informations and the links, torzio. You are too kind. :)
 
Last edited:
There were Italians who came to Portugal as sailors, but I would say that this is truer for the urban areas and particularly coastal ports. Though I poured over the 17th and 18th century parish records of Lisbon and did notice some foreigners, the largest by far being Galicians, followed by English/Scottish/Irish, though Italians were less numerous.
 
Have you ever read a genetics paper? There isn't very much "Suebi" or "Germanic" ancestry in the Portuguese.

See where you are? See where the Germans are?

nature07331-f1.2-774974.jpg


I think you're on the wrong forum.

Despite ES and FR clustering on themselves, there seems to be also a connection between both. It would be interesting to see if the Spanish points that are close to France in the PCA map are also close geographically to France (e.g. Catalonia, Euskadi, etc.). I think there was a different paper suggesting something like this already.
 
Despite ES and FR clustering on themselves, there seems to be also a connection between both. It would be interesting to see if the Spanish points that are close to France in the PCA map are also close geographically to France (e.g. Catalonia, Euskadi, etc.). I think there was a different paper suggesting something like this already.

That's probably the case.
 

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