Earliest bow and arrow use outside Africa

outside Africa ?
what is the oldest bow and arrow inside Africa?

a proof of bow and arrow is hard to find, of course

and why did these Neronians in France become extinct?
was it because they were isolated and didn't interbreed with Neandethals, so inbreeding happened?
 
Techniques of modern humans from the Upper Paleolithic not seen in Neanderthals and other Archaic Men: Bow and arrow, eyed needle (insulated and tailored clothing); fire igniting technology; artificial shelters. The Archaic Men apparent lack of ability to harvest smaller vertebrates, including small mammals, birds, and fish suggests a domain of snares, traps, and fishing technology much lower than that of Modern Men. The neanderthals diaphyseal robusticity of the middle proximal pedal phalanx—in comparison to that of modern humans—suggests lack of “habitual use of protective footwear". There is no evidence for intensive use of fresh bone or other alternative fuels by the Archaic Men.

https://www.researchgate.net/public...asia_and_Beringia_Anatomy_diet_and_technology
 
Techniques of modern humans from the Upper Paleolithic not seen in Neanderthals and other Archaic Men: Bow and arrow, eyed needle (insulated and tailored clothing); fire igniting technology; artificial shelters. The Archaic Men apparent lack of ability to harvest smaller vertebrates, including small mammals, birds, and fish suggests a domain of snares, traps, and fishing technology much lower than that of Modern Men. The neanderthals diaphyseal robusticity of the middle proximal pedal phalanx—in comparison to that of modern humans—suggests lack of “habitual use of protective footwear". There is no evidence for intensive use of fresh bone or other alternative fuels by the Archaic Men.

https://www.researchgate.net/public...asia_and_Beringia_Anatomy_diet_and_technology

oke, but why would the AMH all of a sudden have distinguished himeself from the archaic humans?
 
Techniques of modern humans from the Upper Paleolithic not seen in Neanderthals and other Archaic Men: Bow and arrow, eyed needle (insulated and tailored clothing); fire igniting technology; artificial shelters. The Archaic Men apparent lack of ability to harvest smaller vertebrates, including small mammals, birds, and fish suggests a domain of snares, traps, and fishing technology much lower than that of Modern Men. The neanderthals diaphyseal robusticity of the middle proximal pedal phalanx—in comparison to that of modern humans—suggests lack of “habitual use of protective footwear". There is no evidence for intensive use of fresh bone or other alternative fuels by the Archaic Men.

https://www.researchgate.net/public...asia_and_Beringia_Anatomy_diet_and_technology

Very interesting article, Jose. Thanks for the link.

People talk so much about the cold adaptation of Neanderthals that it never occurred to me that they actually couldn't live in the far northern zones which AMH could colonize because of their advanced technology. I guess that would explain why even though we interbred with them we did not inherit the physical traits which made them cold adapted: we didn't need them.

Imo, many people just don't grasp the implications of the differences in the Neanderthal/Denisovan brain versus the AMH brain, and not only in the speech centers of the brain.

"Although some researchers have argued that the cognitive faculties of the Neanderthals were in many respects similar to those of modern humans (e.g., Macciardi and Martini 2022; Villa and Roebroeks 2014), the technologies of modern humans in northern Eurasia before 30 ka were more complex than those of the Neanderthals (and presumably Denisovans) by any measure.Measures of complexity applied to hunter-gatherer technologies include: (1) number of discrete components (or techno-units) (Oswalt 1976:38–44); (2) number of organizational levels or hierarchical complexity (Hoffecker and Hoffecker 2018:208–210); and (3) number of production steps or procedural units (Perrault et al. 2013:S399–S400). In his analysis of food-getting technology among hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists, Oswalt (1976:50) also classified mechanical artifacts (comprising parts that “change their relationship with one another when the form is used”) as complex. A similar distinction may be made between single-state and multiplestate (or mechanical) artifacts (Hoffecker and Hoffecker 2018:212–216). If we compare the most complex artifact known among Neanderthals (and presumably Denisovans) (i.e., composite implement) with that of modern humans (i.e., winter clothing suit), it is apparent that the latter exhibits an exponential increase over the former in terms of all three of these measures (see Figure 5). I suggest, however, that a more revealing measure of the increased complexity of modern human technologies is the complexity of the process of artifact design."

I found the example he gave of the different "fire-starters" in use today in the Arctic particularly interesting.
 
In Belgium Neanderthals were observed in only 2 time periods :

first the Eemian, which was a warm period, even warmer than today
second around 40 ka, just before the Neanderthals became extinct and were replaced by AMH

I think is says enough about the capability of Neanderthals to survive in this area

the Neanderthals were unable to live in northeren latitudes during glacial periods, except in areas like Moravia and the Altai were there was an abundance of large animals
I suspect that even in these areas they didn't survive the glacial maxima
after each glacial maximum the north was recolonised by Neanderthals from a refugium along the Mediterranean or in the Levant, hence their small genetic variation
the Neanderthals in the Altai from before the Eemian were replaced by other Neanderthals during the Eemian, from a different genetic clade

the oldest Neanderthals had mtDNA DN2 https://www.yfull.com/mtree/DN/
while the younger ones carried mtDNA NA https://www.yfull.com/mtree/
 
The three waves: Rethinking the structure of the first Upper Paleolithic in Western Eurasia


Abstract
The Neronian is a lithic tradition recognized in the Middle Rhône Valley of Mediterranean France now directly linked to Homo sapiens and securely dated to 54,000 years ago (ka), pushing back the arrival of modern humans in Europe by 10 ka. This incursion of modern humans into Neandertal territory and the relationships evoked between the Neronian and the Levantine Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) question the validity of concepts that define the first H. sapiens migrations and the very nature of the first Upper Paleolithic in western Eurasia. Direct comparative analyses between lithic technology from Grotte Mandrin and East Mediterranean archeological sequences, especially Ksar Akil, suggest that the three key phases of the earliest Levantine Upper Paleolithic have very precise technical and chronological counterparts in Western Europe, recognized from the Rhône Valley to Franco-Cantabria. These trans-Mediterranean technical connections suggest three distinct waves of H. sapiens expansion into Europe between 55–42 ka. These elements support an original thesis on the origin, structure, and evolution of the first moments of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe tracing parallel archaeological changes in the East Mediterranean region and Europe.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0277444
 

This thread has been viewed 2386 times.

Back
Top