Göbekli Tepe, A brief summary of research at a new World Heritage Site (2015–2019)

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https://lens.idai.world/?url=/repository/eDAI-F_2020-2/eDAI-F_Clare.xml

Göbekli Tepe (~9.500–8.000 calBC) is a prehistoric site in Southeast Turkey that dates back to an early stage in the transition from hunter-gathering to farming economies in the Near East. Research undertaken in the period 2015–2019 has included the excavation of deep-soundings and the re-evaluation of some two decades of excavation records. This work is leading to a revision of former interpretations of the prehistoric site which still fuel the popular media image of Göbekli Tepe as home to the »World’s First Temples«.
 
https://www.researchgate.net/profil...omy-and-the-Role-of-Speculative-Knowledge.pdf

[h=3]RISE OF GÖBEKLI TEPE CULTURE: “HUNTING GROUND ECONOMY” AND THE ROLE OF SPECULATIVE “KNOWLEDGE”[/h]
[h=3]Abstract[/h]At the beginning of the Early Holocene Period, the hunter-gatherer groups in the Upper Mesopotamia region left behind complex structures, monumental stone pillars, and various sculptures and Neolithic cultural zone that stand out with rich symbolism accompanying thereto in unprecedented permanent settlements. Excavations were initiated at new Neolithic hills within the scope of the “Taş Tepeler” project in Göbekli Tepe cultural zone, rather known for Göbekli Tepe Neolithic Period site. By whom, how and why this early Neolithic civilization that reverses some basic assumptions on the history of the mankind remains the most important area under discussion. The excavations currently in progress, and the surveys carried out, at the Neolithic sites in this culture region provide comprehensive data on the social and economic foundations that allowed rise of this civilization. In particular, the prevalent and enormous hunting grounds/entrapment areas discovered in this region stand out as the most important economic grounds that allowed this civilization to rise. Moreover, the finds referring to the material exchange and craftsman network conducted in a wide area appears as another socio-economic factor. Despite recognizing the socio-economic foundations, this study shall place the speculative "knowledge" highlighting the psycho-cultural aspect of the people of that era as the main triggering driver regarding rise of this civilization. In conclusion, this study shall endeavour to deduct reasonable interpretation on how Göbekli Tepe culture started to rise on the basis of the sociological perspective that considers knowledge at an autonomous place against other socio-economic conditions.
 
Wonderful! I'll add my contribution here again.

At least it is known that the beginnings of trade can be found already in GT: hundreds of obsidian knives found there were produced and delivered over 500-700 km. It is clear that no one will drag them there just like that, most likely in exchange for grain, which the priests took from the gatherers. And the priests gave these knives to the collectors for harvesting in exchange for grain. Apparently, this was the world's first temple trade. That is the hypothesis.
 
One of the mysteries of GT is that around 7000 BC the temple complex was covered with earth! A similar thing happened in the New World, when, 1000 years after the construction, the Ancient (3000 BC) pyramid of Karala was also covered up ... Somewhere it was that a new temple complex was built on the GT hill - one must look in the literature
 
The first article offers an explanation that the filling was the result of a landslide :(

Never seen evidence that there was a landslide!!! The reason could be trivial. in 7200 BC in Anatolia, in Çayönü Tepesi, a bloody socio-religious revolution (communist!) took place. As a result, the communist Catal Huyuk appeared. And the servants of the old cult saved the temple of the old religion ...

It must be said that the priests of Chayonyu Tepesi were also bloody. Stuffed sacred rooms with corpses from floor to ceiling
 
It's funny, but taula monument GT was reborn in Menorca))))
 
Never seen evidence that there was a landslide!!!

11A second but no less serious insight from recent studies relates to the fill of the special buildings in the low-lying southeastern part of the site (main excavation area). While previous conclusions postulated an intentional (ritually-motivated) backfilling of these structures at the close of their active use-lives as buildings, a review of the available evidence now suggests an inundation by displaced archaeological deposits from adjacent higher-lying knolls and slopes of the mound. This interpretation explains the source and the catchment of the debris, which as we now know contains mixed PPNA and PPNB materials, and the heterogeneity of previous radiocarbon measurements made on organic samples from this matrix. Details of the multiple slope slide events, as well as mitigation efforts undertaken by the prehistoric population to protect the special buildings, are an area of continued research.
 
The question still arises, why did the ancients allow this landslide??? Or it must be catastrophic, which is not very clear regarding the source of the disaster - for example, there are no mountains from which a monstrous avalanche can slide ... It seemed to me that the quote from the book is not very convincing. It turns out that people were waiting for GT to finally fall asleep, and did little to save the temple.
 
Well, it is sometimes hard to forbid natural events. Apparently the location has heavy rains in the winter, as well as earthquakes (today’s two earthquakes were in the same mountain range). The terrain is very uneven. The big buildings were built in depressions, with rubble slopes surrounding them, as well as smaller buildings and manmade walls/terraces.


90322118-C10A-446A-9405-7633BFD8762E.jpg

See the article on pg 210 here: https://www.torrossa.com/en/resources/an/5245168#

The site survived as a city for more than 1000 years. In our time and technology, we don’t have many building that old still in use.
 
I agree, it's true! Plus winds with dust... But then all this says that the temple was simply abandoned. Religion GT is over! Thanks for the detailed diagram!
 
they have a layer dated to PPNA
but have they already investigated and dated the oldest layer of the complex?
 
they have a layer dated to PPNA
but have they already investigated and dated the oldest layer of the complex?

The big structures are dated PPNA and built directiy on bedrock, there is nothing underneath. Likewise for some smaller buildings, which do have later building phases as well.

The whole site is only partially excavated, though.
 
The big structures are dated PPNA and built directiy on bedrock, there is nothing underneath. Likewise for some smaller buildings, which do have later building phases as well.

The whole site is only partially excavated, though.

So, it seems to be a place where people started to settle after the youngest dryas, when the climate was improving again.
I suppose population regrowth had started as well.
 
Wonderful! I'll add my contribution here again.

At least it is known that the beginnings of trade can be found already in GT: hundreds of obsidian knives found there were produced and delivered over 500-700 km. It is clear that no one will drag them there just like that, most likely in exchange for grain, which the priests took from the gatherers. And the priests gave these knives to the collectors for harvesting in exchange for grain. Apparently, this was the world's first temple trade. That is the hypothesis.

This is what the current project coordinator thinks about the temple idea:

Turning to the interpretation of the site, I have always stressed that the proposed function of Göbeklitepe as a “temple” is highly problematic. As it stands, this term would presuppose, for example, the existence of deities and a trained clergy. Furthermore, it would imply that the “temples” – in addition to being a place for divine worship – exercised some form of economic power. This interpretation is wholly unrealistic for the Stone Age communities living in the tenth and ninth millennia BC. Such “temple economies” do not appear until at least the late Chalcolithic / Bronze Age.

Certainly, this realization does not change the fact that the large T-pillar buildings discovered at Göbeklitepe are very special. Indeed, they are among the earliest monumental buildings known to us anywhere in the world. As to their function(s), of course, they would have played an important part in the ritual traditions of the community, as implied by their sheer monumentality and long biographies. However, the buildings would have had other crucial functions, not least as spaces for social gatherings and as physical expressions of local traditions and identity, as suggested by the numerous depictions of animals, humans and related symbolism.


More useful info and great photos here: https://www.dainst.blog/the-tepe-te...h-gobekli-tepe-project-coordinator-lee-clare/
 
In my opinion, these thoughts are about nothing (((

In my opinion, it is not necessary to separate the ideal from the material - the World is One! In GT we see a situation where the spiritual is formed in a specific environment. The GT cult was called upon to organize:

1. collecting and storing grain, for which it was necessary to overcome the habits of former free hunters, for whom work is hard labor! For this, theatrical performances were created - the temple and the theater go together. By the way, the question is - did they find the remains of beer there? A very important part of such rituals...

2. Purchase of labor tools - obsidian knives, which were not produced in these places.

"religion is a way of self-organization of society"

We can say that the Word of God settles in society only when it is ready for it. This is how prophets and priests appear.
 
Mark Forsyth, A Brief History of Drunkenness from the Stone Age to the Present Day


Quoting from a secondary source:


“There are huge bathtubs there, at the bottom of which chemical compounds of oxalate are found. They appear when barley is mixed with water - and it is easy to assume that beer was brewed in them.


There are, of course, objections to this theory (maybe the barley was just soaked?) But there is also a bold version that beer was incredibly important to our ancestors who lived 11,000 years ago. Moreover - for the sake of beer, they began to engage in agriculture. Because beer is easier to make than bread (it doesn't need to be baked); because during the fermentation of cereals, vital B vitamins are formed; because beer can be stored; because the alcohol in beer disinfects the water ... And so on - there are many very good reasons why beer is better than bread.


By the way, a fairly popular gyrothesis is that cereals in general in different parts of the world began to be grown initially for the manufacture of beer - including corn. And then we moved on to the bread...
 

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