Greatest Polish contribution(s) to the world ?

Thank you for the information. I don't have much faith in Wiki due to the number of uncorrected errors I know about, but I digress. I based my reply on what I was told by the Principal Chiefs I spoke with.

I am not dismissing what you wrote. It is not insignificant by any means, but I would like a source that is a little more reliable. .
You can easily follow the links to scientific research in this article to confirm validity. In this case to:
  • McDonald, J., 1981. North American Bison, Their classification and Evolution. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
But I guess the legends are more exciting for you.
 
Poles are smart and curious people and they have multiple contributions in many spheres.

One of big Polish contribution is win in battle of Vienna, 1683, when Ottomans suffered a strong defeat and Muslim multinational army were driven far away from Austrian capital.

Command held by King of Poland John III Sobieski, who arrived with 70,000-80,000 troops, until then the defense of city held Graf von Starhemberg who defended the city with 15,000 troops and 7,000 volunteers.

Muslim multinational forces lead Kara Mustapha Pasha ethnic Albanian. Estimations are the he had 150,000 troops, although some sources give even 300,000 troops.

John III Sobieski, Polish king, leader of the defense of Vienna

Sobieski_portrait.jpg



Kara Mustafa Pasha, born to Albanian parents, Ottoman Grand Vizier, leader of attack on Vienna

tuerkenbelagerung74.jpg



Battle of Vienna finished of completed defeat of Muslim multinational forces and win of Christian forces. This is is the turning point in the Ottoman-Habsburg war which is the the longest war in the history. After Battle of Vienna Muslim forces were retreating, they were never able to invade Vienna.

The Pope and other foreign dignitaries hailed Sobieski as the Savior of Vienna and Western European civilization.
 
Poland (later Poland-Lithuania) - alongside Hungary and the Teutonic Order - can be credited with spreading western cultural trends during the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance to the east.

For example, the map below shows the easternmost extent of Late Medieval so-called Gothic style in architecture.

Historical eastern range of Gothic architecture starts at the coast of the Gulf of Finland near Narva, then goes to the west of the Estonian-Russian border to Vasknarva and Tartu, and then to the west of the Latvian-Russian border to Alūksne, Viļaka, Ludza and Daugavpils.

After crossing the Latvian border it follows towards the city of Polotsk in North-Eastern Belarus, then from there it goes to Kamai, after that to Kreva, and from there it follows to Dzyarzhynsk (formerly Koydanava), which is located just to the south-west of the Belarusian capital city of Minsk. From that locality it goes through Mir and Iskaldz to Kletsk. And then it follows to Kamyanyets, located just to the north-east of Brest-Litovsk.

From that place, it goes exactly along the Bug River (i.e. the current Polish-Belarusian and Polish-Ukrainian border), through Kodeń and Bieławin.

Then, near Horodło, it crosses the Polish-Ukrainian border and enters Ukraine, going to Zimno (Зимне) near the border with Poland. From Zimno, it goes to Lutsk, Klevan, Hubkiv and Korets. From there it follows to Ostroh, nearby Mezhyrich and Novomalyn. Then it goes to Kremenets, Staryi Zbarazh and Terebovlya. From there it then leads to Medzhybizh and Letychiv. Then it goes on to Sutkivtsi, Kamyanets-Podilsky and to Khotyn.

After that point, the line of the eastern extent of Gothic architecture crosses the present-day Ukrainian-Romanian border, and follows to Dorohoi. From that place, it goes south to Botoșani, Hârlău, Roman and Bacău. At that point, it turns to the south-west and goes towards Prejmer, Hărman and Brașov. After reaching the city Brașov, as far as I know, it turns sharply to the west, but I'm not certain, so I will end at this city.

Map illustrating the description posted above (BTW - IIRC, Gothic architecture exists also in Finland, right?):

(the map also shows approximate eastern limit of Romanesque architecture - green points):

http://s17.postimg.org/6csmd902n/Gothic_architecture.png

Gothic_architecture.png


Early Medieval Romanesque architecture did not extent as far east as later Gothic architecture.

Check also the map of dominant (ruling) religions around year 1060:

http://s21.postimg.org/4b5i2cprb/Religions_in_1060.png

Religions_in_1060.png
 
Poland was historically, for a long time, the safest haven for Jews in Europe.

And - according to Holocaust survivor Severyn Ashkenazy - it is once again the case.

An article from the Jewish Journal, written by Severyn Ashkenazy (posted on September 23, 2014):

"Poland is the safest place in Europe for Jews today | Opinion | Jewish Journal":

http://www.jewishjournal.com/opinion/article/poland_is_the_safest_place_in_europe_for_jews_today

I survived the Holocaust in a sub-cellar in Tarnopol (Ternopil), a city now located in western Ukraine that once had a thriving Jewish as well as Polish population. Before coming to the U.S., I grew up after the war in France when philo-Semites like Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, as well as Pierre Mendès France, the country’s second Jewish prime minister, were luminaries. Jewish origins have been an important part of that nation’s genius from Montaigne to composers as different as Giacomo Meyerbeer and Jacques Offenbach; to painter Camille Pissarro; to the inventor of sociology Emile Durkheim; to the writer Marcel Proust; to the philosopher Henri Bergson; to the actor Sarah Bernhardt; to the movie superstar Jean-Pierre Aumont; to the groundbreaking writer Georges Perec; to the multitalented Serge Gainsbourg … to mention only a few.

Today I am under the impression that France has forgotten about its Jewish cultural roots. The televised events from the streets of Paris and Marseilles fill me with sadness and consternation. In the middle of July [2014], thousands of Muslims, along with some anti-Semitic French Christian demonstrators, walked through the center of Paris shouting “death to the Jews.” They burned cars, vandalized Jewish stores and, as reported by the press, a number of them, armed with knives, threw stones and bottles at the Isaac Abravanel Synagogue not far from the Bastille.

I read
that the polls indicate that as many as 40 percent of French Jews hide Jewish symbols. It is not surprising, as so many incidents of anti-Semitism happen daily in France. (...)

Watch also this lecture on Jewish history by a Jewish historian David Solomon:

"The Whole Jewish History in One Hour":

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUlM2a2tsOM#t=3350

Below is a fragment of this lecture between 0:55:50 and 0:57:10 of the video, about Jewish history in Germany:

(...) The Shoah is not an isolated event. The project to exterminate the Jews of Germany happens here [pointing at the timeline of history], and here, and here, and here, and here, and here. And so people say - so why did Jews keep going back to Germany [like flies go to flypaper]? Why did Jews keep going back? And I say - look at your own generation. Only half a century after the Holocaust, and what is the largest growing Jewish community in the world outside of Israel? It's Germany. And yet surely the lesson of this entire wall [pointing at the timeline of history] is that Jews should not be living in Germany. We hope and we pray... in the end of the day, in hundreds of years from now, I'm hoping that... well, if I'm starting to explain that more I'm gonna get further and further into problem, so I'm gonna stop, let's go back to history (...)
 
^ You know what, I haven't thought about this before.... But yeah, it might be a Lithuanized version of Sawicki!

Coming back to Polish contributions - a very good lecture:

Ukrainian historian Roman Szporluk, "Poland in Modern Ukrainian History 1795-1991":
(he mentions also several important Polish contributions on a Europe-wide scale):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yiPY5x2P3Xs


Check also;

Ukrainian historian Yaroslav Hrytsak, "Polishing Rus': The Role of the Polish Legacy":

http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/coe21/publish/no7_ses/chapter02.pdf

=============================

In year 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attributed these things to Poland:

http://lewicowo.pl/karol_marks_a_powstanie_styczniowe/

http://lewicowo.pl/marks-o-polsce/

(...) Marx and Engels considered Poland as a nation first of all indispensible (nécessaire), and secondly - revolutionary. The indispensibility of the Polish nation resulted from fact, that the whole power of the Reaction in Europe since 1815 (and maybe even since the French Revolution) was based on the "sacred alliance" of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, cemented together by the Partitions of Poland. Crushing the reactionaries, destroying the "sacred alliance", required the restoration of Poland.

The revolutionary character of the Polish nation - according to Marx and Engels - resulted from fact that Poles had to be revolutional, if they did not want to die as a nation under the yoke of despotic monarchies. Aiming at destruction of the "sacred alliance" of three reactionary powers, the Poles therefore became leaders of revolutionary movements of the whole of Europe, against the patriarchal-feudal absolutism in Europe. During the hot days of "the Springtime of the Peoples" of 1848, Marx wrote: "the Poles are everywhere the generous (hochherzigen) generals of the Revolution. Glory, three times glory, to the Poles." [13]

Moreover Poles connected their struggle for national liberation with fight for enfranchisement of peasants and agrarian democracy, the only democracy possible at that time in Eastern Europe, and by doing so they affected in a revolutionary way the entire system of social relations among the nations neighbouring Poland. "The merit of Poles" - wrote Engels - "is that they were the first ones who proclaimed the truth about the connection which occurs between independence [of a nation] from external factors and the land reform inside the country."[14]

The politics of democratic movements in entire Europe at that time was concentrated on three main goals: liberation and unification of Italy; restoration of free and independent Poland; unification of Germany. Those three goals can be found in the act of the French National Assemply from 23 May 1848 and also in the headline of each number of "Tribune des Peuples" newspaper from Paris.

Marx and Engels argued, that liberation and unification of Germany was not possible as long as Prussia and Austria were oppressing the Poles. They maintained, that the emergence of independent and democratic Poland was the first condition to the emergence of democratic Germany. Hence their two demands: that Germany should resign from Polish lands remaining under Prussian rule and to demand - with use of military force if necessary - the return of Polish lands occupied by Russia.

Marx and Engels proclaimed a revolutionary war against Russia under the slogan of rebuilding independent Poland. They considered Russia to be the main pillar of the Reaction in Germany and as the ligament of the Reaction in entire Europe. "Between Russia and Germany - wrote Engels - there must be created not some sham of Poland, but a state capable of its own life: independent Poland must cover at least the same territory as before 1772, it must control not only the basins of its major rivers, but also their outlets, and it must posses a significant strip of coastline at least along the Baltic Sea. In the best interest of European democracy an independent Poland - a strong and territorially vast Poland - is absolutely necessary."[15]
(...)

Footnotes:

[13] "Neue Rheinische Zeitung", Köln, No 135, 5 November 1848.
[14] "Neue Rheinische Zeitung", No 81, 20 August 1848.
[15] "Neue Rheinische Zeitung", No 81, 20 August 1848."
 
Did someone mention about:

- Ludwik von Mises and his works?
- Zbigniew Brzeziński and his politics?

- Dawid Grun (alias David ben Gurion) - first prime minister of State of Israel and one of founder of this state
- Mieczysław Bieguń (aka Menachem Begun) similar as above
- Szymon Perski (vel Shimon Peres) - another who get Peace Nobel Price as Biegun...
- Izaak Jeziernicki (Itzhak Shamir)?

I would be very wary about these men being "great Poles" maybe "Great Zionists?"

David Ben Gurion was the architect of the destruction of the Palestinians and was a great hypocrite. He claimed to be a "socialist" but was a crypto fascist-Zionist.
Menahem Begin was a terrorist and murderer. He was the mastermind that bombed the King David Hotel, which killed many Brits, Jews, and Arabs. He was also a chief of the Zionist terrorist groups that terrorized and killed thousands of Palestinians.
Shimon Peres? What was so great about this guy? he always tries to be the referee in Zionist israel but he is just as bad as the others.
Itshak Shamkir -- same as Begin. Another Zionist chief who took over Begins post. Criminal and murderer who became prime minister.

Only in Israel do criminals and murderers become Nobel Price winners and prime ministers. LOL!:LOL:
 
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But their are famous... heheh :)

Did some one mentiond creators of Matrix and Warner Bros?
 
But their are famous... heheh :)

Did some one mentiond creators of Matrix and Warner Bros?

So are Hitler and Stalin. :grin:
 
O! yea! And Feliks Dzierzyński!
In every police station in Russia is his portrait!:grin:

He was never a great man. He was simply a mass murderer who worked for a legitimate terrorist group called Bolsheviks or "communists." He even looked like the devil and was praised by another devil Stalin.
 
Did some one mentiond creators of Matrix and Warner Bros?

The creators are Jews form Hollywood, but they did not kill anyone. They just make stupid or worthless movies.
 
O! yea! And Feliks Dzierzyński!
In every police station in Russia is his portrait!
He was simply a mass murderer who worked for a legitimate terrorist group called Bolsheviks or "communists."

During Polish-Soviet peace negotiations in Riga in 1921 (following the Polish-Soviet war, or the Polish-Bolshevik war), one of Polish diplomats met Feliks Dzierżyński. They had known each other before, and they started to talk:

- Feliks D.: "What do people in Warsaw say about me ???"

- diplomat: "They say that you are a bloody thief and murderer."

- Feliks D.: "But why? I don't kill Poles, I only kill Russkies."

"Iron Felix" - as he was known in Russia - probably killed more Russians than any other Pole in history.

And his beloved Russians later built a city named after him: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzerzhinsk,_Russia

Is Russia a nation of some kind of masochists or what?

Why do they built monuments for people such as Pole Dzierżyński or Georgian Stalin? :unsure:

was praised by another devil Stalin.

And Stalin was Georgian.
 
- Feliks D.: "But why? I don't kill Poles, I only kill Russkies."

images



Is Russia a nation of some kind of masochists or what?

Probably they have something of that kind of mentality...
Otherwise, they would banned communistic symbols and gloryfing M.E.L.S. and Dzierżyński long ago.

Why do they built monuments for people such as Pole Dzierżyński or Georgian Stalin? :unsure:
And Stalin was Georgian.

Maybe because they have Stockholm syndrome?:rolleyes:


About Dzierżyński are to things which one curious and one no so bad....

1) His brother was an officer in polish army and very famous doctor
2) Becuase of Felix in Soviet Union were created polish national aeras...
 
LeBrok said:
It would be interesting if someone could explain why some languages go toward simplicity like English, and some go into extreme complexity like Polish?

Polish sounds to Non-Polish speakers a bit similar to how Laki Lan's song "Big Baton" sounds to Polish-speakers: :lol:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZI9MS3EoX4

 
During Polish-Soviet peace negotiations in Riga in 1921 (following the Polish-Soviet war, or the Polish-Bolshevik war), one of Polish diplomats met Feliks Dzierżyński. They had known each other before, and they started to talk:

- Feliks D.: "What do people in Warsaw say about me ???"

- diplomat: "They say that you are a bloody thief and murderer."

- Feliks D.: "But why? I don't kill Poles, I only kill Russkies."

"Iron Felix" - as he was known in Russia - probably killed more Russians than any other Pole in history.

And his beloved Russians later built a city named after him: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzerzhinsk,Russia

Is Russia a nation of some kind of masochists or what?

Why do they built monuments for people such as Pole Dzierżyński or Georgian Stalin? :unsure:

And Stalin was Georgian.

It was the communists and their followers who allowed this to happen. Only in Russia and Israel do they allow mass murderers to be put on a pedestal.

Russia has traditionally been a nation of peasants. Russian peasants usually like to be ruled by cruel or strong master. Masochists? Russians prefer cruel mass murderers and gangsters because they like/respect strong men. However, by definition Russians are actually sado-masochists. They like to inflict pain and receive it. They prefer to live like slaves than take responsibility for their actions and be free men. In other words, they prefer to have some ruler do all the thinking and take care of all problems for them; they prefer Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, Stalin, and Putin -- it makes them feel safe/comfortable. Cruelty is a fact of life for them. Their monuments to Lenin, Stalin, and Dzerzhynsky are proof of their strange devotion.
 

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