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H3 is absent from the Middle and Near East, so that disqualifies it from any recent/Neolithic arrival.
H1 is much more common in Europe than elsewhere, and peaks in parts of Europe that were the most secluded and remote from the Middle East (Norway, British Isles, Basque country), and consequently the least likely to be affected by the advance of Neolithic farmers.
Everything concurs for a Paleolithic origin of H1 and H3 in Europe.
Jean Manco said:Yet back in 2009 Hajer Ennafaa and colleagues pointed out that the greatest diversity of H3 is in North Africa, and that for H1 in the Near East . That suggests that both arrived with early farmers, H3 springing from H* sometime along the Mediterranean route.
Jean Manco said:Then came a study from Spain that trained its guns specifically upon the crumbling edifice of the Franco-Cantabrian refuge theory . O. García et al point out that H1 and H3 show a low diversity in Cantabria and particularly among the Basques. They found sub-clade H1t specific to Iberia and calculated a coalescence age for it at 5,800 years. This fitted neatly with their dates for two other mtDNA haplogroups in Iberia to suggest Neolithic radiations: H1r (5,200 years) and HV4a1a (6,500 years). They conclude "In short, we find no well-founded reasons to confirm that the H1 distribution in Europe reflects a human expansion centred on the Franco-Cantabrian area."
To me, saying that H3 is absent from the Near East, therefore it must be Paleolithic would be like saying that R1b-L21 is absent from the Near East, therefore it also must be Paleolithic. It doesn't really follow, does it? And mtDNA is very difficult to date accurately.
Here is an extract from an article about the testing of 29 people found in a French neolithic grave:
I also wanted to mention that two of the 29 people tested belonged to I2a. Their mtDNA was respectively H1 and H3. There is a high chances that they were indigenous hunter-gatherers assimilated to (or captured/killed by) the G2a farmers. The fact that both I2a happen to be H1 and H3 plays in favour of H1 and H3 being Paleolithic haplogroups like I2a.
On the map showing the mtdna Haplogroup shared between Treilles individuals and current european populations, the darker zones indicate matches with famous neolithic cultures:
there is a clear match with the atlantic megalithic culturs of Carnac (Britanny) and Stonhenge (Wales, western England); and to the first neolithic cultures of Europe (Northern Greece, Varna culture of Bulgaria)
The other matches correspond to the region comprising north eastern Italy,eastern Switzerland, western and Austria and southern Bavaria which indicates the ancient land of Raetia where today haplogroup G frequency is high.
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