How do they test haplogroups of skeletons ?


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With great interest and but also with astonishment I read that scientists
are able to scrutinize skelets to discover which haplogroup skelets
of men had who died several thousands years ago. How can they discover it? What kind of techniques do they use? I cannot believe it
sometimes. So I read that in South Russia it was possible to discover
that men who died 3000 BC had fair hair and light eyes!
DNA can survive for an amazingly long period of time after a person's death. Scientists have been able to extract DNA from Neanderthalian skeletons. The oldest DNA ever found was from a Neanderthal child from Scladina Cave in Belgium; it is over 100,000 years old ! Once you have the DNA, you can know their haplogroup, what eye or skin colour they had, their immune system, and basically anything DNA can tell, as long as the DNA sequenced concerned is not damaged.
So they can discover now the colour of hair and eyes of Cro-Magnon men.
I am very curious to know it.
Yes, they can, but ancient DNA tests are delicate and take a long time (sometimes years) to complete because old DNA is cut in a myriad small segments and it takes time to patch up everything. So far Cro-Magnons have only been tested for mtDNA. The results were haplogroup N and (pre-)HV.
With that Neanderthal DNA they are probably spinning. For some the very existence of the creature is in question. This science reminds me of proving identity from hair. A game at best.

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