Human Ancestry Graph, Which Includes Ancestral North Africans, the Iberomaurusians, the Natufians, the African Ghost Population, and Others


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Below is my new Human Ancestry Graph. I made it for my article about the origin of the Iberomaurusians. Here is my older version, which includes modern Eurasians in detail.

The newer graph is based on Figures 5 and S3.17 of the peer-reviewed scientific article, Ancient West African Foragers in the Context of African Population History (Link), as well as conclusions that I draw in my article.

As can be seen in the new graph, Ancestral North Africans (ANA) [E-M35], the Iberomaurusians of Taforalt (E-M78), the Natufians (E-Z830), the Agaw of Ethiopia (E-V6 and E-V32), the Ethiopian fossil Mota (E-Y175024), and West Africans & Bantus (E-M132 & E-M2) are all modeled as descending from a population that I call Ancestral Horn Africans (AHA); I posit that this population was the source of Paternal Haplogroup E-P2 (E1b1), which is ancestral to the listed paternal haplogroups of the aforementioned populations and fossil (except West Africans and Bantus' E-M132). I call this population Ancestral Horn Africans because peer-reviewed scientific studies have concluded that E1b1 originated in the Horn of Africa.

Here is a quote from the peer-reviewed scientific article “Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area” (2004) [Link]:
  • Both phylogeography and microsatellite variance suggest that E-P2 and its derivative, E-M35, probably originated in eastern Africa. This inference is further supported by the presence of additional Hg E lineal diversification and by the highest frequency of E-P2* and E-M35* in the same region. The distribution of E-P2* appears limited to eastern African peoples. The E-M35* lineage shows its highest frequency (19.2%) in the Ethiopian Oromo but with a wider distribution range than E-P2*.”
Here is a quote from another peer-reviewed scientific article, “A New Topology of the Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) Revealed through the Use of Newly Characterized Binary Polymorphisms” (2011) [Link]:
  • Using the principle of the phylogeographic parsimony … in favor of a common ancestor of E-M2 and E-M329 strongly supports the hypothesis that haplogroup E1b1 originated in eastern Africa, as previously suggested, and that chromosomes E-M2, so frequently observed in sub-Saharan Africa, trace their descent to a common ancestor present in eastern Africa.
The graph also includes the Ghost Population that contributed ancestry to West Africans & Bantus; according to the aforementioned article, Ancient West African Foragers in the Context of African Population History, the Ghost Population was comprised of modern humans (i.e. Homo sapiens) whose ancestors split from the common ancestors of everyone else around the time that the ancestors of the Khoisan and Pygmies did so. I have concluded that this population was the source of Paternal Haplogroup A00, and because the aforementioned peer-reviewed article concludes that they resided along the southern belt of the Sahara, I have named them Ancestral Saharans (AS).

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