Iranian glass beads found at 'UK's Pompeii' near Peterborough


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The glass used to create beads discovered at a prehistoric settlement dubbed "Britain's Pompeii" was probably made in Iran, analysis has revealed.

The finds were among a wealth of well-preserved items unearthed at a burnt-out 3,000-year-old village at a quarry in Whittlesey, near Peterborough.

Amber, shale, siltstone, faience and tin beads were also discovered.

Prehistoric jewellery expert Alison Sheridan said their survival, at Must Farm, was "absolutely thrilling".

They reveal the "really cosmopolitan connections" of Must Farm's residents, according to Dr Sheridan.

"Some of the beads must have been got from northern Britain and possibly even Ireland, while the glass came from a very, very long way away across the sea," she said.
Cambridge Archaeological Unit Rows of Bronze Age beads
"Some of the beads "didn't move very far from where they were found so we know which order they where strung", said Alison

A collection of tools and ornaments from the late Bronze Age Adabrock hoard (1,000 -800bc)

Bronze axeheads from Driffield Hoard:

Seima turbino culture migration:

"essential changes in metalworking occurred inthe middle bronze age [megaw, simpson, 1979, p.207], of which the appearance of arrowheads look-ing back to seima-turbino forms is of most interestto us. they have a cast elongated round socket, awide long blade, and a round or rhombic socket-shank. on the socket there are eyes for attachment(fig. 78.3,4). some sockets are ornamented withtriangles or zigzags which correspond closely toseima tradition [ehrenberg, 1977]. middle bronzeage hoards also contain celts with a side eye [farley,1979]. in addition to objects linked with seima-turbino metalworking, metal of central europeanorigin occurs in the wessex complexes, in particu-lar, pins of unětician types [megaw, simpson, 1979, p. 227]"

"The related Proto-West-Uralic *vaśara ("axe, mace", (later) "hammer"; whence Ukonvasara, "Ukko's hammer") is an early loanword from the Proto-Indo-Aryan *vaj’ra-"
One of the earliest known Celtic people in Britain was Cassi:, their leader was Cassivellaunus:

The Common Brittonic personal name Cassiuellaunos stems from the word uellaunos ('chief, commandant').[1] The meaning of the prefix cassi- has been debated, but it possibly signifies 'tin, bronze'. Cassivellaunus may thus been translated as 'Chief-of-Tin', that is to say 'the inflexible'. The personal name Ver-cassivellaunus ('True-Chief-of-Tin') is related.[2]

And you read here about Cassiterides:


Ancient Greek writers, including Herodotus, mention a group of islands which were called Cassiterides. Modern researchers suggest that they may refer to the British Isles.

The Cassiterides (Greek: Κασσιτερίδες, meaning "Tin Islands", from κασσίτερος, kassíteros "tin"):

And about kassíteros:κασσίτερος

An Elamite origin has been suggested but, according to Beekes, the group "σσ/ττ" is typically Pre-Greek, so the word would have come from Greece or Western Anatolia, like μόλυβδος (mólubdos, “lead”), but even if so, the word might still go back to Mesopotamia, representing the name of the Kassites, who settled near Elam and major sources of tin. Compare also the etymology of Arabic مَرْقَشِيتَا (marqašītā, “marcasite”). Related to Sanskrit कस्तीर (kastīra, “tin”).

About Kassites:

Glass works​

Remnants of two Kassite glass beakers were found during the 1964 excavation in a (c. 800 BC) destruction layer of Hasanlu, in northwest Iran. The mosaic glass beakers are thought to have been heirlooms, possibly for ritual use the find spot being a temple. The panes of glass used to create these images were very brightly colored, and closer analysis has revealed that they were bright green, blue, white, and red-orange.[54] A Kassite text found at Dur-Kurigalzu mentions glass given to artisans for palace decoration and similar glass was found there.[55] Other similar glass dated 1500 BC was found at Tell al-Rimah.[56]

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