Julius Caesar's Britain invasion site 'found by archaeologists'

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http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-42155888

The discovery of a defensive ditch and weapons led them to identify Pegwell Bay in Thanet, Kent, as the place they believe the Romans landed.

The ditch, in the nearby hamlet of Ebbsfleet, was part of a large fort, the University of Leicester team says.

Its location was consistent with clues provided by Caesar's own account of the invasion, the team said.

Caesar's 54BC invasion, which ultimately ended in retreat, came almost 100 years before Claudius's conquest in AD43.

The 5m-wide ditch was discovered during an excavation ahead of a new road being built.

The university said its shape was very similar to Roman defences found in France.

It is thought it formed part of a large fort protecting Caesar's ships on the nearby beach.

Pottery found at the site was consistent with the 54BC arrival date and the team also found iron weapons, including a Roman javelin.

Archaeologist Dr Andrew Fitzpatrick said descriptions from Caesar's account of the invasion - which describes him leading a force of about 800 ships, 20,000 soldiers and 2,000 cavalry - suggested it was the correct landing site.

"The presence of cliffs, the existence of a large open bay, and the presence of higher ground nearby, are consistent with the 54BC landing having been in Pegwell Bay," he said.

"It's a big force, and you need a big landing place, because simply to land that number of vessels you need a big front.

"We think that the location of the site fits very closely with what Julius Caesar gives in a series of clues - he doesn't tell us in detail, but he gives some snippets, and by piecing those snippets together we think it fits very well."

Dr Fitzpatrick said the low-lying, coastal nature of the site was "defending the coast rather than looking inland", which led them to believe it could be Caesar's base.

Prof Colin Haselgrove, who led the investigation, said it was likely treaties set up in the wake of Caesar's invasion made it easier for the Romans to conquer parts of Britain almost 100 years later.

He said: "The conquest of south-east England seems to have been rapid, probably because the kings in the region were already allied to Rome.

"This was the beginning of the permanent Roman occupation of Britain, which included Wales and some of Scotland and lasted for almost 400 years."
 
Roman Troop Statistic in the 1st Period.
afa688274bb397e4c8759dc78bdd9a7d.jpg

I translated this in English from old fashioned Italian, feel free to object if you believe is incorrect.
Roman Statistic
In Rome were kept ready, as reserve, a Corp of 20.000 Infantry and 1.500 Cavalry, sorted from Roman Citizens, and furthermore 30.000 foot soldiers, and 2.000 Cavalryman taken from the allies.
The list of population and of recruitment provides also among the Latins 80.000 Infantry, and 5.000 horses;
Within the Samnites 70.000 Infantry and 7.000 horses;
Within the Japigi and the Messapi, 50.000 men on foot and 16.000 Cavalry;
Within the Lucani 30.000 Infantry and 3.000 Cavalry;
Within the Marsi, the Marrucini, the Frentani, and the Vestini, 20.000 Infantry and 4.000 Cavalry.
The Romans had furthermore in Sicily and in Taranto 2 Legions each of 4.200 Infantrymen and 200 Cavalry.
Finally were listed as able for war in the population of Rome and the countryside 250.000 men on foot and 23.000 Cavalry.
Total of the Military Forces available to the Romans:
Infantry 699.200
Cavalry 69.100
Polibio roundup the number:
Infantry 700.000
Cavalry 70.000
 
Roman Troop Statistic in the 1st Period.
afa688274bb397e4c8759dc78bdd9a7d.jpg

I translated this in English from old fashioned Italian, feel free to object if you believe is incorrect.
Roman Statistic
In Rome were kept ready, as reserve, a Corp of 20.000 Infantry and 1.500 Cavalry, sorted from Roman Citizens, and furthermore 30.000 foot soldiers, and 2.000 Cavalryman taken from the allies.
The list of population and of recruitment provides also among the Latins 80.000 Infantry, and 5.000 horses;
Within the Samnites 70.000 Infantry and 7.000 horses;
Within the Japigi and the Messapi, 50.000 men on foot and 16.000 Cavalry;
Within the Lucani 30.000 Infantry and 3.000 Cavalry;
Within the Marsi, the Marrucini, the Frentani, and the Vestini, 20.000 Infantry and 4.000 Cavalry.
The Romans had furthermore in Sicily and in Taranto 2 Legions each of 4.200 Infantrymen and 200 Cavalry.
Finally were listed as able for war in the population of Rome and the countryside 250.000 men on foot and 23.000 Cavalry.
Total of the Military Forces available to the Romans:
Infantry 699.200
Cavalry 69.100
Polibio roundup the number:
Infantry 700.000
Cavalry 70.000

Interesting demographics, lots of Osco-Umbrians, Puglians, and some Sicilians.

GbGIgUw.jpg
SZIm4LF.jpg
 
Interesting demographics, lots of Osco-Umbrians, Ipygians, and some Sicilians.

GbGIgUw.jpg
SZIm4LF.jpg

Most of the troops were provided by the Central/Southern Italians.
Big number of available soldiers, even for today Standard.
 
Most of the troops were provided by the Central/Southern Italians.
Big number of available soldiers, even for today Standard.

The 250,000 men from Rome and the countryside were probably more Latins. Though they specifically list them as 80,000, so it's a little vague. It could have been any random Italians from any tribe that were living within Rome at the time.

They could have also been many from Etruria.

Bf7aXOm.jpg
 
The 250,000 men from the countryside were probably more Latins? Though they specifically list them as 80,000.

They could have also been many from Etruria.

Bf7aXOm.jpg

The text say “Popolazione di Roma e della Campagna”; It’s old fashioned Italian, Etruria I’m assuming is included with the Roman area.
Campagna = Countryside, but it could also mean “Campania”, the Region South of Lazio. I can’t tell.
 
The text say “Popolazione di Roma e della Campagna”; It’s old fashioned Italian, Etruria I’m assuming is included with the Roman area.
Campagna = Countryside, but it could also mean “Campania”, the Region South of Lazio. I can’t tell.

cRuqrcvm.png


Definitely more likely majority Latins than, they settled that area early on.
 
cRuqrcvm.png


Definitely more likely majority Latins than, they settled that area early on.

The 250,000 men Rome and the countryside were probably more Latins. Though they specifically list them as 80,000, so it's a little vague. It could have been any random Italians from any tribe that were living within Rome at the time.

They could have also been many from Etruria.

The 250.000 men and the 23.000 Cavalry are another Reserve (National Guard), non full time soldiers, regular people and former soldiers that can be activated as needed. I think. [emoji848]
 

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