Latin & Greek words of non-Indo-European origin

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I have explained in Revising the classification of Indo-European languages that Latin and Greek are probably hybrid languages with two major components: one Indo-European, and the other from an unknown West Asian language (probably long extinct). There may also be older Neolithic loanwords.

It is evidently hard to identify words from an unknown extinct language, so the best way to proceed to to sieve the words that cannot be ascertain as Indo-European. This includes all the roots of unknown or uncertain origin.

I will start by listing Latin words with their Italian and French derivatives, and show the lack of resemble to the Proto-Indo-European root.

Latin (French, Italian) >< PIE root

- manducare (manger, mangiare) >< *ed-

EDIT : here are more words

- amygdala/amandula (amande, mandorla), from Greek amygdalos but not found in other IE languages

- autumnus (automne, autunno), of unknown origin, possibly from Etruscan.

- bestia (bête, bestia)

- coda (queue, coda), unrelated to the PIE *puk(eha) or *wolos

- elementem (element, elemento)

- cylindrus (cylindre, cilindro) only related to Greek kylindros

- famulus : Latin word for servant from which "family" is derived. Unrelated to the PIE roots *genhes or *wik

- farcire (farcire, farcire)

- finis (fin, fine), unrelated to the PIE root *termn-

- honorem (honeur, onore), not found in other IE languages

- largus (large, largo), unrelated to the PIE *megha or *mehro

- male/malus (mal, male), not related to PIE *ghalh(x)ros nor *hedwol

- metallum (métal, metallo), from Greek metallon, but differs from PIE word *h(a)eyes

- miser (misère, misera), no similarity with other IE languages

- (s)mittere : Latin word meaning "to send" used as a root for many words (transmit, emit, permit, etc.). No IE cognate.

- nigrum (noir, nero), unrelated to the PIE *k(w)rsnos, *mel-n or *keir

- oceanus (ocean, oceano), from Greek oceanos, but no cognates in other IE

- ochra (ocre, ocra), from Greek ochra, but no cognates in other IE

- phrasis (phrase, frase), from Greek phrasis (speech, way of speaking), but doesn't cognate with any IE word

- populus (peuple, popolo), no cognate in other IE languages. Possibly from Etruscan.

- purpura (pourpre, purpureo), from Greek porphyra which is of Semitic origin

- radius (rayon, raggio/radio)

- sanguis (sang, sangue), unrelated to the PIE *bhlo-to

- silens (silence, silenzio), doesn't appear to be IE

- sphæra (sphère, sfera) from Greek sphaira (globe, ball), of unknown origin.

- totus/totalis (total, totale), no IE cognate

- verdis (vert, verde), unrelated to the PIE *ker-, *kr-wos or *modheros, or to the PIE base *ghre- ("grow", from which the Germanic green derives)

- volare (voler, volare), unrelated to the PIE *dih- or *pet-


Greek words

- auto- : prefix meaning "self", doesn't cognate in other IE languages

- mythos : "speech, thought, story, myth," of unknown origin.

- elektron : Greek word for amber, no cognate in IE

- xanthos : Greek word for yellow, no cognate in IE

- The Greek for "thousand" (kilo or khilias) as well as the Latin one (mille) are unrelated to the PIE root *tuh(a)s-kmtyos found in all Germanic and Balto-Slavic languages.
 
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I have explained in Revising the classification of Indo-European languages that Latin and Greek are probably hybrid languages with two major components: one Indo-European, and the other from an unknown West Asian language (probably long extinct). There may also be older Neolithic loanwords.

It is evidently hard to identify words from an unknown extinct language, so the best way to proceed to to sieve the words that cannot be ascertain as Indo-European. This includes all the roots of unknown or uncertain origin.

I will start by listing Latin words with their Italian and French derivatives, and show the lack of resemble to the Proto-Indo-European root.

Latin (Italian, French) >< PIE root

- manducare (mangiare, manger) >< *ed-


(don't have time to continue this now. Will update later).
"Manducare" comes from latin "mandare", which in turn comes from PIE *mhanos (hand: Proto-Germanic *mnha-to-, Albanian "marr", Hittite "maniyahh-", etc.)
 
"Manducare" comes from latin "mandare", which in turn comes from PIE *mhanos (hand: Proto-Germanic *mnha-to-, Albanian "marr", Hittite "maniyahh-", etc.)

What's the connection with the meaning of eat and send (mandare) or hand (mano) ? It's not because they look similar that they are necessarily related.
 
What's the connection with the meaning of eat and send (mandare) or hand (mano) ? It's not because they look similar that they are necessarily related.
You're right, I mixed up. "Manducare" does come from "mandare", but this "mandare" (which means "chew") is etymologically unrelated to the other "mandare" (send).
The "mandare" from where "manducare" comes is through a nasalized variant of "madere" (to wet: "madeo" (I wet) > "mando" (I chew)). This in turn comes from PIE *mehad (to become wet, to moist, to fat: see Old Irish "maidid" (breaks, gushes), Proto-Germanic *matiz (food), Old Indic "mada" (alcoholic beverage), etc.)
 
Interesting

lets compare with a Food Mandrax
the famous plant Aristotle describe as Mandragora :?

Modern Greek μασαω (I chew) masao
μασαμπουκα masabuka means good food to eat a lot comparing Brygian Bekos = baked, Bread

Although it is modern Greek,
But there I can't find alternate for chew in Greek
so probably mangare means to chew and in Italian become to eat?

a greek loan to Italian or Italian loan to Greek or both from another root, IE or not?

I think the root gives also the Mandrax
and a virb μαγκωνω mangono which Means to Grab to Bind so hard as with Teeth

compare the ancient Greek word Μεγγενη ( a vice machine that holds steady objects)
so the connection among chew (grab hold with teeth, or like teeth) becomes mangare in Italian

Vices440x225UN180_3.jpg

the name of the machine is Μεγγενη mengeni
the machine work as teeth when chew,
so mangare might be the result after the teeth work

PS
to be honest the Homeric word μαγισσα (magician) for Kirke original meaning is not the one who makes magic, but the one who uses tricks to grab and hold you,
so when a woman is crazy with a man she uses herbal or spell to hold him, so she wants to put him in meggene to μαγκωσει him, to petrify or astonish so she can hold and grab, to chew him
(consider that the story of Kirke says that she turned them to pigs in order to chew them)
μαγος and μαγισσα (magician) does not mean sorcerer or wizard but holder, master binder,
the modern meaning of magician is due to time and vivid languages which by time give several meanings to the original ideas
so if original proto word ment to eat or to grab with Teeth, or to chew I do not know,
But I think a correct root of the word is found
no matter IE or not, Italian or Greek or minor Asian
 
There have to be Latin words coming from non-IE sources, but manducare is not a good example. The relationship with the roots mentioned for "chewing" (mando) is clear via the character of Manducus, the glutton, represented with the mask of someone chewing. And I don't see it unlikely at all to relate mand- with *mad-, given that in other languages the meaning derived are also related to chewing, eating, drinking or food.
 
I have added many new words to the list. I think they will be much more difficult to reject than manducare.
 
I have added many new words to the list. I think they will be much more difficult to reject than manducare.

Very good. I do have a two words which I am confident about that you can remove them:

- (s)mittere : Latin word meaning "to send" used as a root for many words (transmit, emit, permit, etc.).
It actually has a cognate in Germanic: German "schmeißen" (to throw), compare English "to smite"

- totus/totalis (total, totale)
'totus' is actually of IE origin, however the meaning is changed from originally "tribe"/"people" (compare Gaulish "touta", Old Irish "tuath", Welsh "tud", German "Deutsch", Lithuanian "tauta") towards the meaning of "all" or "whole".

Otherwise, I'd suggest you to definitely move the Greek loanwords into Latin over to Greek. It's clear that these words were borrowed from Greek into Latin, and not from a common third source.
 
You're right, I mixed up. "Manducare" does come from "mandare", but this "mandare" (which means "chew") is etymologically unrelated to the other "mandare" (send).
The "mandare" from where "manducare" comes is through a nasalized variant of "madere" (to wet: "madeo" (I wet) > "mando" (I chew)). This in turn comes from PIE *mehad (to become wet, to moist, to fat: see Old Irish "maidid" (breaks, gushes), Proto-Germanic *matiz (food), Old Indic "mada" (alcoholic beverage), etc.)

? what
its magnar to eat and also for food
mandare to send
mastegar to chew
mastego to feast
midir to be moist


in italian word for food is cibo - go figure ????
 
Very good. I do have a two words which I am confident about that you can remove them:

- (s)mittere : Latin word meaning "to send" used as a root for many words (transmit, emit, permit, etc.).
It actually has a cognate in Germanic: German "schmeißen" (to throw), compare English "to smite"

- totus/totalis (total, totale)
'totus' is actually of IE origin, however the meaning is changed from originally "tribe"/"people" (compare Gaulish "touta", Old Irish "tuath", Welsh "tud", German "Deutsch", Lithuanian "tauta") towards the meaning of "all" or "whole".

Thanks for pointing out these similarities. This certainly increases the likelihood of totus and (s)mittere to be of IE origin, although they could still be remnant words from a Neolithic language around the Alps if they aren't found in any other IE languages.

Otherwise, I'd suggest you to definitely move the Greek loanwords into Latin over to Greek. It's clear that these words were borrowed from Greek into Latin, and not from a common third source.

I will. I started with the Latin list and only added the Greek words as an afterthought. I am planning to reorganise everything in a table like for the Germanic words of non-IE origin.
 
Here are more non-IE Latin words, which are said to come from Etruscan:

- arista (arête, arête)
- atrium
- balteus (borrowed into Germanic and gave English the word belt)
- cærimonia (cérémonie, ceremonia)
- fenestra (fenêtre, finestra)
- harena (arène, arena) : originally meaning "sandy place"
- mercatus (marché, mercato) : from merx (wares, merchandise)
- militaris (militaire, militario) : from miles (soldier)
- palatum (palais, palato)
- servire (servir, servire) : from servus (serf, slave)
- vernaculus (vernaculaire, vernacolo) from verna "home-born slave, native".
- vulcanus (volcan, volcano)
 
More words (mostly vocabulary relating to the Mediterranean climate) :

- angelus (ange, angelo) : perhaps from Semitic or another non-IE Middle-Eastern language
- cicada (cigale, cicala) : not a native Latin word; perhaps a loan-word from a lost Mediterranean language.
- cucumerem (concombre, -) : perhaps from a pre-Italic Mediterranean language
- cupressus (cyprès, cipresso) : from Greek kyparissos, probably from an unknown pre-Greek Mediterranean language.
- dactylus (datte, dattero) : from Gk. daktylos ("finger, toe), from a Semitic source (Hebrew deqel, Aramaic diqla, Arabic daqal "date palm")
- digitus (doigt, detto) : same as above, differ from the PIE word for finger *polikos
- ficus (figue, fico) : from a pre-I.E. Mediterranean language, possibly Semitic
- laurus (laurier, alloro) : probably from a pre-IE Mediterranean language
- mentha (menthe, menta) : from Greek minthe probably a loan-word from a lost Mediterranean language.
- lion : perhaps from Semitic
- mulus (mule, mulo) : probably from a pre-Latin Mediterranean language.
- norma (norme, norma)
- pira (poire, pera)
- plumbum (plomb, piombo) : probably borrowed from a lost Mediterranean language, perhaps Iberian.
- racemus (raisin, -) : probably from the same ancient lost Mediterranean language
- saccus (sac, sacco) : from Greek sakkos, from Semitic (Hebrew saq "sack")
- spongia (éponge, spongia) : from Greek spongos, ultimately from an unknown source
- tunica (tunique, tunica) from
- turris (tour, torre) : possibly from a pre-I.E. Mediterranean language.
 
wow indeed the list is growing

lets see

Cylindrus
the Greek spelling gives
the curves καμπυλες
κοιλος (bound to inner circle) British Coil (tesla coils etc) Germ Hohl
κυρτος (bound the external of circle) the curve the most IE use the convex but Slavic use vupuklyi (klyi compare κυκλος) Armenian urrut (urut->urt)
κυκλος the circle
κυλινδρος from κυκλος and draw? or from circle and ιδρυω (born from circle or raises circles)
κυλω κυλαω virb I roll
in all 5 words we find similar sounds except ρ ανδ λ wich are Λυγρα and might be a sound change of Λ to ρ for best sound,
or one is expelled
if someone can compare with other old languages like Sanshqrit or avestan the above 5
that means if cylinder is non IE Greek then many words similar like coil etc are Greek loans
Besides it is mathematic and probably the global vocabulary is after the first language publish
compare internet as word is a global word today and not διαδικτυο cause all modern publication use it as Lingua Franca


Honorem
must be connected with Greek ονομα name
in ancient world there were parades to honour someone or to shame him
Greek use the word τιμη and ατιμωση but the result is that the person become ονομαστος famous
so Honorem probably means to make his name famous, to pass his name to immortality


largus hmm we find in Greek a word πελωριος which is connected with Slavic Veliki-veliko
it means Huge, very big in size, although the miss of Πε and Ve makes me wonder,
difficult to taxonomy


Mettalum and Μετταλο well if comes from μετταλο then we have an extract
mettalon is not mettal as we know today
mettalon means extract of a smith
after μαλθωσις melt
you to need to plague the extract virb Τελω-τελαω-τηλω modern ταλανιζομαι compare noun ταλας and coin = talant
ταλας and talant means striked by hammer
so mettalon is Μετα+ταλας = Μετταλο (after prossesing)
it means the result of hammer work
a connection with melt (μαλθωσις) is also possible as a result of melting, meta+malt

miser is connected with Death and hate compare Greek Μισητος and μαρασμος
the one whos fate is death or the one is hated by all to much so to want or consider him dead,
compare south slavic mrzi mrazev etc
and Μοιραι ( 3 Fates)
it seems to me that is a word that changed through time from μοιρα to miseria
compare κακκη μοιρα (bad fate bad luck) goes miseria
the connection with south south slavic gives another view


Sphere hmm when a ball is stable is Σφαιρα but when it turns Σβουριζει so p->V
lets compare with other IE
Armenian verev South Slavic Vrh a greek loan to them? or Greek loaned the word?

totus a connection with teuta? the sum of people = nation


now about Greek words

auto has 2 meanings
a) Ουτοs ουτο means he compare albanian thot english this that etc clearly IE
b) εαυτος from ενιαυτος means i my self or he himself εν+ουτος in this (I show my self) so it is clear IE


mythos is a word that comes from 2
and is not mythos but ομου + εφη
ομου means all together εφη means speak- say so ομου+εφη = mythos = all say that


electron ηλεκτρον
when Thales describe electron he did not tell about electronic and neutron and cables etc
he said about a force that ελκει pulls things
so that ρητινη (amber) is named electron cause it pulls
compare the words ulcerate duktILen armenia galusty Baltic Culat

so electron which is a thing is after a clear IE root
Besides at Turkish amber is kehribar what that means amber is a turkish word? or Turks are IE?


Xanthos ξανθος hmmm good point to that
by aeoilian and Makedonian we find many times that X is k+s or s+k
Northen Greeks and many times Dorians used sk instead of X
so if we use the X as sk in the name of XUTHUS we find what?
SKuthus or Scythos or Scythian
Scythians were Blond
so Xanthos means Scythian Blond
Blond and Blue eyes were rare in Greece, exept the area of upper thessaly and makedonia and east Epirus (R1a area)

no to expell a word from IE family we must also compare it with AVESTAN ARYAN SANSHQRIT etc

GERMANIC AND BALTOSLAVIC IS NOT THE ONLY IE AND NEITHER THE ORIGINAL IE
AND MAYBE ARE NOT THAT OLD

there is a souther corridor of IE from italy Greece to India that passes from Aryan Armenia Iran Afganistan
(Alexanders road)

in that corridor exist Italian-Latin Greek Antolian Armenian Avestan and Iranic Aryan ..... Sanshqrit
to consider 1 word as clear IE must be in all IE languages
but to expel 1 word must not in all the above,
Meaning that if a word does not exist in germanic or Balto-slavic does mean it is not IE cause it might exist also in sanshqrit or tocharian or whatever

if exist in 2 languages that are away (not Germanic -balto-slavic or Greco-Latin) but from different cultures then surely is IE
1 word that exist in Germanic and avestan migh be IE but a word that exist in Germanic and balto-slavic which are near and does not exist in other away cultures like armenia sanshqrit might not be IE

IE does not mean European neither blond with blue eyes
neither a culture from North to South
in fact amber might not be IE word at all but Turkish (kehribar colour of kehri) Panicum miliaceum color

IE is language that is connected with middle East and caucas and spread
if it spread by 1 or 2 or 4 HG I do not know, but surely nations that spread IE had primary HG


 
More words (mostly vocabulary relating to the Mediterranean climate) :

- angelus (ange, angelo) : perhaps from Semitic or another non-IE Middle-Eastern language
- cicada (cigale, cicala) : not a native Latin word; perhaps a loan-word from a lost Mediterranean language.
- cucumerem (concombre, -) : perhaps from a pre-Italic Mediterranean language
- cupressus (cyprès, cipresso) : from Greek kyparissos, probably from an unknown pre-Greek Mediterranean language.
- dactylus (datte, dattero) : from Gk. daktylos ("finger, toe), from a Semitic source (Hebrew deqel, Aramaic diqla, Arabic daqal "date palm")
- digitus (doigt, detto) : same as above, differ from the PIE word for finger *polikos
- ficus (figue, fico) : from a pre-I.E. Mediterranean language, possibly Semitic
- laurus (laurier, alloro) : probably from a pre-IE Mediterranean language
- mentha (menthe, menta) : from Greek minthe probably a loan-word from a lost Mediterranean language.
- lion : perhaps from Semitic
- mulus (mule, mulo) : probably from a pre-Latin Mediterranean language.
- norma (norme, norma)
- pira (poire, pera)
- plumbum (plomb, piombo) : probably borrowed from a lost Mediterranean language, perhaps Iberian.
- racemus (raisin, -) : probably from the same ancient lost Mediterranean language
- saccus (sac, sacco) : from Greek sakkos, from Semitic (Hebrew saq "sack")
- spongia (éponge, spongia) : from Greek spongos, ultimately from an unknown source
- tunica (tunique, tunica) from
- turris (tour, torre) : possibly from a pre-I.E. Mediterranean language.





angelo from Greek Αγγελος virb αγγελω is not a holy Christian creature with white colors,
Aγγελος means messenger and is clear IE and not semitic
2 ancient Homeric words combiner to make 1
αγω + λογος meaning I Bring the law
αγω and ηκω and ακουω meaning Ι guide i drive I rule I go(compare aga-memnon achamainides King?) I arrive I reach I come ανδ Ι Hear
λογος in Greek is speech but also Logic logical in English is Law
so in translation means Go the Law or Listen the law or law Bringer (messenger)

Ω Ξειν Αγγελειν Λακεδαιμονιοις
means go and tell Spartan
not wear feathers white clothes and baptise Spartans

ηξεις αφιξεις ου εν το πολεμω θνησκεις
you will go (αγω ηκω) you will comeback not in the war you will die
famous Delphic oracle spell

Dactylus
interesting case but by watching Greek language we also find words like κονδυλος σπονδυλος (vertebra)
all have to do with human anatomy
example σπονδυλος are the small bones which connected to create the spine
also εσω κονδυλος ... lateral condyle
why δαχτυλος dakdyle is not connected also with the above
comparing stylus that creates stele στυλος στηλη
not sure and not conviced
considering that fingers are used to show to point
then from ide ιδε ιδου (look) and virb δεικνυω (I show , I point at) we get the point bone system
then means ιδε+δυλος or δεικ+τυλος = δακτυλος
compare Germanic das english this
the finger that points is the δεικτης the digital



cupressus Clear IE
Greek κυπαρισσος means Green κυπρ = green compare the copper rust Κυπρος the plant κυπηρις
modern is πρασινο from κυπρασιο
except if Green is not IE but mediterrenean also

lion interesting
Greek Λεων Kings share is Λεια compare english Loot Latvian Laupit Armenian talan etc we find the theme Le
Greek βασιλεας means the Big loot share, or the one who drive us to loot, or central lion
Βασις + λεων
when a male lion eats no body goes near
compare the Homeric σκυλα (the amount of loot)
λεων the Lion but also the looter
possesive case λεοντος (leot ->loot) clear IE


saccuss !!!! hmm I can find it In russian and south slavic to have you searched the sanshqrit and avestan and tocharian also
since exist in more than 3 languages from 3 diferent kind,
or a loan from Greek to roman and to russian ( and south slavic) also


spongia σφογγος
also interesting
since IE were not naval or sea culture you might be right σφογγος is a sea animal
but I am not sure have you compare it virb σφιγγω and english knot?
can you tell me the IE word?


finally turris
well many linguists are stuck to that word as Tursis greek τυρις -τυρινθος english tower
although it explains very well the name of Etruscans (en tursis) and the name Troy
the above is wrong if we compine with Hattian then Etruscans comes from Hat-rus compare Hat-ria Attika etc
so it is a problematic word since there is a virb τερω τηρω θωρω (Ι have a view) to watch and stand by, to observe to secure with eye view in Greek compare virb παρα-τηρω and watch tower παρα-τηρη-τηριο
Pontic greek τερον = look english track poland tor etc
I can not search avestan and sanshqrit and tocharian
simply it is difficult to find if it etruscan or IE


now maciamo since you know the IE can you tell me how is in IE the bellow?


- cicada (cigale, cicala)
- cucumerem (concombre, -)
- cupressus (cyprès, cipresso)
- ficus (figue, fico) :
- laurus (laurier, alloro)
- mentha (menthe, menta)
- mulus (mule, mulo)
- norma (norme, norma)
- pira (poire, pera)
- plumbum (plomb, piombo)
- racemus (raisin, -)
- spongia (éponge, spongia)
- tunica (tunique, tunica)
- turris (tour, torre)
 
- amygdala/amandula (amande, mandorla), from Greek amygdalos but not found in other IE languages
Agreed, this definitely is from a Pre-Greek ("Pelasgian") substrate
- autumnus (automne, autunno), of unknown origin, possibly from Etruscan.
Also agreed, but it would be useful to note that it was originally only a divinity name, and the Romans borrowed many other deities from the Etruscans' pantheon.
- bestia (bête, bestia)
Possibly related to Latin belua (beast) and fera (wild animal), which come from PIE *ghueros (see Greek ther (wild animal), Tocharian B serwe (hunter), Lithuanian zveris (wild beast), etc.)
- coda (queue, coda), unrelated to the PIE *puk(eha) or *wolos
Coda is a variant of cauda, which may be related to caudex (tree trunk), which possibly comes from cudere(to strike, to knock), in the sense of striking the tree. Cudere in turn comes from PIE *kehau (see Proto-Germanic *hawwanan (to chop, to forge), Lithuanian kauja (strike, forge), Tocharian B kau- (kill, strike, destroy), etc.)
- elementem (element, elemento)
Elementum may come from alo (I nourish), which comes from PIE *haele (grow, see PG *alanan (to grow), Olr Irish ailid (nourishes), etc.)
- cylindrus (cylindre, cilindro) only related to Greek kylindros
Kylindros may come from Greek kylindo (roll), which could come from kyklos (circle, wheel), which comes from PIE *kwekwlom (wheel, see PG *hwehwlan (wheel), Avestan caxra- (wheel), Tocharian B kokale (wagon), etc.)
- famulus : Latin word for servant from which "family" is derived. Unrelated to the PIE roots *genhes or *wik
Comes from Oscan famel (dweller of the house, i.e. slave), from PIE *domos (house(hold), see Latin domus (house), Lithuanian namas, Old Church Slavonic domu, etc.)
- farcire (farcire, farcire)
Probably from PIE *bhrakie (squeeze together, make firm, see Middle Irish barc (storm, fury), Latin fartus (thick), Tocharian B *prakre (firm), etc.)
- finis (fin, fine), unrelated to the PIE root *termn-
Related to Old Latin fivo (i fix, fasten), which comes from PIE *dheigw (fix, set up, see PG *dikaz (dam), Lithuanian diegiu (rpick, plant, sow),Latvian diegt, etc.)
- honorem (honeur, onore), not found in other IE languages
From honor, a rhotacized variant of honos (honour), from onus (burden), from PIE *honhes (burden, see Old Indic ana (goods wagon))
- largus (large, largo), unrelated to the PIE *megha or *mehro

- male/malus (mal, male), not related to PIE *ghalh(x)ros nor *hedwol

- metallum (métal, metallo), from Greek metallon, but differs from PIE word *h(a)eyes

- miser (misère, misera), no similarity with other IE languages

- (s)mittere : Latin word meaning "to send" used as a root for many words (transmit, emit, permit, etc.). No IE cognate.

- nigrum (noir, nero), unrelated to the PIE *k(w)rsnos, *mel-n or *keir

- oceanus (ocean, oceano), from Greek oceanos, but no cognates in other IE
Perhaps from Greek okys (swift), which comes from PIE *hekus (fast, see Old Welsh di-auc (not-fast), Latin ocior (faster), Avestan asu-, etc)
- ochra (ocre, ocra), from Greek ochra, but no cognates in other IE

- phrasis (phrase, frase), from Greek phrasis (speech, way of speaking), but doesn't cognate with any IE word

- populus (peuple, popolo), no cognate in other IE languages. Possibly from Etruscan.

- purpura (pourpre, purpureo), from Greek porphyra which is of Semitic origin

- radius (rayon, raggio/radio)

- sanguis (sang, sangue), unrelated to the PIE *bhlo-to

- silens (silence, silenzio), doesn't appear to be IE

- sphæra (sphère, sfera) from Greek sphaira (globe, ball), of unknown origin.

- totus/totalis (total, totale), no IE cognate

- verdis (vert, verde), unrelated to the PIE *ker-, *kr-wos or *modheros, or to the PIE base *ghre- ("grow", from which the Germanic green derives)

- volare (voler, volare), unrelated to the PIE *dih- or *pet-


Greek words

- auto- : prefix meaning "self", doesn't cognate in other IE languages

- mythos : "speech, thought, story, myth," of unknown origin.

- elektron : Greek word for amber, no cognate in IE

- xanthos : Greek word for yellow, no cognate in IE

- The Greek for "thousand" (kilo or khilias) as well as the Latin one (mille) are unrelated to the PIE root *tuh(a)s-kmtyos found in all Germanic and Balto-Slavic languages.
Here are some annotations, I will expand them later.
 
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Here are more non-IE Latin words, which are said to come from Etruscan:

- arista (arête, arête)
- atrium
- balteus (borrowed into Germanic and gave English the word belt)
- cærimonia (cérémonie, ceremonia)
- fenestra (fenêtre, finestra)
- harena (arène, arena) : originally meaning "sandy place"
- mercatus (marché, mercato) : from merx (wares, merchandise)
- militaris (militaire, militario) : from miles (soldier)
- palatum (palais, palato)
- servire (servir, servire) : from servus (serf, slave)
- vernaculus (vernaculaire, vernacolo) from verna "home-born slave, native".
- vulcanus (volcan, volcano)



ceremonia

well indeed that is strange word
comparing to Greek we find Cerres and monia
compare ηγε-μονια εμ-μονη (εμ-μονια)
Not sure but it may means Cerres the godess The Greek Demeter
something like the elefsinian mysteries, a sacred fair or process to honor godess Cerres
In North greece we also found a godess Sirris and also somewhere in Mesopotamia
Cerres could be Etruscan Godess and in its Pelasgian form could be Sirris



Arena

well there is also an explanation dedicated to Ares (Mars)
comparing Greek πεδιον του Αρεως (Mars field)
if it was Arrena then in Greek means mans only αρρεν = man


Arista
Hmm lets see
in English we see good Better Best
in Greek kalos kalyteros Aristos or Kallistos
meaning aristos means best or something simmilar
compare with Greek aris (sarissa) must be drill so no connection then?
lets split the word to find themes, ar +istos
hmm Ar+esetai so after a split we find the them ar and word could be Ar+esti
comparing virb αρεσω αρεσκομαι and noun αρεστος (desirable)
so we also find root ir in desir
that root ar can be found as best or desirable or unique or Gold in most if not all IE languages
 
I would say, one of the best candidates for a Pre-Greek word is the Greek word "thalassa" (sea), which quite contrasts the word for "sea" found in most other European IE branches: Celtic (Welsh "môr"), Germanic (German "Meer"), Italic (Latin "mare") and Slavic (Russian "more").
 
I would say, one of the best candidates for a Pre-Greek word is the Greek word "thalassa" (sea), which quite contrasts the word for "sea" found in most other European IE branches: Celtic (Welsh "môr"), Germanic (German "Meer"), Italic (Latin "mare") and Slavic (Russian "more").

θαλασσα is not one word but 2 is Doric Form
In Ionic is θαλαττα

Comparing Homeric and Hesiodic the word is Als
Αλς Nom
Αλος possesive
Αλωι dative
Αλαττα acussative

Meaning the word theme and root is αλαττ and is Female η αλς (compare sea)

Now lets see the nEutral to αλς (compare salt)
to αλς Nom
του αλατος posse
τωι Αλατηι dative
το αλας accus

as you sea both have save form als and alat but different Gender
the θ (th) infront is added later at 4-5 th century BC
Xenophon return of 10 000 (καθοδος μυριων)

so Thalatta means salty

why Θ (τη) and not another latter sound ?

in ancient Greek the hills of sand at seashores are named Θινες Thines (Dunen DUnen Kapas) watch similarity
so compare other words like paralia akrogyalia (παραλια ακρογυαλια)
lets see παρ-αλια (near sea) ακρογυαλια (edge of sea)
same it goes θιν+αλαττα = sandy hills shore (compare Homeric παρα θιν' αλος)

σο Thalatta is a mix word from Dunes and sea meaning sandy Hills shore at original form which by time means sea

It is Clear IE as you see

while dunes and kapras have a difference at least in form

now about sand Greek word from far ancient is σαμιτης (samites) compare islands Samothrake Samos Sami etc
later loses s and becomes Αμμος (ammos)
so sand and ammos have same root althought it is not visual

although a same word ωκεανος Oceanus is not IE but Pelasgian
the word is connected with Latin Aqua Egyptian aswan Turkish su etc

Another word also exist but drop in small usage was Ποντος Pontus
compare pοdles Tumbel? prud? etc

other words that connect also with salt are
salami and allanto
salami means εις αλμη in Greek σαλαμουρα is extra salty water to pasterize (conserve) meat (salt water method)
allanto and αλλαντικο is meat or fish that is conserved by salt (dry salt, no water or boil method)
 
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Thanks for clarifying this, Yetos.

I think this makes a good point that we should not confuse neologisms with pre-IE words.
 
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I decided to write a bit on the most fundamental differences between Mycenean Greek and Classical (and Modern) Greek:

presence of the PIE sounds *kw and *gw, which became *p and *b in Classical Greek.
Myc. *gwous > "bous" (ox)
Myc. *(h)ikwo > "hippos" (horse)

- presence of the sound *w, which was largely lost in Classical Greek and existed only vestigially in some dialects.
Myc. *woinos > "oinos" (wine)

Mycenean Greek was written with a syllabary writing system called Linear B, which in itself is derived from the Linear A writing system that was used to write the (undeciphered) Minoan language. This writing system could only improperly represent the Greek language. There is an approximately 400 year period during which the Greeks were an illiterate people between the extinction of the Linear B script and the adoption of the alphabet by the Greeks from the Phoenicians.
 

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