Location of Eurasian mt-DNA lineages


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southern EUROPEAN
As all of us know, Humanity was born in (East) Africa between 300-100 KYBP. And I put 'East' in brackets because archeologists have discovered and ancient Homo Sapiens skull in Morocco dating more than 200,000 yrs ago.
So we shouldn't be surprised if we see internal migrations along the continent that have shaped the genomic landscape of the most genetically diverse region on Earth.

Anyway, around 50-70000 YBP a group of Human populations gets out from Africa and by themselves managed to colonize all the rest of the world that is not Sub Saharan Africa.

More interesting is that all those 6.7 Billion people alive today, very likely descends from just one man on one hand, and one woman on the other. Each of those migrated around those times.

All the mt-DNA lineages outside Africa can be divided into 2 Macro-haplogroups, M & N.

M peaks in India and Bangladesh. In India M subtypes are carried by 60-80% of people.
Even though it keeps a considerable presence of 70% in Japan and 60% in South Korea.
M becomes about half in China, the other being N Haplogroups. 60% in Northern China for M, and 60% in the South for N.
But in SouthEast Asia quickly diminishes to 40% in Vietnam and the Phillipines. And to 30% in the nearby island of Papua New Guinea.

In every place outside South-East Asia, M becomes negligible. In all the rest of Asia, the Middle East, Europe(both Eastern and Western), Australia Oceania and the Americas.

M is thought to have originated in India, due to its great diversity and old presence. Once you cross the natural barrier that the Himalayas and the Myanmar jungles constitute, you see M falling dramatically in presence.

If you stop and think, India is the first big, warm and wet region you encounter after getting out of Africa. So we could easily say that M is the first Macro-haplogroup to expand after migrating out of Africa.
It also expanded to the Far East, but there we already see half of all people carry subtypes of N(like A, B or F).

But I want to see if you notice a pattern. M exists in massive overpopulated Asian regions, while N seems to appeared scattering around them, and in all the other places.
M is massively concentrated in Asia, drawing a line that quickly diminishes in density when you get to SouthEast Asia.

One line that very well may represent the main route of human migration outside Africa. Remember that India was the first main stop in the peopling of the world after emigrating from Africa.

While we don't know the exact date when N came out to be, we at least know that 'the next stop', East Asia, already has half N.
Maybe N already existed when it was peopled, or maybe N came to China and Indochina after M got there.
We don't know, but what we know is that N seems to draw a second set of lines in the map the lead out from the main population centers into the whole rest of the world.

N seems to follow way more and larger routes into more different places. Places that today have less population(coincidence or not, I don't really know), but the difference in expansion between both Haplogroups is there.

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