Massive paper on Stone age Europe and Eurasia. New HG ancestry in Steppe herders

Clinical depression is very highly genetically heritable, i.e. about 50% according to Stanford in their website.
.Ed. Sorry, the site isn't letting me post the link to the paper. Just google Major Depressive Disorder-Stanford Medicine.


They're talking about "MAJOR" depressive disorder, not temporary depression following certain life events, for example, or seasonal affective disorder.

This is true for all mental health disorders, especially schizophrenia, which goes up above 80%, although more people fall prey to MDD than to the other types of mental illness.

MentalIllness2.jpg

Alcoholism is another disorder with a strong genetic basis and it affects a LOT of people in certain countries, as does drug abuse. Both of them are often co-dependent disorders which are linked with Major Depressive Disorder.

There are numerous papers on the subject if you're interested in the topic.

I had to explore a lot of these issues for my work, and ultimately it left me feeling that although dangerous people have to be removed from society for the greater good, their actual "responsibility", while not a factor in criminal trials in most cases, is a very nuanced issue.

I myself am prone to depression.
But cycling and tennis keep both my body and mind in good shape.
Winter can be a bit harder sometimes.
 
Yep, that's right and it's interesting that according to that graph Dzudzuana is 72% West Eurasian + 28% Basal Eurasian, that's very close to the admixture graph modelling for UP Caucasus (Kotias Klde). See here:


But it's not my observation, it´s the paper that is contrarian to your graph. The paper implies that European HGs need a contribution from UP Caucasus if I understand it correctly.

See here:



-----




I agree, if I recall corretly according to the Lazaridis paper a Dzudzuana-like population was all over the Near East, from Levant (Natufians) over Anatolia and Caucasus to Iran.

I know its speculative rn. But how would you say the 9700 Kotias Klde J2b this paper mentions relates to UP Caucasus?
 
I myself am prone to depression.
But cycling and tennis keep both my body and mind in good shape.
Winter can be a bit harder sometimes.

That's a very healthy way to keep depression in check, as exercise releases natural endorphins. Anti-depressive drugs are of questionable use, imo, as some people have the opposite reaction to them, with them increasing the depression. So much so that the medications often come with the warning to cease taking if suicidal thoughts appear.

My weakness is anxiety, inherited from my mother (my father didn't have an anxious bone in his body) although it's not generalized anxiety disorder; it's more a case of having a heightened anxiety reaction to very stressful situations (serious illness, even sometimes not so serious, or approaching death of a loved one, or myself for that matter, etc. being the most common one).

It can extend to things like being pretty anxious when my children learned to drive and would get home very late. I would worry they'd drink too much or do too much weed or fall asleep at the wheel. Even though I missed them terribly, I was so glad when they moved out. :) What I didn't see didn't trigger me.

Deep breathing and meditation are very helpful, and cognitive processes, like refusing to let your thoughts spiral into all the possible reasonable consequences of the situation. "Take everything one day at a time", is a cliché, but a helpful one.

Interestingly, I'm drawn to other people who have some anxiety or can be a bit depressed at times. I find phlegmatic types really boring after a while, and I'm ashamed to say that when I'm with people who are like that, always calm and cheery, I sometimes wonder if they're pretending, or are really stupid, or have no experience of the darker aspects of reality, or are on the autism spectrum or something. It's like positivity that is so extreme it's toxic. Mean, and undoubtedly wrong, I know, but I'm being honest.
 
CountryPrevalence
Cases2022 Population
Ukraine6.30%2,800,58743,192,122
Estonia5.90%75,6671,321,910
Australia5.90%1,318,59926,068,792
United States5.90%17,491,047334,805,269
Brazil5.80%11,548,577215,353,593
Portugal5.70%578,23410,140,570
Greece5.70%593,13610,316,637
Lithuania5.60%169,6852,661,708
Finland5.60%293,9215,554,960
Belarus5.60%510,7649,432,800
Cuba5.50%605,87911,305,652
Russia5.50%7,815,714145,805,947
Barbados5.40%14,586288,023
Moldova5.40%207,2474,013,171
New Zealand5.40%221,3384,898,203
Bahamas5.20%19,138400,516
Trinidad And Tobago5.20%67,6141,406,585
Bulgaria5.20%360,7246,844,597
Paraguay5.20%332,6287,305,843
Czech Republic5.20%525,48810,736,784
Spain5.20%2,408,70046,719,142
Germany5.20%2,116,72883,883,596
Antigua And Barbuda5.10%4,42499,509
Malta5.10%20,049444,033
Djibouti5.10%43,9091,016,097
Cyprus5.10%42,6621,223,387
Slovenia5.10%99,8642,078,034
Qatar5.10%105,6842,979,915
Bosnia And Herzegovina5.10%185,5573,249,317
Croatia5.10%205,5414,059,286
Slovakia5.10%268,5165,460,193
Austria5.10%415,9169,066,710
Hungary5.10%493,7839,606,259
United Arab Emirates5.10%444,01610,081,785
Poland5.10%1,878,98837,739,785
Italy5.10%3,049,98660,262,770
Luxembourg5.00%26,350642,371
Armenia5.00%142,7122,971,966
Uruguay5.00%158,0053,496,016
Georgia5.00%189,2413,968,738
Kuwait5.00%181,7564,380,326
Denmark5.00%267,2135,834,950
Serbia5.00%419,3028,653,016
Switzerland5.00%388,8708,773,637
Romania5.00%931,84219,031,335
Chile5.00%844,25319,250,195
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines4.90%5,144111,551
Saint Lucia4.90%8,892185,113
Cape Verde4.90%24,240567,678
Latvia4.90%102,7021,848,837
Sweden4.90%446,73410,218,971
Tunisia4.90%518,43212,046,656
Iran4.90%3,637,30886,022,837
Suriname4.80%24,914596,831
Montenegro4.80%28,627627,950
Bahrain4.80%62,5491,783,983
Lesotho4.80%98,9882,175,699
Albania4.80%131,0482,866,374
Jamaica4.80%134,0542,985,094
Ireland4.80%212,5555,020,199
Belgium4.80%502,07511,668,278
Peru4.80%1,443,51333,684,208
France4.80%2,949,57265,584,518
Grenada4.70%4,848113,475
Botswana4.70%102,0652,441,162
Costa Rica4.70%216,6085,182,354
Oman4.70%199,9615,323,993
Norway4.70%227,4465,511,370
Lebanon4.70%255,2806,684,849
Dominican Republic4.70%464,16411,056,370
Netherlands4.70%752,77717,211,447
Canada4.70%1,566,90338,388,419
Argentina4.70%1,914,35446,010,234
Colombia4.70%2,177,28051,512,762
Ethiopia4.70%4,480,113120,812,698
Singapore4.60%162,2035,943,546
Israel4.60%342,1818,922,892
Azerbaijan4.60%428,87310,300,205
Uganda4.60%1,747,76948,432,863
South Africa4.60%2,402,23060,756,135
Guyana4.50%33,700794,045
Libya4.50%265,8337,040,745
Saudi Arabia4.50%1,339,97635,844,909
Morocco4.50%1,484,44137,772,756
Algeria4.50%1,683,91445,350,148
United Kingdom4.50%2,692,08168,497,907
India4.50%56,675,9691,406,631,776
Belize4.40%14,956412,190
Comoros4.40%33,769907,419
Mauritius4.40%52,5701,274,727
Namibia4.40%104,0012,633,874
Panama4.40%162,2934,446,964
El Salvador4.40%255,0326,550,389
South Sudan4.40%529,01111,618,511
Bolivia4.40%453,71611,992,656
Kazakhstan4.40%732,69919,205,043
Madagascar4.40%1,041,00029,178,077
Kenya4.40%1,952,98156,215,221
Thailand4.40%2,885,22170,078,203
Turkey4.40%3,260,67785,561,976
Gabon4.30%7,3032,331,533
Eritrea4.30%219,5493,662,244
Haiti4.30%437,63911,680,283
Bhutan4.20%30,947787,941
Eswatini4.20%53,2231,184,817
Equatorial Guinea4.20%34,9091,496,662
Mongolia4.20%117,4363,378,078
Central African Republic4.20%202,0815,016,678
Turkmenistan4.20%214,0106,201,943
Nicaragua4.20%238,1616,779,100
Burundi4.20%448,82212,624,840
Venezuela4.20%1,270,09929,266,991
Ghana4.20%110,04832,395,450
Uzbekistan4.20%1,186,45034,382,084
Japan4.20%5,058,124125,584,838
Mexico4.20%4,936,614131,562,772
Pakistan4.20%7,436,224229,488,994
China4.20%54,815,7391,448,471,400
Iceland4.10%12,533345,393
Mauritania4.10%160,6244,901,981
Kyrgyzstan4.10%229,6376,728,271
Malawi4.10%679,38520,180,839
Sri Lanka4.10%802,32121,575,842
Mozambique4.10%1,122,98733,089,461
South Korea4.10%1,904,64551,329,899
Tanzania4.10%2,138,93963,298,550
Bangladesh4.10%6,391,760167,885,689
Seychelles4.00%3,72299,426
Guinea Bissau4.00%71,4672,063,367
Honduras4.00%308,86210,221,247
Jordan4.00%287,84410,300,869
Zimbabwe4.00%603,52915,331,428
Somalia4.00%420,38716,841,795
Zambia4.00%636,81919,470,234
Vietnam4.00%3,564,93498,953,541
Sao Tome And Principe3.90%7,270227,679
Gambia3.90%74,8212,558,482
Sierra Leone3.90%243,8958,306,436
Togo3.90%277,5328,680,837
Benin3.90%411,69512,784,726
Guinea3.90%474,54113,865,691
Senegal3.90%560,99117,653,671
Syria3.90%688,07419,364,809
Cameroon3.90%886,27327,911,548
Nigeria3.90%7,079,815216,746,934
Tajikistan3.80%304,0189,957,464
Rwanda3.80%425,51613,600,464
Ivory Coast3.80%843,73627,742,298
Malaysia3.80%1,127,64333,181,072
DR Congo3.80%2,871,30995,240,792
Maldives3.70%12,739540,985
Guatemala3.70%580,99418,584,039
North Korea3.70%874,63225,990,679
Iraq3.70%1,263,24942,164,965
Myanmar3.70%1,917,98355,227,143
Indonesia3.70%9,162,886279,134,505
Mali3.60%605,96921,473,764
Burkina Faso3.60%640,50222,102,838
Yemen3.60%915,23131,154,867
Angola3.60%892,12835,027,343
Sudan3.60%1,376,30545,992,020
Fiji3.50%30,568909,466
Liberia3.50%155,4065,305,117
Chad3.50%478,22817,413,580
Egypt3.50%2,995,824106,156,692
Cambodia3.40%508,82317,168,639
Niger3.40%653,34826,083,660
Afghanistan3.30%1,038,61040,754,388
Philippines3.30%3,298,652112,508,994
Tonga3.20%3,205107,749
Samoa3.20%5,803202,239
Laos3.20%209,3267,481,023
Nepal3.20%890,36130,225,582
Micronesia3.10%3,182117,489
Kiribati3.10%3,452123,419
Vanuatu3.10%7,917321,832
Timor Leste3.00%33,9321,369,429
Papua New Guinea3.00%223,0949,292,169
Solomon Islands2.90%16,535721,159
https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/depression-rates-by-country
"No-winter nations" seem to do much better.
 
Am I the only one that struggles the most during spring? lol... Winters do be cozy af, but spring gets me mood swingy af.
 
Maybe your home is a true comfort zone and mingling outside makes you feel uneasy?
Not sure, but doubt it, since I tend to go out winter or summer. I suspect it has something to do with hormones during spring making the highs higher and lows lower, while during winter it feels more streamlined for me.
 
Interestingly, I'm drawn to other people who have some anxiety or can be a bit depressed at times. I find phlegmatic types really boring after a while, and I'm ashamed to say that when I'm with people who are like that, always calm and cheery, I sometimes wonder if they're pretending, or are really stupid, or have no experience of the darker aspects of reality, or are on the autism spectrum or something. It's like positivity that is so extreme it's toxic. Mean, and undoubtedly wrong, I know, but I'm being honest.

I'm rather optimist in front of recent punctual events spite I 'm not so concerning Humanity's ability to manage his future on the long term.
Concerning future, I prefer prudence and acts to anxiety.
 
I'm rather optimist in front of recent punctual events spite I 'm not so concerning Humanity's ability to manage his future on the long term.
Concerning future, I prefer prudence and acts to anxiety.

Well, if a loved one gets a diagnosis of a terminal cancer, which I've seen too much of in my life, there's nothing much I can do about it.

Likewise, if I get a diagnosis of a chronic illness which may not kill me, but will to a certain extent incapacitate me, which modern medicine doesn't really understand and where the treatments do not eradicate most of the symptoms, all while having to raise young children, it's a bit much to expect one to be cheerily optimistic.

Perhaps there are such people, but I'm not one of them.

A lot of times, it seems to me, people are optimistic because in their lives the things they're worrying about have not in general happened.

To some extent, optimism vs pessimism can become a learned behavior, although there is definitely a genetic component.

The same applies to one's view of human nature. I often want to say to people, walk around with a criminal prosecutor during his/her working hours for a year, and then tell me about the nobility of human nature, and how laws are too stringent..
 
CountryPrevalenceCases2022 Population
Ukraine6.30%2,800,58743,192,122
Estonia5.90%75,6671,321,910
Australia5.90%1,318,59926,068,792
United States5.90%17,491,047334,805,269
Brazil5.80%11,548,577215,353,593
Portugal5.70%578,23410,140,570
Greece5.70%593,13610,316,637
Lithuania5.60%169,6852,661,708
Finland5.60%293,9215,554,960
Belarus5.60%510,7649,432,800
Cuba5.50%605,87911,305,652
Russia5.50%7,815,714145,805,947
Barbados5.40%14,586288,023
Moldova5.40%207,2474,013,171
New Zealand5.40%221,3384,898,203
Bahamas5.20%19,138400,516
Trinidad And Tobago5.20%67,6141,406,585
Bulgaria5.20%360,7246,844,597
Paraguay5.20%332,6287,305,843
Czech Republic5.20%525,48810,736,784
Spain5.20%2,408,70046,719,142
Germany5.20%2,116,72883,883,596
Antigua And Barbuda5.10%4,42499,509
Malta5.10%20,049444,033
Djibouti5.10%43,9091,016,097
Cyprus5.10%42,6621,223,387
Slovenia5.10%99,8642,078,034
Qatar5.10%105,6842,979,915
Bosnia And Herzegovina5.10%185,5573,249,317
Croatia5.10%205,5414,059,286
Slovakia5.10%268,5165,460,193
Austria5.10%415,9169,066,710
Hungary5.10%493,7839,606,259
United Arab Emirates5.10%444,01610,081,785
Poland5.10%1,878,98837,739,785
Italy5.10%3,049,98660,262,770
Luxembourg5.00%26,350642,371
Armenia5.00%142,7122,971,966
Uruguay5.00%158,0053,496,016
Georgia5.00%189,2413,968,738
Kuwait5.00%181,7564,380,326
Denmark5.00%267,2135,834,950
Serbia5.00%419,3028,653,016
Switzerland5.00%388,8708,773,637
Romania5.00%931,84219,031,335
Chile5.00%844,25319,250,195
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines4.90%5,144111,551
Saint Lucia4.90%8,892185,113
Cape Verde4.90%24,240567,678
Latvia4.90%102,7021,848,837
Sweden4.90%446,73410,218,971
Tunisia4.90%518,43212,046,656
Iran4.90%3,637,30886,022,837
Suriname4.80%24,914596,831
Montenegro4.80%28,627627,950
Bahrain4.80%62,5491,783,983
Lesotho4.80%98,9882,175,699
Albania4.80%131,0482,866,374
Jamaica4.80%134,0542,985,094
Ireland4.80%212,5555,020,199
Belgium4.80%502,07511,668,278
Peru4.80%1,443,51333,684,208
France4.80%2,949,57265,584,518
Grenada4.70%4,848113,475
Botswana4.70%102,0652,441,162
Costa Rica4.70%216,6085,182,354
Oman4.70%199,9615,323,993
Norway4.70%227,4465,511,370
Lebanon4.70%255,2806,684,849
Dominican Republic4.70%464,16411,056,370
Netherlands4.70%752,77717,211,447
Canada4.70%1,566,90338,388,419
Argentina4.70%1,914,35446,010,234
Colombia4.70%2,177,28051,512,762
Ethiopia4.70%4,480,113120,812,698
Singapore4.60%162,2035,943,546
Israel4.60%342,1818,922,892
Azerbaijan4.60%428,87310,300,205
Uganda4.60%1,747,76948,432,863
South Africa4.60%2,402,23060,756,135
Guyana4.50%33,700794,045
Libya4.50%265,8337,040,745
Saudi Arabia4.50%1,339,97635,844,909
Morocco4.50%1,484,44137,772,756
Algeria4.50%1,683,91445,350,148
United Kingdom4.50%2,692,08168,497,907
India4.50%56,675,9691,406,631,776
Belize4.40%14,956412,190
Comoros4.40%33,769907,419
Mauritius4.40%52,5701,274,727
Namibia4.40%104,0012,633,874
Panama4.40%162,2934,446,964
El Salvador4.40%255,0326,550,389
South Sudan4.40%529,01111,618,511
Bolivia4.40%453,71611,992,656
Kazakhstan4.40%732,69919,205,043
Madagascar4.40%1,041,00029,178,077
Kenya4.40%1,952,98156,215,221
Thailand4.40%2,885,22170,078,203
Turkey4.40%3,260,67785,561,976
Gabon4.30%7,3032,331,533
Eritrea4.30%219,5493,662,244
Haiti4.30%437,63911,680,283
Bhutan4.20%30,947787,941
Eswatini4.20%53,2231,184,817
Equatorial Guinea4.20%34,9091,496,662
Mongolia4.20%117,4363,378,078
Central African Republic4.20%202,0815,016,678
Turkmenistan4.20%214,0106,201,943
Nicaragua4.20%238,1616,779,100
Burundi4.20%448,82212,624,840
Venezuela4.20%1,270,09929,266,991
Ghana4.20%110,04832,395,450
Uzbekistan4.20%1,186,45034,382,084
Japan4.20%5,058,124125,584,838
Mexico4.20%4,936,614131,562,772
Pakistan4.20%7,436,224229,488,994
China4.20%54,815,7391,448,471,400
Iceland4.10%12,533345,393
Mauritania4.10%160,6244,901,981
Kyrgyzstan4.10%229,6376,728,271
Malawi4.10%679,38520,180,839
Sri Lanka4.10%802,32121,575,842
Mozambique4.10%1,122,98733,089,461
South Korea4.10%1,904,64551,329,899
Tanzania4.10%2,138,93963,298,550
Bangladesh4.10%6,391,760167,885,689
Seychelles4.00%3,72299,426
Guinea Bissau4.00%71,4672,063,367
Honduras4.00%308,86210,221,247
Jordan4.00%287,84410,300,869
Zimbabwe4.00%603,52915,331,428
Somalia4.00%420,38716,841,795
Zambia4.00%636,81919,470,234
Vietnam4.00%3,564,93498,953,541
Sao Tome And Principe3.90%7,270227,679
Gambia3.90%74,8212,558,482
Sierra Leone3.90%243,8958,306,436
Togo3.90%277,5328,680,837
Benin3.90%411,69512,784,726
Guinea3.90%474,54113,865,691
Senegal3.90%560,99117,653,671
Syria3.90%688,07419,364,809
Cameroon3.90%886,27327,911,548
Nigeria3.90%7,079,815216,746,934
Tajikistan3.80%304,0189,957,464
Rwanda3.80%425,51613,600,464
Ivory Coast3.80%843,73627,742,298
Malaysia3.80%1,127,64333,181,072
DR Congo3.80%2,871,30995,240,792
Maldives3.70%12,739540,985
Guatemala3.70%580,99418,584,039
North Korea3.70%874,63225,990,679
Iraq3.70%1,263,24942,164,965
Myanmar3.70%1,917,98355,227,143
Indonesia3.70%9,162,886279,134,505
Mali3.60%605,96921,473,764
Burkina Faso3.60%640,50222,102,838
Yemen3.60%915,23131,154,867
Angola3.60%892,12835,027,343
Sudan3.60%1,376,30545,992,020
Fiji3.50%30,568909,466
Liberia3.50%155,4065,305,117
Chad3.50%478,22817,413,580
Egypt3.50%2,995,824106,156,692
Cambodia3.40%508,82317,168,639
Niger3.40%653,34826,083,660
Afghanistan3.30%1,038,61040,754,388
Philippines3.30%3,298,652112,508,994
Tonga3.20%3,205107,749
Samoa3.20%5,803202,239
Laos3.20%209,3267,481,023
Nepal3.20%890,36130,225,582
Micronesia3.10%3,182117,489
Kiribati3.10%3,452123,419
Vanuatu3.10%7,917321,832
Timor Leste3.00%33,9321,369,429
Papua New Guinea3.00%223,0949,292,169
Solomon Islands2.90%16,535721,159
https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/depression-rates-by-country
"No-winter nations" seem to do much better.

I'm not so sure of that? It looks like a mixed bag to me.

"Top 10 Countries with the Highest Rates of Depression:


  1. Ukraine - 6.3%
  2. United States - 5.9% (tie)
  3. Estonia - 5.9% (tie)
  4. Australia - 5.9% (tie)
  5. Brazil - 5.8%
  6. Greece - 5.7% (tie)
  7. Portugal - 5.7% (tie)
  8. Belarus - 5.6% (tie)
  9. Finland - 5.6% (tie)
  10. Lithuania - 5.6% (ti

That said, there's no distinction between situational depression and non-situational depression in these figures. If you live in some poverty and disease stricken areas of war torn Africa you'd have to be comatose not to be depressed at your situation. MDD often occurs for no articulable reason at all.

I once got a hint of what it must be like. After my mother's funeral, I went to bed and just lay there crying for a few days. My husband became concerned and got my doctor to prescribe me an anti-depressant which years later was banned for inducing depression in people. Within 24 hours it was as if a black cloud had descended on me. I wasn't crying, I just had absolutely no desire to get out of that bed again. Each day it got worse. I threw the tablets away, and in a week, although still grieving, I was able to pick up the pieces of my life again. Horrifically, some people's own brains do that to them. William Styron, the author, who suffered from it as did his father, who committed suicide, has written a wonderful book about how it feels to descend into that black hole. Sometimes, before being judgmental you have to try to walk a while in someone else's shoes.
 
That's a very healthy way to keep depression in check, as exercise releases natural endorphins. Anti-depressive drugs are of questionable use, imo, as some people have the opposite reaction to them, with them increasing the depression. So much so that the medications often come with the warning to cease taking if suicidal thoughts appear.

My weakness is anxiety, inherited from my mother (my father didn't have an anxious bone in his body) although it's not generalized anxiety disorder; it's more a case of having a heightened anxiety reaction to very stressful situations (serious illness, even sometimes not so serious, or approaching death of a loved one, or myself for that matter, etc. being the most common one).

It can extend to things like being pretty anxious when my children learned to drive and would get home very late. I would worry they'd drink too much or do too much weed or fall asleep at the wheel. Even though I missed them terribly, I was so glad when they moved out. :) What I didn't see didn't trigger me.

Deep breathing and meditation are very helpful, and cognitive processes, like refusing to let your thoughts spiral into all the possible reasonable consequences of the situation. "Take everything one day at a time", is a cliché, but a helpful one.

Interestingly, I'm drawn to other people who have some anxiety or can be a bit depressed at times. I find phlegmatic types really boring after a while, and I'm ashamed to say that when I'm with people who are like that, always calm and cheery, I sometimes wonder if they're pretending, or are really stupid, or have no experience of the darker aspects of reality, or are on the autism spectrum or something. It's like positivity that is so extreme it's toxic. Mean, and undoubtedly wrong, I know, but I'm being honest.

Angela you're just a typical Italian or Greek overprotective mother. Nothing more nothing less.
 
Based on my interest if some racist ideas are true, I did a search for strongly with mental disorders associated variants in living populations some years ago. I did not find any variant that was very common in any living population based on the average population data about the SNPs on NCBI.

It is true, that the alleles for some heritable mental disorders are more present in some populations, but not the really striking variants. They are rare everywhere.

But some populations have some kind of allele more often.

For example Africans have the most alleles associated with poor education attainment, the same goes for Neanderthals. Allele sharing of Neanderthals and Africans is a general trend that is extended to ancestry components, physical traits and many other things.
I personally do not understand, why Neanderthals and Denisovans are associated with “Out of Africa” populations, they appear totally Archaic African in so many ways.

Ashkenazi Jews are associated with Schizophrenia, a fact which was often used by Antisemites: https://www.haaretz.com/.premium-ashkenazi-gene-increases-schizophrenia-1.5294333

I did once an ancient PCA based on 244 SNPs that are associated with physical, metabolic, immunologic and mental traits like Introversion, Anxiety Disorder, Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathy, Depression, Creativity, Autism, Intelligence and various addictions.
Direct use of alleles converted to numbers, no conversion to population components, a very pure PCA, but with 7.16% imputed alleles. I imputed them by hand based on the average values of all other populations for the SNP. One could say I used “ancient global values” so this smooths them a little too strong. I have also a program for imputation, but this program is an extremist in my opinion, I don’t like to use it and it cannot impute all alleles I need.


The PCA:





As you can see, I didn't want to believe it, but physical, metabolic and mental traits go hand in hand and there seems to be a significant association between mental traits and heritage/population.
But there is a large spectrum of variation between European, Middle Eastern, Caucaisan and South Asian populations, while East Asians, Africans and mesolithic European HGs are more separated.
 
These are indeed really strange charts.
Also why is Uk divided in small areas and france and italy are taken as one? They have far more internal diversity than UK.
And egypt and italy the same steppe admixture? ridiculous. The farmer in north africa is suspiciously high too.
How can geneticist and academics produce such results? unbelievable


Probably because for France and Italy they used some kind of average, I don't know, while not for UK. I guess the main focus of this paper is not so much regional divisions within a country, and that's understandable, UK might be the exception perhaps because the paper was funded or co-funded with UK money. I don't know. But these are the least of the problems, I think. Whereas this chart has very implausible results. Maybe it's me who has problems with my vision, there is more WHG in China than in south-eastern Europe and Italy, EHG has its peaks in Finland and Mongolia, CHG has its peak between Pakistan and India, Yamnaya is widespread in non-European countries where it has never been found, Farmer ancestry seems too high in North Africa... I really don't know if it's a problem of metodology, of errors, of sloppiness of whoever graphically made the chart, but the fact that geneticists may produce results with little credibility is nothing new.

edfGHpI.png
 
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I know its speculative rn. But how would you say the 9700 Kotias Klde J2b this paper mentions relates to UP Caucasus?

Really hard to tell, we only know that CHG(Kotias Klde)=Dzudzuana +ANE. Also the new samples doesn't provide us new Y-DNA for UP Caucasus because she is a female with mtDNA U4`9, which is a very rare clade. UP Caucasus could have many Y-Haplogroups but most likely seems G because of it's closeness to Anatolian farmers.
 
You may want to check your "sources" again.

My sources are NCBI, Neanderthal and modern African DNA files.

rs11743006 A = Lower mathematical ability
rs12640626 G = Bad education attainment, lower household income
rs8049439 C = Lower intelligence
rs2966 C = Bad education attainment
rs11588857 G = Bad education attainment, lower math ability, lower household income
rs438895 G = Bad education attainment
rs4950 G = Bad leadership ability

AfroAmerican
rs11743006CC
rs12640626GG
rs8049439CT
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895AG
rs4950GG

African(Includes North Africa)
rs11743006CC
rs12640626GG
rs8049439CT
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895AG
rs4950GG

MbutiPygmy
rs11743006CC
rs12640626GG
rs8049439CC
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895GG
rs4950GG

San
rs11743006CC
rs12640626AG
rs8049439CC
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895AG
rs4950GG

ShumLaka
rs11743006CC
rs12640626AG
rs8049439TT
rs2966CT
rs11588857GG
rs438895AG
rs4950GG

Neanderthal
rs11743006CC
rs12640626GG
rs8049439CC
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895GG
rs4950GG

Denisova
rs11743006CC
rs12640626GG
rs8049439CC
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895GG
rs4950AA

Gorilla
rs11743006CC
rs12640626GG
rs8049439CC
rs2966CC
rs11588857GG
rs438895GG
rs4950GG

AverageEuropean
rs11743006CC
rs12640626AG
rs8049439TC
rs2966CT
rs11588857GG
rs438895AA
rs4950AA

AshkzenaziJews
rs11743006CC
rs12640626AG
rs8049439TT
rs2966CT
rs11588857GG
rs438895AA
rs4950AA

EastAsians
rs11743006CC
rs12640626AA
rs8049439TT
rs2966TT
rs11588857AG
rs438895AA
rs4950AA

I think the data speaks for itself.

So I don’t understand why people think Neanderthals where in any way superior. They had a different brain shape, but this was due to a more primitive brain development, and not because they where more intelligent:

https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(18)31470-2

The SNPs that are associated with Neanderthal head shape, are very rare today and are most present in Indigenous African and Siberian populations, according to NCBI data:

rs28445963 C

Old data from 1000 genomes:

In Europeans: 0.004
In Africans: 0.0
In East Asians: 0.1

But:

Indigenous Africans: 0.5

"African evolutionary history inferred from whole genome sequence data of 44 indigenous African populations.", Genome Biol, 2019 Apr 26;20(1):82

Siberians 0.5

Registration date: 19-Nov-2014
University of Southern California

rs72931809 T

Indigenous Africans according to the study: 0.62 (More than half)

It seems that the alleles where rarely tested, because they are not included in the most DNA Chips that are commonly used. The newer studies are based on Whole Genome Sequencing, 1000 genomes was not.
The most indigenous Sub Saharan Africans could carry one of the neanderthal alleles, if most people are heterozygote.
 
So the steppe clans wiped out all Iberian men and the dark phenotype that exists today is passed down from the WHG traits retained by Neo women.

However, I would guess that the Scandinavia replacement was due to climate changes. That area is prone so cold snaps. The filling populations would have been from the Steppe who mixed with local Neolithic elsewhere, maybe Germany

Or, were there multiple Scandinavia depops since that time? The great migration period coinciding with the fall of the Roman empire was accompanied by a devastating cold period in Scandinavia.
 
PCA based on 10 skin color related SNPs:

https://i.ibb.co/Zc86yTj/Skin-Color-PCA.png

But there is a limitation: This PCA excludes SNPs that are linked to hair and eye color, some of them also have an influence on skin color.

Clustering as a tree:

https://i.ibb.co/QmTjtJG/Skin-Color-PCATree.png

Because there are different SNPs for light skin color, not everybody who had light skin color is near each other. For example east Asians have other alleles and PAST(The program) takes that into account and don’t place them near the Europeans.

Skin color can be used to differentiate between Africans, Asians and other groups, but it is generally a bad indicator for European ancestry in the last 10.000 years. It is not possible to address modern European peoples skin color to specific ancient populations, because they were too diverse.

For example my Wife and I will not be in the same cluster according to the program, because we have different skin color alleles, both light skin, but not the same tone. She has for example one SNP heterozygote for an African related skin color allele, so she is placed in a much lower branch of the tree.
 
PCA based on 10 skin color related SNPs:

https://i.ibb.co/Zc86yTj/Skin-Color-PCA.png

But there is a limitation: This PCA excludes SNPs that are linked to hair and eye color, some of them also have an influence on skin color.

Clustering as a tree:

https://i.ibb.co/QmTjtJG/Skin-Color-PCATree.png

Because there are different SNPs for light skin color, not everybody who had light skin color is near each other. For example east Asians have other alleles and PAST(The program) takes that into account and don’t place them near the Europeans.

Skin color can be used to differentiate between Africans, Asians and other groups, but it is generally a bad indicator for European ancestry in the last 10.000 years. It is not possible to address modern European peoples skin color to specific ancient populations, because they were too diverse.

For example my Wife and I will not be in the same cluster according to the program, because we have different skin color alleles, both light skin, but not the same tone. She has for example one SNP heterozygote for an African related skin color allele, so she is placed in a much lower branch of the tree.

Interesting, when you combine the snps for cultural achievement and evolution of skin tone. Your wife is closer to Yamnaya snps than yourself(Cucuteni–Trypillia culture/Globular Amphora culture/Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur)

.
When comparing--Cucuteni–Trypillia culture/Globular Amphora culture/Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur with Yamnaya skills in mobility-metallurgy/carpentry/animal husbandry/ Elshanka type pottery(long distance steppe wagons/iron burials/proto Dom2 horses) achievement with dense settlements.
 
Local Neolithic farmers admixed with incoming pastoralists in eastern, western, and southern Europe whereas Scandinavia experienced another near-complete population replacement. Similar dramatic turnover-patterns are evident in western Siberia

I wonder how they still have Neolithic Farmer ancestry then.
They should only have Yamnaya component.
 

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