It seems that the frequencies of mtDNA K varies throughout North Italy; depending on specific regions;

Lombardy (177 samples) = 11.2% mtDNA K -- Achilli et al 2007
Piedmont (169 samples) = 7.1% mtDNA K -- Achilli et al 2007
Veneto (68 samples) = 4.4% mtDNA K -- Mogentale-Profizi et al 2001
NE Italy (108 samples) = 8.3% mtDNA K -- Boattini et al 2013


Thanks for pointing that out. I forgot to check the full data from Achilli et al. 2007 as only Tuscany was in the PDF file. I have updated the K map and will update the others too.
 
I have revised all the mtDNA frequencies and added 20 new populations. This now permits me to create mtDNA maps.

Ideally I would need more detailed regional data for central and southern Spain, all Germany, Ukraine and European Russia (except the Caucasus, which is well covered). I have got especially conflicting data for Russia, where frequencies for haplogroup K vary from 0% near Karelia to nearly 8% in nearby Vladimir and Yaroslav (around Moscow) but an average of just 3.7% for the 1768 samples collected.

mtDNA-K-map.png


The frequency of haplogroup K seems to correlate with that of haplogroup R1b in Europe (although not in the Near East and North Africa). It has been proven by ancient DNA that hg K arrived in Europe during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic, and was apparently more prevalent back then than today. So why the correlation with R1b, which only came during the Bronze Age ? I believe that this is because R1b people originated in the Near East, then picked up maternal K lineages in the Caucasus (Georgia has the highest frequency of any country), then again in Southeast Europe before migrating to Western Europe. Nowadays the highest frequencies of mtDNA K in Europe are all found in regions with high R1b levels, such as Ireland, the Western Isles of Scotland, western Wales, the Benelux, Denmark, western France, Catalonia and northern Italy (especially northern Tuscany where R1b is particularly high). The Basques are an exception, but that was completely expected (my theory being that the Basques did not adopt an IE language because their retained essentially pre-IE maternal lineages).

All Neolithic lineages, both maternal and paternal, have declined in frequency with the arrival of the Indo-Europeans. I do not doubt that many K subclades in Europe originated with the Neolithic farmers, but they probably make up less than half of the number of modern lineages.

An analysis of the frequencies of K subclades would allow us to determine which subclades correlate most with a dispersal from the Caucasus/Balkans by R1b Indo-Europeans. At first sight I would say that K1a4 could be one of them, because it is found in Northeast Anatolia, Georgia southern Ukraine, Hungary, Czechia and all Western Europe. It is also the most common subclade in Northwest Europe.

Neolithic lineages would probably have a greater diversity (more subclades) because they expanded earlier. However the trimming of the Neolithic/Chalcolithic population would have slowed down their diversification from the Bronze Age. In contrast, Indo-European lineages would have thrived from the Bronze Age onwards, resulting in a sudden expansion of deep subclades. This is exactly what we observe with K1a4. The subclades that remained behind in Anatolia and the Caucasus have become K1a4f. In Ukraine, the Balkans and Germany we see the appearance of K1a4a. K1a4a1 seems to have developed in Germany, probably around the same time as the branching of R1b-L11 into P312 and U106. Then, in Western Europe we witness an explosion of subclades: K1a4a1a1, K1a4a1a2, K1a4a1a3, K1a4a1b, K1a4a1c, K1a4a1c, K1a4a1d, K1a4a1e, K1a4a1f, K1a4a1g... and more subclades under those. All of them are found in Western Europe, particularly in regions with high percentages of R1b. I am not aware of any K1a4a found in Sardinia, for instance. K1a4b, K1a4c, K1a4d, and K1a4e are much more minor but most of them are found in Germany and Western Europe too. K1a4c is found in southern Italy, Greece and western/central Anatolia and could be linked to the earlier branching off of R1b-L23.

There are surely other subclades of K linked to the diffusion of R1b. Potential candidates include K1a3, K1c1 and K2a6.

Note that haplogroup K has also been found in all Asian populations where R1b is present, including the Volga-Ural, the Altai, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and most of Central Asia.


I was wondering whether you have yet been able to incorporate into the maps the mtDNA lineages from Brisighelli et al that I mentioned in the mtDNA V thread. See Brisighelli et al, Table S3. The classifications are all the way to the right.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794

These are the numbers that I had computed for the K1a lineages by region from that study:
Catania (E.Sicily) 15%
Trappani (W.Sicily) 5%

Tyrrhenian Calabria 6%

Lucera, Puglia, 2%
Lecce, Puglia (Messapi area) 5%
Lecce, Greek speaking isolate 9%

Benevento, Campania (interior Sanniti Italic area) 6%

Latina, Lazio-Central Italy no K1a

Marche-E.Central Italy (Piceni area) 4%

Liguri-6%

Udine-Friuli one K2a

Val Badia-Trentino Alto Adige-Linguistic Isolate 7%
 
I was wondering whether you have yet been able to incorporate into the maps the mtDNA lineages from Brisighelli et al that I mentioned in the mtDNA V thread. See Brisighelli et al, Table S3. The classifications are all the way to the right.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794

These are the numbers that I had computed for the K1a lineages by region from that study:
Catania (E.Sicily) 15%
Trappani (W.Sicily) 5%

Tyrrhenian Calabria 6%

Lucera, Puglia, 2%
Lecce, Puglia (Messapi area) 5%
Lecce, Greek speaking isolate 9%

Benevento, Campania (interior Sanniti Italic area) 6%

Latina, Lazio-Central Italy no K1a

Marche-E.Central Italy (Piceni area) 4%

Liguri-6%

Udine-Friuli one K2a

Val Badia-Trentino Alto Adige-Linguistic Isolate 7%

I have not incorporated this data yet. I have started working on the regional frequencies for Italy, but it will take a few days before I can finish it.
 
So it seems I am one of those 9 or 10% Catalans who belong to haplogroup K.

I think there were also earlier migrations into Europe during the Mesolithic as the climate conditions started to change. As for the rest, I'd say using haplogroup K as whole (many different subclades should be considered) to fit R1b distribution is not accurate at all. I agree some subclades do share an ancestral link with R1b, but the same surely happens with other Mt-DNA haplogroups. Modern distribution often gives a false picture, and if there's really a correlation that would contradict the idea that R1b invaders seemed to prefer native women instead of bringing their own ones. At least, that's the most popular postulate.
 
I have not incorporated this data yet. I have started working on the regional frequencies for Italy, but it will take a few days before I can finish it.

That's absolutely great. What a service you're performing here, Maciamo. Some of these studies, including Brisighelli, don't make it easy to compile the data...my eyes almost crossed doing just a few of them!

I know I'm not the only one who really appreciates what you're doing.
 
Once again great job Maciamo! I will repeat a comment I left on the main maps page. I was wondering which source you used for the Cypriot data. It does not seem to be Irwin et al (2008). The specific study has tested the largest number of Cypriot individuals to date (n=91), even though they report some 'unknowns'. The rCRS are presented in their supplementary files (raw data) though and I have used these data to predict the 'unknown' haplogroups using the Genographic Project's Haplogroup Prediction Tool (http://nnhgtool.nationalgeographic.com/classify/index.html). I would be more than happy to share these data with you in order to update your maps. By the way, the frequency of haplogroup K is exceptionally high in Cyprus based on that study (20.9%). This is also confirmed by the Cypriot DNA project where the frequency is 20.6% (total n=63 at the moment).
 
Thank you so much for this Maciamo. My mtDNA is K1a19 and I find this very informative.
 
In Europe there seems to be peaks in northern Italy, central France, Belgium, holland, a small portion of Catalonia and on Ireland; all this at about a 10-13% maximum. Then in the Middle East, Cyprus, Israel, northern Iraq, Georgia and parts of the Caucasus and probably as far as Afghanistan (15% K) as well.
 
Hi Maciamo,

Thank you for a fascinating read. It's nice seeing something solid on this haplogroup. I note that the Genographic Project shows K1a4a1 as sitting at 9% in Luxembourg, which is its highest percentage in Europe by far. Can you say a little about what this spike might signify (if anything)?

Thanks.
 
Also, looking at ancient DNA, it appears that K1a shows up in Europe quite a lot earlier than R1b's does. In 5000 BC or so, we already have K1a associated with LBK in northern Germany and with Epicardial in Spain. It continues to be found through a number of other cultures, as well.

Using Jean Manco's database at Ancestral Journeys, I've managed to isolate the Haplogroup K data, which I'm going to include below. Given the early spread of K1a, would you still argue for K1a4 coming into Europe with R1b? If so, why? I look forward to hearing your thoughts.

Neolithic

Syria
Pre-Pottery Neolithic (6800-6000 BC) 2 samples H/K + 2 samples K?
Pre-Pottery Neolithic (6000-5750 BC) 3 samples K

Czech Republic
LBK (5300 BC) 3 samples of K

Germany
LBK? (5000 BC?) 1 sample of K1a + 1 sample of K2a5
LBK (5000 BC?) 6 samples of K + 7 samples of K1a
Schöningen (4100-3950 BC) 3 samples of K + 6 samples k1a
Baalburge (3950-3400 BC) 2 examples of K1a
Salzmünde (3400-3025 BC) 1 sample K1; 1 sample K1a; 1 sample K1a4a1a2
Bernburg (3101-2919 BC) 2 samples K1a
Bernburg (3100-2650 BC) 1 sample K1

Spain
Cardial (5475-5305 BC) K
Cardial (5329-4999 BC) K
Epicardial (5000 BC) K1a
Unspecified (4250–3700 BC) K
Unspecified (4185- 3185 BC) 3 examples of K (possibly K1a)
Unspecified (4090-3960 BC ) I sample of K

France
Treilles (3000 BC) 2 examples K1a
Megalith (2750-2725 BC) 1 example K + 1 example of K1a


Chalcolithic

Italy
Unspecified [Ötzi] (3350-3100 BC) K1f

Germany
Forager/Funnel Beaker (3200 BC) 1 example K
Corded Ware (2260-2203 BC) 1 sample of K2a5
Corded Ware (2600 BC) 1 sample K1a24a
Corded Ware (2600 BC) 1 sample K1
Corded Ware (2600 BC) 2 samples (?) of K1
Corded Ware (2500-2400 BC) 1 sample of K
Bell Beaker (2600-2500 BC) 1 sample of K1
Bell Beaker (2500-2050 BC) 1 sample of K

Switzerland
Corded Ware (2500 BC) 1 sample of K

Spain
Unspecified (2790-2100 BC) 4 samples of K
Unspecified (2580-2450 BC) 6 samples of K
Unspecified (2130BC) 1 sample of H or K

Bronze Age

Syria
Amorite? (2650–2450 BC) 1 sample of K

Germany
Unetice (1653-1627 BC) 1 sample of K
Unetice (2200-1550 BC) 1 sample of K; 1 sample of K1a
Unetice (2133-2080 BC) 1 sample of K2

Greece
Minoan (4400–3700 BP) 6 samples of K
Mycenaean (1500 BC) 2 samples of K

Russia
Adronovo (1800–1400 BC) 1 sample of K2b

Spain
Unspecified (3180 BP) 1 sample of K

Xinjiang China
Possible Tocharian (1980+/-40 BC) K (Side note: Light Brown Hair)


Iron Age

Spain
Iberian (600 BC) 1 sample of K*

Germany
La Tène (400 BC) 2 samples of K; 1 sample of K1a

Denmark
Unspecified (200 BC) 2 samples of K

Mongolia
Scytho-Siberian Pazyryk culture (400-200 BC?) 3 samples of K


Medieval

Spain
Basque? (500-700 AD) 1 sample of K
Islamic Al-Andalus (1100-1300 AD) 1 sample of K

Denmark
Viking (1000 AD) 1 sample of K
Unspecified (1250-1450 AD) 1 sample of K

Germany
Slavic? (1200 AD) 2 samples of K

Poland
Unspecified (900-1400 AD) 1 sample K1; 1 sample of K2

England
Unspecified (1347-1351 AD) 1 sample of K1a1b1
 
Also, looking at ancient DNA, it appears that K1a shows up in Europe quite a lot earlier than R1b's does. In 5000 BC or so, we already have K1a associated with LBK in northern Germany and with Epicardial in Spain. It continues to be found through a number of other cultures, as well.

Using Jean Manco's database at Ancestral Journeys, I've managed to isolate the Haplogroup K data, which I'm going to include below. Given the early spread of K1a, would you still argue for K1a4 coming into Europe with R1b? If so, why? I look forward to hearing your thoughts.

Neolithic

Syria
Pre-Pottery Neolithic (6800-6000 BC) 2 samples H/K + 2 samples K?
Pre-Pottery Neolithic (6000-5750 BC) 3 samples K

Czech Republic
LBK (5300 BC) 3 samples of K

Germany
LBK? (5000 BC?) 1 sample of K1a + 1 sample of K2a5
LBK (5000 BC?) 6 samples of K + 7 samples of K1a
Schöningen (4100-3950 BC) 3 samples of K + 6 samples k1a
Baalburge (3950-3400 BC) 2 examples of K1a
Salzmünde (3400-3025 BC) 1 sample K1; 1 sample K1a; 1 sample K1a4a1a2
Bernburg (3101-2919 BC) 2 samples K1a
Bernburg (3100-2650 BC) 1 sample K1

Spain
Cardial (5475-5305 BC) K
Cardial (5329-4999 BC) K
Epicardial (5000 BC) K1a
Unspecified (4250–3700 BC) K
Unspecified (4185- 3185 BC) 3 examples of K (possibly K1a)
Unspecified (4090-3960 BC ) I sample of K

France
Treilles (3000 BC) 2 examples K1a
Megalith (2750-2725 BC) 1 example K + 1 example of K1a


Chalcolithic

Italy
Unspecified [Ötzi] (3350-3100 BC) K1f

Germany
Forager/Funnel Beaker (3200 BC) 1 example K
Corded Ware (2260-2203 BC) 1 sample of K2a5
Corded Ware (2600 BC) 1 sample K1a24a
Corded Ware (2600 BC) 1 sample K1
Corded Ware (2600 BC) 2 samples (?) of K1
Corded Ware (2500-2400 BC) 1 sample of K
Bell Beaker (2600-2500 BC) 1 sample of K1
Bell Beaker (2500-2050 BC) 1 sample of K

Switzerland
Corded Ware (2500 BC) 1 sample of K

Spain
Unspecified (2790-2100 BC) 4 samples of K
Unspecified (2580-2450 BC) 6 samples of K
Unspecified (2130BC) 1 sample of H or K

Bronze Age

Syria
Amorite? (2650–2450 BC) 1 sample of K

Germany
Unetice (1653-1627 BC) 1 sample of K
Unetice (2200-1550 BC) 1 sample of K; 1 sample of K1a
Unetice (2133-2080 BC) 1 sample of K2

Greece
Minoan (4400–3700 BP) 6 samples of K
Mycenaean (1500 BC) 2 samples of K

Russia
Adronovo (1800–1400 BC) 1 sample of K2b

Spain
Unspecified (3180 BP) 1 sample of K

Xinjiang China
Possible Tocharian (1980+/-40 BC) K (Side note: Light Brown Hair)


Iron Age

Spain
Iberian (600 BC) 1 sample of K*

Germany
La Tène (400 BC) 2 samples of K; 1 sample of K1a

Denmark
Unspecified (200 BC) 2 samples of K

Mongolia
Scytho-Siberian Pazyryk culture (400-200 BC?) 3 samples of K


Medieval

Spain
Basque? (500-700 AD) 1 sample of K
Islamic Al-Andalus (1100-1300 AD) 1 sample of K

Denmark
Viking (1000 AD) 1 sample of K
Unspecified (1250-1450 AD) 1 sample of K

Germany
Slavic? (1200 AD) 2 samples of K

Poland
Unspecified (900-1400 AD) 1 sample K1; 1 sample of K2

England
Unspecified (1347-1351 AD) 1 sample of K1a1b1

In fact it seems to reverse the backward with the progression of R1b,
 
In fact it seems to reverse the backward with the progression of R1b,

Can you elaborate on this statement? I think you might be saying that earlier K/K1a in Europe means earlier R1b. If that is what you're saying, I'd like to understand the logic behind it.
 
Can you elaborate on this statement? I think you might be saying that earlier K/K1a in Europe means earlier R1b. If that is what you're saying, I'd like to understand the logic behind it.

while the distance of time is closer the number diminishes as well as the geographical aerie, it should normally be the opposite; and then, on the card of the geographical zones, they do not see from high specific gravity in the regions where R1b is except in the cul of bag Irish.
It would seem more forced back in zones isolated from mountain or in end of peninsula as in the case of ancient markers.
 
while the distance of time is closer the number diminishes as well as the geographical aerie, it should normally be the opposite; and then, on the card of the geographical zones, they do not see from high specific gravity in the regions where R1b is except in the cul of bag Irish.
It would seem more forced back in zones isolated from mountain or in end of peninsula as in the case of ancient markers.

I think we may be having a language problem here. Sorry if I am slow to understand.

Is this what you are saying?

1. The same isolated regions (particularly far western regions) that have high percentages of K also have high percentages of R1b.
2. Therefore K has probably been with R1b since ancient times.
3. If K has been in Europe since at least the LBK (around 5000 BC), then so has R1b.

If this is your argument, I don't think I agree. No ancient R1b has been found in Europe dating to periods earlier than the Chalcolithic. The first we have found are the samples recovered from Kromsdorf, and these are typically identified as Bell Beaker and date from 2600-2400 BC. That is about two and a half thousand years after the first K's are found in Germany.

It looks to me like K was associated with F* (G, H, I, J, K) in Germany, and G2a and I2a1 in France (Treilles and megalithic cultures, respectively).
 
I mean exactly like you. We agree!
 
I have updated the OP.
 
I have updated the OP.

Thanks, Maciamo; and thank you as well for the incredible work you've done on behalf of us all. Your maps and articles are a treasure-trove.
 
Nice, though there isn't a lot information on K in general, on wikipedia OR here. It doesn't upset me, but yesterday at about 6AM central time US I got my 23andme.com results which said my maternal haplogroup is K1c1. So, not only is K information hard to come across in detail, but also K1c1. How long until more information on K is available?
 

Nevertheless, the frequency of haplogroup K seems to correlate with that of haplogroup R1b in Europe
(although not in the Near East and North Africa). Why would there be a correlation with R1b, which only came during the Bronze Age and not during the Neolithic ? I believe that there may be two reasons for this:

1) R1b men replaced a high percentage of Neolithic lineages in Europe, particularly in Western Europe, which was less technologically advanced than Southeast Europe and was conquered later by better equipped R1b warriors. There are many ways in which R1b lineages could have come to replace Neolithic male lineages. I have explained this in detail here. In short, R1b men had children with indigenous Neolithic Western European women who carried such lineages as K1a, H1, H3, J1c, T2, X2, etc. From c. 2000 BCE these maternal lineages bore more children to R1b men than to other haplogroups, even those these mt-haplogroups were not originally Indo-European. This is hybridisation. K1a4 was one of those lineages assimilated by R1b men in Bronze Age Europe.

2) R1b people originated in the Near East and could have picked up maternal K lineages in Anatolia and the Caucasus (Georgia has the highest frequency of any country), then again in Southeast Europe before migrating to Western Europe.

K lineages that were already assimilated by R1b tribes before the Bronze Age expansion from the Pontic Steppe would have ended up all over Europe, but also in the Volga-Ural region, the Altai, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and most of Central Asia. Potential candidates for a Proto-Indo-European dispersal include K1a1a, K1a3 and K2a6. Other K subclades, such as K1c1, K1c2 and K2b are better associated with the spread of R1a Indo-Europeans. K1c2 and K2b1 are particularly common in Germanic countries and could be linked to the Germanic branch of R1a or to the Corded Ware culture. See Haplogroup K page for more details.

This is an interesting theory.

My Y-DNA is R-M269 and my mtDNA is K1a.
 
fascinating map! I'm k1a1b1e, it would be great to get a breakdown of where this clade came from and where it is most common. Judging by the lack of info and the few matches I have on FTDNA there doesn't seem to be that many of us!
 

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