Population genomics unravels the Holocene history of bread wheat and its relatives

Moja

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https://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-023-01367-3

Deep knowledge of crop biodiversity is essential to improving global food security. Despite bread wheat serving as a keystone crop worldwide, the population history of bread wheat and its relatives, both cultivated and wild, remains elusive. By analysing whole-genome sequences of 795 wheat accessions, we found that bread wheat originated from the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea and underwent a slow speciation process, lasting ~3,300 yr owing to persistent gene flow from its relatives. Soon after, bread wheat spread across Eurasia and reached Europe, South Asia and East Asia ~7,000 to ~5,000 yr ago, shaping a diversified but occasionally convergent adaptive landscape in novel environments. By contrast, the cultivated relatives of bread wheat experienced a population decline by ~82% over the past ~2,000 yr due to the food choice shift of humans. Further biogeographical modelling predicted a continued population shrinking of many bread wheat relatives in the coming decades because of their vulnerability to the changing climate. These findings will guide future efforts in protecting and utilizing wheat biodiversity to enhance global wheat production.

wheat_tuf7.jpg


Compare to this map about the spread of Indo-European languages (Max Planck Institute):

indo-european_kqwc.jpg
 
- I don't know what kind of connection between two maps has. I know that there is no tiny one evidence that yamna people spoke PIE. I forgot one terminology, but I remember that IEs in Europe do not linguistically originate in one root unlike Indo-Iranics.

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Originally Posted by Tutut

I see no correlation between steppe ancestry and IE languages. German and Celtic have big amount of no IE vocabulary, they were simply IEsed very late if we take into account the etruscans.
--
Linguists believe that the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), from which all Indo-European languages descended, was spoken around 4000-2500 BC, but it is NOT directly attested in any written sources. Therefore, the exact nature and characteristics of PIE remain a subject of ongoing research and scholarly debate.
And more from Colin Renfrew:
"One important question is the extent to which it is legitimate to reconstruct a Proto-Indo-European language, drawing upon the cognate forms of the words in the various Indo-European languages that are known. Certainly it is questionable whether the nouns (for linguistic palaeontologists make little use of verbs or adjectives) can legitimately be used in the way advocated by Pictet and by Schrader to create an inventory, as it were, of the Urheimat, the original homeland of these Proto-Indo-Europeans."
That is, the words presented for PIE are a huge speculation. The only proven source is Sanskrit for an old IE language base.



- Like other steppe people yamna people had a sky god:

Yamna:
15-722580fde7.jpg



Moreover see Z2103 cultures. Of course it is difficulty to find their origins under the situation that scholars have not found found even the origin of cimmerian:

- yamna
Yamna_culture_tomb.jpg


- yamna twin, american indian buried in mound:

https://www.ncpedia.org/media/museum-town-creek-state-0


- catacomb culture shaft and side chamber grave:
1-s2.0-S2352409X21001061-gr2.jpg


- ancient mexican tombs:
Depiction-of-the-range-of-shaft-tomb-forms-found-within-the-Atemajac-valley-Modified.png



- we need a practical approach with real linguistic evidence of some author mentioning IE people
characteristcs:

They possessed and used horses and chariots.
• They believed in a Sky God.
• Medicine was a major interest, whether it was developed natively or adopted from othercultures.
• They were governed by comitatus1and observed a hierarchical, social-ranking, non-rigid castelike system based on a shared tripartite stratification (priests; warriors or kings; farmers ortradesmen or commoners).
• They were able to absorb easily a wide range of cultural elements from other peoples.
http://www.sino-platonic.org/complet...ou_dynasty.pdf



- Chariot people spread IE and left their footprint:

lCaC3ok.jpg



14-c2305a9841.jpg


-india
image75.jpg


-armenia
Ukhtasar-4.jpg


- chinese script or character of (sky): 2nd one:


tian-20panel.png




-america indian shaman (=sky):

Shaman-and-coyote-petroglyph.gif




Anyway, chariots, socketed weapons of SeimaTurbino type, and tin casting technology were actively used by representatives of Early Andronovo and later Karasuk societies. These set of innovations rapidly spread to all contact areas, where steppe clans interacted with ancient sedentary civilizations, and contributed to formation of Turanian, Chinese, Balkanian, and Iranian channels of communication


- Problem is too small people might migrate and barely genetic and linguistic impact upon farmers like mongol?

Originally Posted by Tutut View Post
Why IE share good amount of agricultural vocabulary but not about horses and riding?


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Once again, reading comprehension is low but obsession and fanatical and farcical beliefs are high on the scale.

The only steppe route involved in bread wheat is the one which lead to China.

Wheat of all kinds was DOMESTICATED in the Middle East and spread from there during the Neolithic.

I really should delete the entire second post and the second half of the first one, but perhaps leaving them here will be a salutary lesson in not paying any attention to certain interpretations of the facts. READ the papers and determine the actual facts for yourselves.
 
I just meant that both maps show the same region in the same period (8000 years ago) as the original land.
 
According to a pre-print version of the same paper, the Steppe route to China via the Mongolian Steppe may be related to early agro-pastoral societies, e.g., the Afanasievo people around the Altai Mountains, moving southward in response to the abrupt global cooling during the mid-Holocene. The earlier spread of bread wheat to Europe may be related to Early European Farmers (EEF), who reached Europe through the Balkans by 7,500 BP.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.04.07.487499v1.full
 
According to a pre-print version of the same paper, the Steppe route to China via the Mongolian Steppe may be related to early agro-pastoral societies, e.g., the Afanasievo people around the Altai Mountains, moving southward in response to the abrupt global cooling during the mid-Holocene. The earlier spread of bread wheat to Europe may be related to Early European Farmers (EEF), who reached Europe through the Balkans by 7,500 BP.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.04.07.487499v1.full

according to Mallory

Hypotheses linking the Tokharians toearlier eastward steppe expansions associated with the Afanasievo or Okunevo cultures of theYenisei or Altai (Mallory and Mair 2000) become very difficult if not impossible to sustain (aslong as there is no evidence of arable agriculture in these cultures) as Tokharian retains elements of the Indo-European agricultural vocabulary. Of course, it should be emphasized thatsites of the Afanasievo and Okunevo cultures are overwhelmingly burials that hardly providethe context in which one expects to recover the remains of domestic cereals; moreover, there isno evidence that any of these sites have been excavated in such a way that the recovery ofseeds is likely. On the other hand, domestic cereals have been recovered from the site ofBegash in the Jungghar mountains at dates of c 2300 BCE (Frachetti 2012) although this site isnot connected (so far as we know) with the steppe trajectory of sites (Afanasievo, Okunevo).

However, this paper mentioned additional steppe route to reach

The Steppe route was recently proposed because the wheat197 remains excavated from the lower Yellow River region (~4,250 BP) are earlier than those198 from the upper region (~3,850 BP), indicating an alternative northern route to China via theMongolian Steppe other than the Hexi Corridor35 199 . Despite the lack of wheat samples from200 southern Mongolia, our results support this newly hypothesized route with genetic201 evidence—two populations in the lower Yellow River region (R4) and East China (R5)202 descended from past hybridization events (Fig. 3b), with one of the parental populations203 likely to be the lineage that traveled across the Mongolian Steppe. The introduction of wheat204 to China through the Mongolian Steppe may be related to early agropastoral societies, e.g.,205 the Afanasievo people around the Altai Mountains, moving southward in response to theabrupt global cooling during the mid-Holocene36 206 .207We used SMC++29 208 to calculate splitting times between locally adapted

I don't know seima turbino people carried weat, but they reached even Yangtze Valley via yellow river at that time:

'A Seima-Turbino Bronze Spear Discovered in the Yangtze River Valley in China.
and Its Important Academic Significance':

["To date, ten Seima-Turbino bronze spearheads have been discovered in China. Of particular
interest is the spear from Lojiabailing, found in the same layer with jade items belonging to the post-Shijiahe culture. According to published drawings, the shape of the bronze spear from Luojiabailing coincides with the shape of the bronze spearheads from the Shenna and Xiawanggang sites. Judging by the jade items of the post-Shijiahe culture found together with the spear, the dating of the bronze spears coincides with the time of the post-Shijiahe, approximately 2200–1800 BC. The significance of the joint discovery of the Seima-Turbino bronze spears and jade products of the post-Shijiahe culture lies in the fact that they contribute to a better understanding of the cultural ties between the Longshan cultural community in China and the cultures of the early Bronze Age of Southern Siberia in the late 3rd – early 2nd millennium BC. There are many similarities in the art of these
cultures, which may be the result of contacts between the cultures of the Longshan era in China and the cultures of the Early Bronze Age of Southern Siberia. The spread of the Seima-Turba bronzes to the east and south of the Altai was a prerequisite for these processes."]

https://archaeology.nsc.ru/wp-conten...22_sbornik.pdf
IgspTrAGEE0.jpg

scholar tried to connect okunevo culture to two jade devil masks

seima turbino migration:
urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-32242-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig3g.jpg
 
^
European wheat seems to arrive at chemurck:

http://suyun.info/userfiles/bulletin/2017-1/stone_statues_neolithic_europe_&_chemurchek.png

Statue-menhirs chiseled by “Chemurchek people” are an absolutely peculiar phenomenon in the territory of Asian steppes in the 3rd millennium BCE. Only some statues-menhirs from Southern France (dated to early 3rd mill. BCE) in the same way are characterized by the protruding contour of the perimeter of a face, connected with a straight nose, with the eyes shown by protruding circles or disks, the shoulder-blades marked by two curls, and one or several girdles decorating the neck. Not only statues-menhirs but all other analogies of the Chemurchek phenomenon from Western Europe (architecture of burial constructions, mural okhra paintings and forms of vessels) date back to the period preceding the appearance of Chemurchek phenomenon in the Mongolian Altai. Nothing like those has been ever found among the monuments of the 3rd millennium BCE at the territory between France and Altai. This is why some suppose that part of the population of South-Western Europe migrated to the Altai at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE.

The model suggested by L.S. Klein is themost consistent, it takes into accountarchaeological material of theChemurchek culture (EasternTurkestan), which was discovered andstudied by Dr. A. A. Kovaliov [2004;2011; 2012a;b]. It was noted that theChemurchek materials are rather similarto the Elunino materials localized in theAltai Mountains and to the monumentsdiscovered in the north-east part of Kazakhstan [Grushin 2012; Merz, 2007;2010]. These materials are considered as an early step in the formation of Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition, which inits turn influenced the formation of theYin-Shang industry in China [Kovaliov,2012a: 53-55; Novozhenov, 2012a;c].
 
Also from this month and paid, article on the domestication of bread's companion, the wine:

Two domestications of grapes: One in the Near East, initially for food, it spread out throughout the world and mixed with wild grapes in Europe, another in the Caucasus associated with the first wine productions but remained in the Caucasus.

The Washington Post gives the details

https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/2023/03/02/wine-grapes-domesticated/
 
^
I tried to say that middle east wheat reached Begash and Xinjiang. Another one is european wheat (light blue) by seima turbino to arrive at chemurchek and finally yellow river. Considering archaeological connection between Europe and north east asia at bronze age, chemurchek menhir seems to be linked to europe.

https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/39141-How-can-IE-migration-be-explained-without-mentioning-Seima-Turbino/page7?p=666386#post666386

wheat_tuf7.jpg
 
The same culture existed in the west and east, the original land was in the south of Caucasus.

An 8th-century Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man wearing a distinctive cap and face veil, a probable Zoroastrian priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Italy: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/...i,_straniero_dal_volto_velato,_600-750_ca.JPG

mobad2_ql8a.jpg
 
Do you two not realize that nobody reads your posts and if they do by chance they're completely unconvinced?
 
Do you two not realize that nobody reads your posts and if they do by chance they're completely unconvinced?

It depends on who read it, those who are familiar with recent scientific studies, know that Indo-European culture was formed in the south of Caucasus about 8,000 years ago and then it spread to the west and east. This study also talks about the same region in the same period.
 

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