Retracing the mtDNA genealogy of Louis XVI (haplogroup N1b)


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UPDATE : a new study by Larmuseau et al. (2013) disproved that the blood tested by Lalueza-Fox et al. belonged to Louis XVI of France. Louis XVI s mtDNA lineage was therefore NOT N1b as originally mentioned in this thread. The genealogy below is still valid but for another, still undisclosed haplogroup.


Mitochondrial DNA being passed through one's mother, we can very reliably know the mtDNA haplogroup of many royals once one of them has been tested. I have already inferred the mt-haplogroups of the lineages of Henry IV of France (U5b), Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden (Z1a), Tsar Nicholas II (T2), Queen Victoria (H), Emperess Maria Theresa of Austria (H9), King Sweyn II Estridson of Sweden (H) (=> see Haplogroups of European kings and queens for all the H).

I will now have a look at the lineage of Louis XVI, who belongs to the very rare haplogroup N1b. I didn't do it before because I had doubts about the blood tested by Lalueza-Fox et al. (2010) was the one of Louis XVI. Now that Henry IV has been found to belong to Y-haplogroup G2a as well, the chances of very high that it was indeed Louis XVI's blood on the handkerchief.

I will start by going back Louis XVI's matrilineal line, without looking at siblings.

Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France (1731–1767)
- Maria Josepha of Austria, Electress of Saxony and Queen consort of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1699-1757)
-- Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, Archduchess consort of Austria etc. (1673-1742)
--- Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1652-1730)
---- Anne Gonzaga, Countess Palatine of Simmern (1616-1684)
----- Catherine de Lorraine-Guise-Mayenne (1585-1618)
------ Henriette de Savoie-Villars, Marquise of Villars (1541-1611)
------- Jeanne de Foix, Countess of Castillon (died in 1542)
-------- Françoise de Montpezat des Prez
--------- Jeanne de Mareuil

Descendants of the above who can all be listed as members of haplogroup N1b

Only dukes, duchesses, kings, queens, emperors and empresses are listed. Emperors, Empresses, Kings and Queens are highlighted in bold.

Via Maria Josepha of Saxony

- Louis XVI of France (1754-1793)
- Louis XVIII of France (1755-1824)
- Charles X of France (1757-1836)

Via Maria Josepha of Austria

- Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony (1722-1763)
- Maria Amalia of Saxony, Queen of Spain (1724-1760)
-- Maria Luisa of Spain, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia (1745-1792)
--- Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of Saxony (1767–1827)
--- Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (1768-1835)
--- Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1769-1824)
--- Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen (1771-1847)
--- Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria, Palatine of Hungary (1772-1795)
--- Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary (1776-1847)
--- Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria, Hereditary Prince of Naples (1777-1801)
---- Princess Caroline of Naples and Sicily, Duchess of Berry (1798-1870)
----- Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois, Duchess of Parma (1819-1864)
------ Margherita of Bourbon-Parma, Duchess of Madrid (1847-1893)
------- Infanta Blanca of Spain, Archduchess of Austria; Princess of Hungary, Bohemia, and Tuscany (1868-1949)
------- Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, Duke of Madrid (1870-1931), Legitimist claimant to the throne of France under the name Jacques I.
------ Robert I, Duke of Parma (1848-1907)
------ Princess Alice of Parma (1849–1935)
------ Prince Henry, Count of Bardi (1851-1905)
----- Henri, Count of Chambord, briefly Henry V of France (1820-1883)
----- Adinolfo Lucchesi-Palli, Duke della Grazia (1840-1911)
--- Archduke Anton Victor of Austria, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia, Archbishop of Cologne (1779-1835)
--- Archduke John of Austria, Imperial regent of Germany (1782-1859)
--- Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia (1783-1853)
--- Archduke Louis of Austria (1784-1864)
--- Archduke Rudolf of Austria, Cardinal, Archbishop of Olomouc (1788–1831)
-- Charles IV of Spain (1748-1819)
-- Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (1751-1825)

Via Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg

- Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland
- Maria Amalia of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Bohemia, etc. (1701-1756)
-- Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony (1724-1780)
--- Frederick Augustus I, King of Saxony (1750-1827)
--- Anthony, King of of Saxony (1755-1836)
--- Maria Amalia of Saxony, Duchess of Zweibrücken (1757-1831)
--- Maximilian, Hereditary Prince of Saxony (1759-1838)
-- Maximilian III, Elector of Bavaria (1727-1777)
-- Maria Anna of Bavaria, Margravine of Baden-Baden (1734-1776)
-- Maria Josepha of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, etc. (1739-1767)

Via Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate

- Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchess of Modena (1671-1710)
-- Francesco III d'Este, Duke of Modena (1698-1780)
-- Enrichetta d'Este, Duchess of Parma (1702-1777)
- Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Holy Roman Empress (1673-1742)

Via Anne Gonzaga

- Louise Marie of the Palatinate, Princess of Salm (1647-1679)
- Anne Henriette of the Palatinate, Princess of Condé (1648-1723)
-- Marie Thérèse de Bourbon, Queen Consort of Poland (1666-1732)
--- Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti (1695-1727)
-- Louis, Prince of Condé (1668–1710)
- Bénédicte of the Palatinate, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Via Catherine of Lorraine

- Francis Gonzaga, Duke of Rethel (1606-1622)
- Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers (1609–1631)
- Ferdinand Gonzaga, Duke of Mayenne (1610-1632)
- Marie Louise Gonzaga, Queen of Poland (1611-1667)
- Anna Gonzaga, Countess Palatine of Simmern (1616-1684)

Via Henriette de Savoie-Villars

- Henri of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (1578–1621)
- Catherine of Lorraine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat (1585–1618)
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So Louis XVI did indeed belong to a rare haplogroup. N1a, N1b, N1e and I (Iris) are, I believe, related all being descendants of haplogroup N1.

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