What has been written is that the statistical analysis of the sample base of the known human genome from groups of haplogroups has been expanded as an American was found whose Hg A was so ancient that maybe the haplogroups might have to be renumbered. What was A0 (120,000 years ago) Homo Sapiens could be A3 if Neanderthals, Denisovans, Homo Ergaster, Homo rhodensiensis, Homo heidelbergensis and other hominids are given, say -

X1 Homo Ergaster,

X2 Homo erectus, 1.3 million – 200,000 ybp

X3 Homo heidelbergensis, 600,000 – 400,000 ybp

X4 Neanderthals, 600,000 – 20,000 ybp

A0 American, 581,000 – 237,000 years ago

A1 Homo rhodensiensis, 300,000 – 125,000 ybp

A2 Denisovans, 280,000 – 20,000 ybp

A3 Homo sapiens, 120,000 – present.

As hominids can interbreed so they are all humans.

Statistics is just a method of educated guess based on numbers. Probability is just guessing started by French mathematician Blaise Pascal in his Probability Theory on gambling. It is not a cause-and-effect analysis but location analysis it is locates the likelihood of a crime being committed in a certain area or certain groups of people are likely to commit certain crimes. It is all about probability in numbers.

What is said in plain language is what we analysed is too short a time frame. This American’s genes tells us he comes from ancient group outside the time frame of all existing samples. His genes are so old that other hominids fit into his time frame. As this American is human so all those hominids must be human and included in the haplogroups.

The Chinese claim that the Peking Man, homo erectus, was their ancestor but the skull was lost when the ship transporting the skull was sunk by a German U-boat. However, since Chinese are Hg O3 and descendant of Homo Sapiens, the Peking Man theory is off base. The Chinese would have to be hypothetical Hg X2 which is older than Homo Sapiens A3.

The multi-regional theory doesn’t work as the known haplogroups are descendant not ascendant.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galois_theory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_theory
Its mathematical foundations were laid in the 17th century with the development of the

probability theory by

Blaise Pascal and

Pierre de Fermat. Probability theory arose from the study of games of chance. The

method of least squares was first described by

Carl Friedrich Gauss around 1794. The use of modern

computers has expedited large-scale statistical computation, and has also made possible new methods that are impractical to perform manually.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics