The ancient Huns belonged to Y-haplogroups Q, N, C and R1a1


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The Huns, known as the Khün, Hunnu, or Xiongnu in East Asia, migrated from the Altai to the Volga region in the 1st century CE, then invaded eastern and central Europe in the 4th century, establishing the Hunnic Empire (c. 370-469 CE).

There has been an impressive number of studies (Keyser-Tracqui 2003, Keyser-Tracqui 2006, Petkovski 2006, Ricaut 2010, Kim 2010) of ancient DNA from Xiongnu sites in Mongolia, all dating from the Iron Age (300 BCE-200 CE), the exact period when the Huns migrated to Europe. These studies found in total two samples of Y-DNA haplogroup C3 (M217), one N1c1, and one Q, one R1a1a (M17).

45 mtDNA samples were successfully tested and were overwhelmingly East Asian (B4b, C, D4, F1b, G2a), but also had six European haplogroups (13.5%), namely two U2 (including one U2e1), two U5a, and two J1.

In a new study yet to be published by LL. Kang et al. tested three Hunnu samples from Barköl, Xinjiang, China and found that all three belonged to Q1a3a (M3). Interestingly this is the same subclade of Q as the one found among Native Americans.

So far that gives is four Q, two C, one N1c1 and one R1a. The latter two might have come together from the Ural region during the Bronze Age.

While it is very difficult to distinguish Hunnic R1a from other R1a in Europe, C and Q are very easy to isolate. Based on modern frequencies the Huns must have carried far more haplogroup Q than C, although I doubt that it was exclusively Q1a3a. I would rather think that most of the haplogroup Q in eastern, central and northern Europe is of Hunnic origin.
I think what ur saying is probably true. But it seems like if Q and C in Europe or most is Hunnic. It is extremely rare i would guess since the Huns conquered so much for over 100 years they had large armies so mainly men. So those men had kids so since there were some many u would think they would leave more y DNA. Maybe the leaders were Huns while the armies later on were people from Germanic and Slavic ancestry. It is kind of the same story with east Germanic tribes Vandals and Goths who technically conquered almost all of non Roman Europe and ruled it without sop until the Huns. THey were in eastern Europe for a very long time but Germanic R1b S21, i guess most I1 would be from them, then some I2a2, and R1a Z284 but at the most it is average of 5% of Y DNA in most parts of eastern Europe they were in. Except Poland has the most probably because it is closest to were the migrated out of. I think the east Germanic tribes genetically were not really that German they came mainly from the native people It might be the same for later Huns. Because were did they go did they just disappear.
The Hunnic R1a would be originally from Indo Iranian's like Sycthians in central asia so under R1a1a1b2 Z93. But since Sycthians were in eastern Europe it is hard to say if there is R1a Z93 like in western Ukriane if it is Sycthian, Hunnic, or it is there because it originated in eastern Europe. There are not that many ancient Y DNa samples and cant we just look at modern Turkic speakers in that area and get an idea what the Huns would of had.
I didn’t imagine that I could have a link with the Huns, but after investigating more why I was belonging to C-M216 via FTDNA, I understood after my bigY comparison through YFull that my closest match is a Xiong Nou descendant from China. According to my SNP ZQ1 and C-M48, plus private SNP C-F6379, it is clear for him that I am a Hun descendant from Europe. My genealogy is documented back to the 13th century as a noble family from Genova in Italy.
I read in the French book on the Huns by Amédée Thierry that many nobles, after the fall of Roman Empire belonged to the recent conquerors including Huns and other so called barbarians of that time.

Being purely of European origin for all what I can find through autosomal tests, I would suggest Expedia to include C Y haplogroup as à European haplogroup since there is no reason why the Huns descendants like me remain excluded in our studies on European populations.

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