The genetic history of the Southern Arc-Lazaridis et al

Angela

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https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abm4247



Structured Abstract

INTRODUCTION

For thousands of years, humans moved across the “Southern Arc,” the area bridging Europe through Anatolia with West Asia. We report ancient DNA data from 727 individuals of this region over the past 11,000 years, which we co-analyzed with the published archaeogenetic record to understand the origins of its people. We focused on the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages about 7000 to 3000 years ago, when Indo-European language speakers first appeared.
RATIONALE

Genetic data are relevant for understanding linguistic evolution because they can identify movement-driven opportunities for language spread. We investigated how the changing ancestral landscape of the Southern Arc, as reflected in DNA, corresponds to the structure inferred by linguistics, which links Anatolian (e.g., Hittite and Luwian) and Indo-European (e.g., Greek, Armenian, Latin, and Sanskrit) languages as twin daughters of a Proto-Indo-Anatolian language.
RESULTS

Steppe pastoralists of the Yamnaya culture initiated a chain of migrations linking Europe in the west to China and India in the East. Some people across the Balkans (about 5000 to 4500 years ago) traced almost all their genes to this expansion. Steppe migrants soon admixed with locals, creating a tapestry of diverse ancestry from which speakers of the Greek, Paleo-Balkan, and Albanian languages arose.
The Yamnaya expansion also crossed the Caucasus, and by about 4000 years ago, Armenia had become an enclave of low but pervasive steppe ancestry in West Asia, where the patrilineal descendants of Yamnaya men, virtually extinct on the steppe, persisted. The Armenian language was born there, related to Indo-European languages of Europe such as Greek by their shared Yamnaya heritage.
Neolithic Anatolians (in modern Turkey) were descended from both local hunter-gatherers and Eastern populations of the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Levant. By about 6500 years ago and thereafter, Anatolians became more genetically homogeneous, a process driven by the flow of Eastern ancestry across the peninsula. Earlier forms of Anatolian and non–Indo-European languages such as Hattic and Hurrian were likely spoken by migrants and locals participating in this great mixture.
Anatolia is remarkable for its lack of steppe ancestry down to the Bronze Age. The ancestry of the Yamnaya was, by contrast, only partly local; half of it was West Asian, from both the Caucasus and the more southern Anatolian-Levantine continuum. Migration into the steppe started by about 7000 years ago, making the later expansion of the Yamnaya into the Caucasus a return to the homeland of about half their ancestors.
CONCLUSION

All ancient Indo-European speakers can be traced back to the Yamnaya culture, whose southward expansions into the Southern Arc left a trace in the DNA of the Bronze Age people of the region. However, the link connecting the Proto-Indo-European–speaking Yamnaya with the speakers of Anatolian languages was in the highlands of West Asia, the ancestral region shared by both.
science.abm4247-fa.jpg
Many partings, many meetings: How migration and admixture drove early language spread.
Westward and northward migrations out of the West Asian highlands split the Proto-Indo-Anatolian language into Anatolian and Indo-European branches. Yamnaya pastoralists, formed on the steppe by a fusion of newcomers and locals, admixed again as they expanded far and wide, splitting the Proto-Indo-European language into its daughter languages across Eurasia. Border colors represent the ancestry and locations of five source populations before the migrations (arrows) and mixture (pie charts) documented here.


 
He always writes so damn beautifully: clear, logical, precise, no doubts as to meaning.
 
Thanks Angela.
Can anyone get access to the full paper?
 
Thanks Angela for this interesting Abstract.
 
It has a good coverage of Albania [emoji1025]
Great Study

S1: Archaeological and Anthropological context of sampled individuals ............................... 26
Albania .......................................................................................................................................... 26
Podgorie (Southeast Albania, Korça basin; Early Neolithic) .............................................................................. 26 Tren cave 2 (Southeast Albania, Devoll area; Late Neolithic; Chalcolithic) ....................................................... 27 Dukat (Southwest Albania; Bronze and Iron Age; Medieval period) ................................................................. 27 Shkrel, Tumulus 099 (Middle Bronze Age) ........................................................................................................ 28 Çinamak (northeastern Albania-Kukës district; Bronze Age; Iron Age) ............................................................. 29 Kënetë (northeastern Albania-Kukës district; Medieval) .................................................................................. 32 Shtikë (Southeastern Albania, Kolonja Plateau; Medieval) ............................................................................... 33 Barç (Southeast Albania, Korça basin; post-Medieval/Modern) ....................................................................... 33 Bardhoc (northeastern Albania-Kukës district; post-Medieval) ........................................................................ 35 Pazhok (Central Albania; Modern) .................................................................................................................... 36


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In the case of Anatolia, this is complicated by the influence that neighboring Indo-European peoples may have exerted on the population since the 1st millennium BCE (e.g., Persians, Greeks, Phrygians, Galatians, Romans, to name a few). Yet, despite these influences, steppe-derived Y-chromosomes are rare to non-existent throughout Anatolia.

So Persians, Greeks, Phrygians, Galatians, Romans, ... had no steppe ancestry too?
 
Dataset is possible to download for free too, just need to fill the form before.
 
So Persians, Greeks, Phrygians, Galatians, Romans, ... had no steppe ancestry too?

Galatians are a bit of a surprise, but not the others.

I keep telling people: if you want to change the genetic signature of a population, you need a big folk migration.

These weren't folk migrations, so the ancestry of the few who came got washed away.
 
You can download a 379 PDF paper but there is no PCA in it.
 
You can download a 379 PDF paper but there is no PCA in it.

It's easy to join Science and then you have access to the paper.
 
Trying but failing to access any Y DNA or mtDNA samples of this paper. Can someone post that data here, if they get it/it exists? Thanks.
 
Sorry if this is a double-post. My first post seems to have disappeared. Having difficulty accessing the Y DNA and mtDNA samples of this study. Can someone post them here, if possible? Thanks.
 

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