Viking world population genomics

Tomenable

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Location
Poland
Ethnic group
Polish
Y-DNA haplogroup
R1b-L617
mtDNA haplogroup
W6a
Link: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/703405v1

"Abstract

The Viking maritime expansion from Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) marks one of the swiftest and most far-flung cultural transformations in global history. During this time (c. 750 to 1050 CE), the Vikings reached most of western Eurasia, Greenland, and North America, and left a cultural legacy that persists till today. To understand the genetic structure and influence of the Viking expansion, we sequenced the genomes of 442 ancient humans from across Europe and Greenland ranging from the Bronze Age (c. 2400 BC) to the early Modern period (c. 1600 CE), with particular emphasis on the Viking Age. We find that the period preceding the Viking Age was accompanied by foreign gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east: spreading from Denmark and eastern Sweden to the rest of Scandinavia.

Despite the close linguistic similarities of modern Scandinavian languages, we observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, suggesting that regional population differences were already present 1,000 years ago. We find evidence for a majority of Danish Viking presence in England, Swedish Viking presence in the Baltic, and Norwegian Viking presence in Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial foreign European ancestry entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. We also find that several of the members of the only archaeologically well-attested Viking expedition were close family members. By comparing Viking Scandinavian genomes with present-day Scandinavian genomes, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the last millennia.

Finally, we are able to trace the allele frequency dynamics of positively selected loci with unprecedented detail, including the lactase persistence allele and various alleles associated with the immune response. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial foreign engagement: distinct Viking populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, while Scandinavia also experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent."
 
More:

"In order to explore the genomic history of the Viking era, we shotgun sequenced 442 ancient human
remains, from the Bronze Age c. 2400 BC to the Medieval Age c. 1600 AD (Fig. 1). The majority of
these individuals (n=376) were sequenced to between 0.1 and 11X average depth of coverage. The
dataset includes Bronze Age (n=2) and Iron Age (n=10) individuals from Scandinavia; Early Viking
Age (n=43) individuals from Estonia (n=34), Denmark (n=6) and Sweden (n=3); ancient individuals
associated with Norse culture from Greenland (n=23), VA individuals from Denmark (n=78), Faroe
Islands (n=1), Iceland (n=17), Ireland (n=4), Norway (n=29), Poland (n=8), Russia (n=33), Sweden
(n=118), UK (n=42), Ukraine (n=3) as well as medieval individuals from Faroe Islands (n=16), Italy
(n=5), Norway (n=7), Poland (n=2) and Ukraine (n=1). The VA individuals were supplemented with
additional published genomes (n=21) from Sigtuna, in Sweden6. The skeletons originate from major
archaeological sites of VA Scandinavian settlements and activities from Europe to Greenland
(Supplementary Table 1). The data from the ancient individuals were analyzed together with
previously published data from a total of 3,855 present-day individuals across two reference panels,
and data from 922 individuals of ancient origin (Supplementary Note 6)."
 
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VK516H6a1aMaleR1a1a1b1a3a2
VK517J1c3fMaleI2a1b1a2b1a2a
VK518U5b1b1aFemaleN/A
VK519HV0a1MaleI1
VK520U5b2a1a2FemaleN/A
VK521H16bMaleI1a2a2a
VK522H1a3bFemaleN/A
VK523I1a1FemaleN/A
VK524HV0a1MaleI1a2a1a1d1a
VK525U5a1a2aFemaleN/A
VK526J2b1a3FemaleN/A
VK527J1c3fFemaleN/A
VK528K1a4a1bMaleR1b1a1b1a1a2c1a4d1
VK529H7MaleI1a1b1a4a2
VK530H1asFemaleN/A
VK531U2e2aMaleR1b1a1
VK532U2e2a1aMaleI1a2a
VK533H13a1a1eMaleN1a1a1a1a1a1a
VK534H1MaleR1b1a1b1a1a2
VK535T1a5MaleR1b1a1b1b3a
VK536H3h6FemaleN/A
VK537VFemaleN/A
VK538H+16291MaleL1a1b
VK539VMaleI1
VK540VFemaleN/A
VK541H7MaleR1a1a1b1a1a1c1
VK542H5a2aMaleI2a1a2b1a1a
VK543I2MaleR1a1a1
VK544H24aFemaleN/A
VK545H1bbMaleR1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1a1a1a1a1a
VK546HV6MaleR1a1a1
VK547VMaleI1a1b1a4a2
VK548A12aFemaleN/A
VK549T2b5aMaleI1a1b1
VK550VMaleN1a1a1a1a1a1a1b
VK551J2a1a1a2MaleR1a1a1b1a3a1
VK552H10eMaleI1a2a1a1d
VK553K1c1hMaleI1a1b1
VK554W6aMaleI1
VK555U3b1bMaleI1a2a1a1d1a
VK579H1sMaleN1a1a1a1a
VK582H6a1b3MaleI2a1b1a
 
Thanks for sharing kudos 😉
2 e1b1b1 haplotypes :
1 M78-v13 from funen dennmark
800-1050ad late Viking age
1 m123 from gotland Sweden 900-1050 ad late Viking age
the auther say the presence of those e1b1b1 although rare is probably geneflow from south since both were found in late viking age ....
 
Thanks for sharing kudos ������
2 e1b1b1 haplotypes :
1 M78-v13 from funen dennmark
800-1050ad late Viking age
1 m123 from gotland Sweden 900-1050 ad late Viking age
the auther say the presence of those e1b1b1 although rare is probably geneflow from south since both were found in late viking age ....

The E-V13 one has non-scandinavian autosomal results. It is very likely from further south.
 
A sample from 11-12th cent. Puglia, Italy, is autosomally ~90% southern European and belongs to Y-haplogroup R1b-Z2103>Z2108/Z2109.
 
Last edited:
Vikings sorted by Polish admixture:

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bio...xiv.org/content/biorxiv/ear...x?download=true

I think that VK157, VK156 and VK154 have similar results to what I would score here (or my mother, as she has strong "Finnish / Fennoscandian" admix):

k7opkhA.png


In other words, VK157, VK156 and VK154 were probably like your average modern North-Western Pole (such as my aunt from Tuchola; I need to test her).

=====

In Gotland 5/18 Viking samples (or ca. 28%) have over 50% of Polish-like admixture. Unexpected.
 
As for the issue of British/Irish gene flow to Norway vs. Norwegian gene flow to Britain/Ireland:

Quote from the study: "(...) The genetic impacts are stronger in the other direction. The ?British-like? populations of Orkney became ?Scandinavian? culturally, whilst other British populations found themselves in Iceland and Norway, and beyond. Present-day Norwegians vary between 12 and 25% in their ?British-like? ancestry, whilst it is still (a more uniform) 10% in Sweden. (...)"

^^^ This conclusion is based on a comparison of actual DNA from Pre-Viking Scandinavians and modern Scandinavians - modern Scandinavians, especially West Norwegians, have British admixture that was, apparently, still completely absent from Pre-Viking Scandinavia.

My guess is that Vikings from Orkney and other areas which became culturally Viking later migrated ("back-migrated") a lot to Scandinavia proper.

This is how this British DNA was absorbed.

In absolute numbers, I'm quite sure more people migrated from Norway to Ireland and Britain than the other way around.

HOWEVER, at that time Norway was very sparsely populated and had a very small population compared to the British Isles.

So the overall impact of the gene flow, percentage-wise, could actually be stronger in Scandinavia than in Britain/Ireland.

Example: 500 people moving from Ireland to Norway could make a stronger impact in DNA than 3000 people migrating from Norway to Ireland.

=====

Let's use a modern example too, who would make more impact on overall genetics of the other country?:

- 3 million Swedes moving to Nigeria

OR:

- 1 million Nigerians moving to Sweden

^^^ The answer is obvious, you just need to compare the size of native populations in both countries.
 
Modern Orcadians are quite diverse, some look like they might have no Germanic admixture at all (despite their language/culture).

Sample S_Orcadian-1.DG from Reich dataset is almost 100% Insular Celtic (very similar to Late Bronze Age Scotland samples).

On the other hand, sample S_Orcadian-2.DG from the same dataset is more Germanic-influenced.

Studies such as POBI also show that Orkney Islands have several distinct genetic clusters, despite the small size of these islands!
 
PCA with Viking Age Gotland samples... :

HaI7l6A.jpg
 
Whoa,
VK139J1c3kMaleR1a1a1b1a1a1c1
That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?
 
Whoa,
VK139J1c3kMaleR1a1a1b1a1a1c1
That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?

I think so. Assuming he’s closer to the 9th century. I believe there was a medieval samples from the 11th century before.

Hopefully we get some gedmatch kits soon
 
Quote Post #8.

I think they believe they were Scandinavian 'Varangian/Rus' vikings, the five 'Bodzia'cemetary, Mtdna results were -
157 (E864/1)was H1c.
156 (E58) was J1c2c2a.
155 E870) was H1c
154 (E37) was H1c3.
153 (E63) was H1c3.
 
Quote Post #8.

I think they believe they were Scandinavian 'Varangian/Rus' vikings, the five 'Bodzia'cemetary, Mtdna results were -
157 (E864/1)was H1c.
156 (E58) was J1c2c2a.
155 E870) was H1c
154 (E37) was H1c3.
153 (E63) was H1c3.

I believe the L1029 samples from Lutsk is Rus Viking. A lot of Varangian were incorporated from Kievan Rus. The later folk were more ethnically mixed. Became like a mercenary corps of sorts.
 
Dibran,

I believe the L1029 samples from Lutsk is Rus Viking.

Ukrainian sample VK541 from Lutsk (autosomally >95% Polish, Y-DNA R1a-L1029) was a prince:

Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-40.jpg

Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-41.jpg

Screen-Hunter-2771-Jul-18-15-41.jpg
 
Dibran,



Ukrainian sample VK541 from Lutsk (autosomally >95% Polish, Y-DNA R1a-L1029) was a prince:

Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-40.jpg

Screen-Hunter-2770-Jul-18-15-41.jpg

Screen-Hunter-2771-Jul-18-15-41.jpg

yup. So it looks like a distinct possibility. This could explain how it got to England too. With either these Vikings in Denmark bearing the line or maybe early wends assimilated into some of the Saxon movements.
 
Whoa,
VK139J1c3kMaleR1a1a1b1a1a1c1
That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?

Also,

look up the Jomsviking league. It was originally a mixed Scando-Slavic Viking group on Wolins island/city.

By the 11th century they were composed predominantly of Vinds(per the Swedish Sagas). Vinds were their name for Wends. They were some of the most viscous Vikings.

They also staged some unsuccessful raids of Denmark in the 11th century.

In the case of English and Irish L1029, it is probably from these, If not earlier assimilated wends that may have moved with Saxon’s.
 
from Supplementary
page 12 -Among the ancient samples, two individuals were derived haplogroups were identified as E1b1b1- M35.1, which are frequently encountered in modern southern Europe, Middle East and NorthAfrica . Interestingly, the individuals carrying these haplogroups had much less Scandinavian ancestry compared to the most samples inferred from haplotype based analysis. A similar pattern was also observed for less frequent haplogroups in our ancient dataset, such as G (n=3), J (n=3) and T (n=2),, indicating a possible non-Scandinavian male genetic component in the Viking Age NorthernEurope. Interestingly, individuals carrying these haplogroups were from the later Viking Age (10th century and younger), which might indicate some male gene influx into the Viking population during the Viking period. Worth mentioning, that due to the small sample size of the rare haplogroups, these differences might be of stochastic nature therefore the results based on uniparental markers should be interpreted with caution.
 

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