1. Maciamo

    J2b as an IE lineages of the ancient Illyrians & Mycenaeans

    The new paper on the Genomic History of Southeastern Europe by Mathieson et al. identified the first ancient J2b2 sample in Europe. This sample was found in Middle Bronze Age southern Croatia, at Veliki Vanik and dates from 1700-1500 BCE. It has been proposed by archeologists that the...
  2. Petros Agapetos

    The Armenian Language Here I am speaking Armenian. What languages does it sound like?
  3. Petros Agapetos

    What language does Armenian sound like? Here I am speaking Armenian. What languages does it sound like?
  4. Maciamo

    Dodecad & Eurogenes admixture for Yamna genomes

    I should have done this a long time ago, but never found the time among the many things on my to-do list. I ran a Yamna genome in the Dodecad and Eurogenes calculators just to see what would come out of it, and to help interpret the maps I created from the Dodecad calculators. Keep in mind...
  5. Maciamo

    New map of Yamna admixture (Eurogenes Steppe K10)

    I finally found some time to make the map of Yamna admixture using the data from Eurogenes Steppe K10. There was no data for some countries, so I had to guess based on neighbouring countries or isolated samples reported on forums. That is the case for Portugal, Ireland, Wales, the Netherlands...
  6. Maciamo

    New map of early to middle Neolithic Europe (5000-4500 BCE)

    I had not made any new archaeological maps for 6 years. Yet there are still periods that weren't covered, including that particularly interesting one that saw the emergence of the Khvalynsk culture, which may well have been the first PIE culture in the Steppe, before Sredny Stog and Yamna. That...
  7. M

    The Spread of Haplogroups in Europe, Especially R1b

    There are some lively discussions going on elsewhere on this board, discussing with specificity some of concepts below. I thank everyone for their thoughts, and Eupedia for the forum. This post is intended to be a more general foray into what I call "The Two -Ics" that explain modern...
  8. S

    In what does iberia set apart from other countries in europe?

    I saw in a genetics post or in a forum that iberians from the peoples of europe are the furthest away from the others. Is this true in fst distances and if yes why is it like that, I mean what may have caused that. Is it maybe about more continuity from ancient times and less indo-european input...
  9. Maciamo

    New map of HLA-A1 allele frequency

    Here is my first HLA map. I chose to start with HLA-A1 because it is the first chronologically, but also because it is one of the most common HLA types in Europe. The HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen) genes are on important component of the immune system regulation. They are cell-surface...
  10. Maciamo

    Was the teal admixture of Yamna brought to the steppe by Y-haplogroup G1 ?

    Last week Davidski wondered if the teal people really existed and if so who they were (referring to the teal admixture from Haak et al. 2015 found in Yamna samples). My theory so far had been that R1b-P297 had mixed with West Asian people around the South Caucasus (or rather between East...
  11. Maciamo

    Autosomal analysis of Unetice and Urnfield genomes

    I have just noticed that Genetiker ran the admixtures for a Unetice genome and an Urnfield genome. Here is a comparison with the Yamna and Bell Beaker genomes. There doesn't seem to be a big difference between Bell Beaker, Unetice and Urnfield. Let's keep in mind that these are individual...
  12. Maciamo

    Autosomal analysis of Yamna, Corded Ware and Bell Beaker samples

    Here is a summary of my observations posted in this thread regarding the autosomal analysis of the Mesolithic and Bronze Age samples from Haak et al 2015. Eurogenes K15 analysis The K15 admixtures for all the Yamna, Corded Ware and Bell Beaker samples can be found in this spreadsheet. As I...
  13. Maciamo

    Modern distribution of R1b-Z2103

    The new Haak et al. 2015 paper confirmed that Yamna Proto-Indo-Europeans belonged to haplogroup R1b. Four out of six R1b samples from the Volga-Ural region belonged to the R1b-Z2103 subclade, a branch of what used to be called R1b-ht35, the eastern variant of R1b-M269. Obviously the samples...
  14. Maciamo

    New map of haplogroup R1a-Z93 in Eurasia

    To complete the series of main R1a subclades here is the map of Z93 in Eurasia. I have tried to avoid colouring uninhabited regions (high mountains and deserts), but it may not be 100% accurate. Click on the map to get to the Y-DNA maps page, and click again to see a larger version.
  15. Maciamo

    New map of Ancient Eurasian (ANE) admixture

    Year 2014 is drawing to a close and I was hoping to finish the ANE and WHG maps by the end of the year. Here is the first one. The data is based on Eurogenes. This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Central Siberian mammoth hunter (known as MA-1), who lived 24,000 years...
  16. Maciamo

    Listen to an audio reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European language

    Listen to this audio reconstruction of what Proto-Indo-European language of R1a and R1b people might have sounded like 6,000 years ago in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. Here is the explanation from
  17. Maciamo

    Did the Chinese Bronze Age originate in the Eurasian Steppe ?

    The Bronze Age appears to have originated around the Caucasus circa 3500 BCE, with the Maykop culture (3700—2000 BCE) and the approximately contemporaneous Kura-Araxes culture (3500—2200 BCE). Older Bronze objects have been found in Serbia dating from 4500 BCE, but the practice was discontinued...
  18. Maciamo

    Spanish Chalcolithic mtDNA provides more evidence that Bell Beakers were non-IE

    Here is a new paper by Daniel Gómez-Sánchez and co-workers. They tested 19 mitochondrial sequences from the Burgos region in Castile and León, northern Spain, all dating from the late Copper Age (2050 to 2500 BCE). The authors note the heterogeneity of mt-haplogroups compared to other...
  19. Maciamo

    Dairy farming reached Scandinavia from ca 2500 BCE with the Corded Ware people

    Modern Scandinavians and Dutch people have the highest frequency (>90%) of lactase persistence allele in the world, making almost every individual able to digest the lactose sugar in milk throughout adulthood. It has long been speculated when the transition to dairy farming took place, which...
  20. Maciamo

    Revising the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European numerals

    Many linguists have attempted to reconstruct how the original Proto-Indo-European numerals may have sounded like. Unfortunately they tend to end up with overly theoretical prototypes that are unlikely to have ever been uttered by people. Here are two examples of reconstructed dating from 1995...