K12b Analyzing the Mediterranean Cluster C6 from Antonio M et al. 2019

Iome2vf.png


Haplotype sharing groups organized by time period. C6 MA-Ren and C7 MA-Ren are Medieval to Renaissance samples are from Cancellleria. C6 Ren are Renaissance samples from Tivoli Palazzo Cianti

I myself plot almost right on top of the centrum from the C6 Renaissance Tivoli Palazzo Cianti samples, and it clusters with Abruzzo and Molise, and Northern-shifted Apulians.
 
Iome2vf.png


Haplotype sharing groups organized by time period. C6 MA-Ren and C7 MA-Ren are Medieval to Renaissance samples are from Cancellleria. C6 Ren are Renaissance samples from Tivoli Palazzo Cianti

I myself plot almost right on top of the centrum from the C6 Renaissance Tivoli Palazzo Cianti samples, and it clusters with Abruzzo and Molise, and Northern-shifted Apulians.

Modern Lazio looks like a mix between these people and modern Tuscans and Corsicans. Hence the re-peopling of Rome by native Italians after the Urban Graveyard effect/violent de-population of Rome at the end of the empire.

Also, ITS5 is from Salerno.
 
@Er Monnezza


1) the wikipedia page (which just reports what is said in the sources linked) says clearly that the language spoken around Rome belonged to the southern group, hence it was NOT part of the central group, and indeed was "much" closer to Neapolitan than to dialects of the central group. Honestly, you're just using sophistry if you're going to debate such a point.
2)Look at the graph from the study I have posted: also Turkey_IA and antiquity centroid is above 20%.
3) The medieval samples from Rome, minus the north Italian-like individuals, clustuer around south Italians (who, I believe, are Sicilian samples), as it has been said many times.
4)The late antiquity samples are more southern on average than medieval Rome (which remains a better proxy for south Italy),with a good chunk of the samples actually southern of south Italians, I wonder how is it possible that the average still comes out as significantly more northern than southern Italians then on G25 and dodecad12.
5) Anyway, you must keep in mind that the important point is that G25 shows quite lower levels of Levant_N compared to the results shown in this paper, so even if G25 showed the same levels of Levant_N in Italians as shown by this paper, there would still be the discrepancy of why G25 lowers it in everybody else except Italians.
6) Let's follow the line of argument that somehow Rome_medievalmodern and Rome_antiquity can't be used to approximate south Italians (though it is wrong): if we take it that Rome medieval on G25 shows an average of 5% Levant_N, but according to this study it is around 8%, then we can infer that if Campanians and Sicilians were to be analysed with the same methodology they'd have a centroid/average at 16%, which is roughly the centroid for imperial Rome, but since southern Italians cluster quite northern to the centroid of imperial Rome, there must have been another northern gene flow that pulled them to their position, which means that they must have started with a higher level of Levant_N than that of the average for imperial Rome: do you get why it is nonsensical?
7)Notice that according to the data in the paper Anatolia experience and decrease in Levant_N ancestry from the BA to the byzantine period, so the suggestion that western Anatolia overall experienced and increase in levantine ancestry compared to antiquity is debunked.
8)Though I don't believe the conclusions of the paper(s) are sound, still one of the conclusion is that Anatolia was the source of the gene flow into Italy, so there is no indication of another gene flow directly from the Levant or nearby; ok, it's true that both the imperial age samples and byzantine samples had a portion of Levantine individuals, but they were a minority, and I am not sure whether they alone are enough to explain the amount of Levantine ancestry G25 shows, and my reasonings at point 6) suggest that according to the same methodology used ( it is logically important to be consistent) the imperial Rome average still might not be enough, though it is a good question what G25 would show.
9) Anyway, the Daunian paper and the last paper about southern Italians found no affinities of modern south Italians towards MENA people compared to ancient Mycenaean samples. so I am just arguing to show that there is still a discrepancy (again) between this paper and G25 when it comes to Italians.
ds.PNG
 
How come? I saw numerous North Italian-like samples after 1300AD. And the average is nearly the same? Try removing outliers there was Germanic outlier plotting with Dutch.

The samples that cluster closest to northern Italy are dated to 500 AD. However, the problem is that the samples from Rome are a clusterf*ck of different people and this is true for every period, even today.

These are all the Central Italian samples from AD 400 to 1650 divided by cluster.

Code:
C1:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR130___AD_400___Coverage_78.50%,0.103579,0.150298,-0.037335,-0.063308,-0.001846,-0.021753,0.00047,-0.010846,0.003681,0.030069,0.008444,-0.001948,-0.003419,-0.002064,-0.00285,-0.009546,0.002868,0.002534,-0.000628,-0.000875,0.004118,0.001855,-0.013557,-0.001325,-0.00455
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR30___AD_500___Coverage_79.47%,0.101303,0.147252,-0.019987,-0.054264,0.013849,-0.024263,0.000235,-0.008077,0.0045,0.020228,0.000487,0.004196,-0.011447,-0.001514,-0.016558,-0.007027,0.00339,0.003041,0.005028,0.005628,0.001996,0.001237,0.003451,0.002289,-0.003233
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR32___AD_500___Coverage_53.38%,0.101303,0.155376,-0.007542,-0.044574,0.021542,-0.019243,-0.00376,-0.007154,0.002863,0.023326,-0.001137,0.003297,-0.008028,-0.006331,-0.002036,-0.004773,0.005867,-0.003294,-0.005782,0.003877,0.002121,-0.004081,0.003451,-0.011568,-0.000359
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR34___AD_500___Coverage_70.78%,0.101303,0.152329,-0.023381,-0.059432,0.007386,-0.023985,0.001175,-0.000692,-0.003272,0.018406,0.002923,0.005095,-0.002973,0.00289,-0.007465,-0.005834,0.007041,0.004054,-0.002011,0.000125,-0.006364,0.004081,0.003944,-0.003012,-0.001557
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR35___AD_500___Coverage_50.76%,0.103579,0.150298,-0.011314,-0.046189,0.013541,-0.020638,0.00047,-0.008769,0.006954,0.021868,0.00341,0.002847,0.000149,-0.002064,-0.010179,-0.001724,0.008605,0.0019,0.000754,0.000125,-0.008235,-0.00136,0.002711,-0.010965,0.002395
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR117___AD_500___Coverage_65.46%,0.104717,0.150298,-0.014708,-0.039406,0.011694,-0.015897,-0.00329,-0.01223,0.003272,0.014032,-0.00341,0.010341,-0.013082,0.003853,-0.013843,0.003845,0.004303,0.006841,0.003897,-0.014757,-0.005116,-0.000495,-0.005669,0.005543,-0.00491
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR133___AD_400___Coverage_82.28%,0.108132,0.14319,-0.023381,-0.056202,0.006463,-0.020638,0.00658,0.000462,-0.005727,0.026971,0.007307,0.005245,-0.006244,-0.001651,-0.010993,0.01127,0.021122,-0.003547,0.003645,-0.005628,-0.006613,-0.003586,-0.003204,0.005422,0.005868
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR134___AD_400___Coverage_71.86%,0.097888,0.151314,-0.028284,-0.059432,0.008309,-0.020917,-0.0047,-0.006461,-0.004295,0.019681,0.000162,0.004196,0.00446,0.003853,-0.006107,-0.004641,0.000913,-0.002534,-0.005154,0.00025,-0.004243,0.004204,-0.002958,0.001325,-0.002994
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR136___AD_400___Coverage_86.69%,0.108132,0.149283,-0.013199,-0.040698,0.011079,-0.011435,-0.001645,-0.006,-0.000818,0.018224,0.00747,0.001199,-0.003568,0.004679,-0.008007,-0.001856,0.00339,0,0.005782,-0.005753,0.000125,0.006059,0,0.000964,0.003952
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR137___AD_400___Coverage_76.65%,0.110408,0.15436,-0.018856,-0.052003,0.010463,-0.008367,0.00047,-0.008538,-0.006954,0.028793,0.005846,0.005845,-0.012785,-0.007019,-0.017372,0.003845,0.007432,0.000887,-0.000126,-0.007629,-0.009483,0.000247,-0.000616,-0.002289,-0.003113
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR54___AD_1355___Coverage_60.26%,0.113823,0.145221,-0.015839,-0.04199,0.018157,-0.013666,0.003055,-0.005538,0.008999,0.017677,-0.002761,0.004946,-0.005054,-0.000413,-0.004614,0.001856,0.004563,-0.003801,0.010182,-0.007504,0.000125,0.006677,0.001972,0.003253,-0.000718
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR56___AD_1355___Coverage_62.53%,0.106994,0.14319,-0.006788,-0.051357,0.014156,-0.016733,-0.00094,-0.008307,-0.003272,0.014032,0.001299,0.003897,-0.008176,0.00289,-0.017372,-0.000265,0.004172,-0.00266,0.00088,-0.008129,-0.000749,0,-0.005176,0.00735,0.003592
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR58___AD_1100___Coverage_81.82%,0.10927,0.150298,-0.010559,-0.046189,0.016003,-0.016455,-0.00141,-0.006461,0.001227,0.016401,-0.004872,0.001798,-0.013379,-0.006055,-0.001357,0.000796,0.004172,-0.002154,-0.001885,-0.003752,0.004367,0.005935,0.000616,0.005663,0.000718
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR64___AD_1110___Coverage_88.28%,0.105855,0.142174,-0.004148,-0.041344,0.009232,-0.02259,0.004465,-0.005769,-0.000409,0.01877,0.007145,0.008692,-0.005946,-0.006193,-0.006786,0.003182,-0.00326,0.003927,0.000754,-0.007754,0.000998,-0.001237,0.000493,0.003615,-0.002515
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR65___AD_1110___Coverage_88.58%,0.111547,0.147252,-0.012822,-0.047804,0.013233,-0.02008,0.00188,-0.004384,0.002045,0.020593,0.001137,0.004196,-0.008474,-0.001927,-0.011265,0.012994,0.016298,0.000253,-0.002891,-0.001126,-0.001248,0.00272,0.002342,0.007953,-0.002515
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1290___AD_1348___Coverage_70.05%,0.108132,0.14319,-0.000377,-0.041667,0.017849,-0.015339,0.000705,-0.003461,0.007976,0.021868,0.006496,0.007943,-0.002825,-0.000138,-0.006107,0.00769,0.001825,-0.00228,-0.004777,-0.001876,-0.002745,0.00779,0.000986,0.010845,0.000599
C2:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ003___AD_841___Coverage_61.68%,0.097888,0.144205,-0.00792,-0.027778,0.013541,-0.017012,0.001175,-0.012692,0.006749,0.018224,0.002761,0.006444,-0.001189,-0.003991,-0.000407,-0.005569,0.005998,0.00266,-0.001508,-0.001251,0.004617,0.002349,-0.006039,0.007109,0.007185
C2:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR973___AD_1650___Coverage_69.60%,0.111547,0.145221,-0.00264,-0.042636,0.010463,-0.018128,-0.0047,-0.002769,0.001432,0.021686,-0.005684,0.005095,-0.011596,-0.00523,-0.004614,0.005304,0.011083,0.004054,0.006662,-0.003752,0.001747,-0.001237,0.004314,0.006627,-0.004431
C3:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR31___AD_412___Coverage_88.66%,0.137726,0.142174,0.066373,0.047158,0.048317,0.008367,0.00423,0.009923,0.008795,0.004009,0.002273,0.002098,-0.002973,-0.009221,0.016965,0.021612,0.008345,0.002787,0.007793,0.013757,0.008735,0.00779,-0.003944,0.013737,-0.004071
C3:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1286___AD_1430___Coverage_69.41%,0.135449,0.13405,0.058454,0.036822,0.033237,0.015618,0.00893,0.007846,-0.002045,-0.001093,-0.009256,0.005095,-0.011744,-0.013625,0.019272,0.018563,0.004955,0.000127,0.000251,0.006378,0.004367,0.010758,-0.007518,0.012652,-0.005987
C4:ITA_Marsiliana_Imperial_MAS003___AD_465___unknown_coverage,0.091058,0.150298,0.004903,-0.050711,0.036314,-0.030957,0.00141,-0.003923,0.028633,0.030069,0.00406,0.003897,-0.008771,-0.002202,-0.007736,-0.001591,0.011995,-0.008235,-0.008045,-0.003752,-0.011105,-0.001731,0.013804,0.001928,0.010179
C5:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR105___AD_500___Coverage_72.43%,0.122929,0.146236,0.034695,-0.004522,0.040623,-0.00251,-0.00094,0.003231,0.01309,0.016766,0.00341,0.002698,-0.003865,-0.00055,0.003257,-0.004773,-0.012126,-0.006588,-0.000503,-0.001376,0.00025,0.001237,-0.003574,-0.006627,0.004191
C5:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR108___AD_500___Coverage_70.45%,0.12862,0.140143,0.042615,0.006783,0.043085,0.00502,0.001175,-0.008769,0.003477,0.01385,0.000325,0.002398,-0.001189,-0.008533,0.00475,0.005171,-0.000391,0.000633,0.002765,0,0.001373,0.001237,-0.004437,0.002892,0.00012
C5:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR61___AD_1355___Coverage_79.69%,0.122929,0.144205,0.037335,0.004845,0.035391,0.000558,0.001645,0.004615,0.016157,0.020957,-0.001299,0.005245,-0.000149,0.004954,-0.004886,-0.009679,-0.006258,0.0019,0.003897,-0.001251,0.000125,-0.006554,0.006286,0.005422,-0.001078
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1220___AD_1485___Coverage_66.47%,0.121791,0.145221,0.039598,0.01615,0.034776,0.012829,-0.00752,0.000923,0.007976,0.010752,-0.007795,0.004796,-0.011001,-0.007156,0.013165,0.001458,-0.002477,-0.002534,-0.000628,-0.002251,0.008235,-0.000618,0.004067,0.006627,-0.001796
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1221___AD_1485___Coverage_75.67%,0.121791,0.139128,0.026021,0.018088,0.0397,-0.004462,0.001645,0.005769,0.007567,0.01877,-0.005521,0.007194,-0.006392,-0.011285,0.004479,-0.002519,-0.004042,0.007601,0.001131,0.001626,0.000998,0.007419,-0.001109,0.000964,0.002754
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1224___AD_1485___Coverage_68.45%,0.129758,0.147252,0.04186,0.022287,0.043085,0.011713,0.00376,0.005538,0.007976,0.016583,-0.008607,0.008692,-0.010704,-0.006331,0.007736,0.005304,-0.001434,0.000633,0.001257,0.001126,0,0.000989,-0.000863,0.002651,-0.001078
C6:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR106___AD_500___Coverage_68.57%,0.120652,0.136081,0.042992,0.03876,0.038161,0.005299,-0.000235,0.003231,0.002454,0.008383,-0.000487,0.007493,-0.009812,-0.008945,0.010993,0.00358,-0.002477,0.003041,0.014581,-0.006628,0.01148,0.008161,0.001356,0.005543,-0.005389
C6:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR62___AD_1215___Coverage_83.66%,0.127482,0.137096,0.042992,0.027778,0.037545,0.003068,0.0047,0.007615,0.009408,0.004374,0.000974,0.00045,-0.007582,-0.011698,0.004207,0.007425,0.014733,0.004307,0.005531,-0.007379,0.009234,0.002102,-0.003821,0.007712,0.008023
C6:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1288___AD_1425___Coverage_70.88%,0.121791,0.13405,0.055814,0.025517,0.049855,0.006972,0.005875,0.007154,0.006136,0.000911,-0.009419,0.002098,-0.007879,0,0.008686,0.002784,0.004563,-0.00228,0.006411,0.006503,0.004367,0.007048,-0.001232,0.010483,-0.00479
C6:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1219___AD_1442___Coverage_81.96%,0.122929,0.142174,0.046763,0.031654,0.036314,0.009761,0.004465,0.008077,0.008795,0.002005,-0.004222,0.001349,-0.015907,0.00812,0.007329,0.002519,0.001956,0.00038,0.004902,0.000375,0.007986,0.007914,0.007518,0.007953,-0.005029
C7:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR003___AD_1073___Coverage_22.58%,0.111547,0.1635,0.008297,-0.026809,0.017542,-0.01757,0,-0.005307,0.000409,0.016583,0.005359,0.005695,-0.004757,-0.009771,0.003664,0.000928,-0.004042,0.009755,0.002011,0.003752,0.003993,-0.000618,-0.005053,-0.007953,0.007544
C7:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR007___AD_862___Coverage_46.76%,0.119514,0.148267,0.005657,-0.012274,0.029852,-0.005578,-0.004935,-0.008077,0.003681,0.010023,0.002598,0.013038,-0.017988,0.00578,-0.000679,-0.000398,0.000391,-0.00114,-0.000503,0.011756,0.004367,-0.004451,0.00493,-0.001084,0.001317
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR36___AD_500___Coverage_74.85%,0.114961,0.15436,0.003017,-0.022287,0.022773,-0.008925,0.00658,-0.003692,0.001023,0.018224,0.008931,0.001649,-0.008474,-0.009909,-0.001357,0.002784,0.002347,-0.000633,0.002263,-0.003126,0.003119,0.001484,-0.001356,0.005061,-0.000958
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR107___AD_500___Coverage_80.22%,0.119514,0.149283,-0.004525,-0.031654,0.022773,-0.02008,-0.00893,-0.004615,0.010226,0.021322,-0.000325,0.005545,-0.00223,0.00578,-0.007872,-0.007425,0.009127,-0.00038,-0.000251,0.007504,-0.003993,-0.001607,0.010106,0.00012,-0.00012
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR118___AD_500___Coverage_51.56%,0.108132,0.145221,0.003771,-0.033915,0.020619,-0.022311,-0.002115,0.003461,0.001227,0.023144,-0.004872,-0.000899,-0.017096,-0.006055,0.000814,0.009016,0.020861,-0.00152,0.006788,0.006128,-0.003369,0.004451,0.001232,0.002771,0.001557
C7:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ022___AD_1091___Coverage_51.91%,0.114961,0.150298,0.006411,-0.016473,0.026159,-0.020638,0.003995,-0.005077,0.006545,0.025149,0.00065,0.007943,-0.01665,-0.006055,-0.006107,0.00305,0.011604,-0.006588,0.007919,0.001251,0.004367,0.011005,-0.000986,-0.004097,0.001796
C7:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR969___AD_1650___Coverage_92.48%,0.113823,0.148267,0,-0.0323,0.01231,-0.012271,-0.000705,0.000231,0.006749,0.022962,0.006496,0.004796,-0.008771,-0.012386,-0.004479,0.011933,0.013821,0.004941,-0.000251,0.004377,-0.003369,0.001607,-0.001232,0.005663,-0.001437
C7:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR970___AD_1650___Coverage_49.54%,0.10927,0.14319,0.003394,-0.024225,0.023081,-0.000837,-0.00423,-0.004846,0.007772,0.015308,0.001137,0.001948,-0.007433,-0.005092,-0.00095,0.002387,0.015776,-0.006461,0.000126,0.004752,-0.005615,0.003462,0.000246,0.00494,0.001796
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR33___AD_500___Coverage_82.11%,0.124067,0.147252,0.024513,-0.012274,0.03416,-0.00251,0.00423,0.003,0.017589,0.026789,-0.003897,0,-0.012933,-0.003303,-0.005565,-0.005304,0.000652,0.00228,0.005656,-0.004252,-0.001872,0.002102,-0.005176,0.007591,-0.011855
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR109___AD_500___Coverage_42.34%,0.122929,0.147252,0.039598,-0.011628,0.039392,-0.004741,0.000235,0.009692,0.018203,0.02041,-0.002436,0.012889,-0.015758,-0.014726,0.005565,0.000796,0.012126,0.002534,0.006411,-0.004502,0.005615,0.007048,-0.003204,0.011206,-0.004431
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR110___AD_500___Coverage_54.33%,0.127482,0.141159,0.033564,-0.005814,0.033545,-0.006693,-0.000705,0.001846,0.019225,0.034078,0.003735,0.008842,-0.016799,-0.004954,0.00665,0.002254,0.009388,0.007475,0.010182,0.007629,-0.009733,0.004946,0.001232,-0.000964,0.003712
C8:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR55___AD_1355___Coverage_80.21%,0.124067,0.137096,0.027907,-0.010982,0.033545,0.002789,-0.000705,0.001615,0.007567,0.022051,-0.000974,0.004046,-0.009812,0.001514,0.000407,0.008353,0.008866,-0.005954,0.010559,-0.001376,-0.008235,-0.001113,-0.00419,0.00723,0.001078
C9:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR010___AD_950___Coverage_57.27%,0.121791,0.152329,0.008297,-0.035853,0.017234,-0.015618,-0.00047,0.000231,0.010226,0.03262,-0.002273,0.012589,-0.014123,-0.004817,-0.002579,-0.013922,-0.007041,0.005701,0.002137,-0.006628,-0.006364,-0.006059,0.006532,0.00964,-0.002515
C9:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR013___AD_968___Coverage_55.68%,0.117238,0.150298,-0.000377,-0.037791,0.022158,-0.01506,0.00188,-0.003,0.008795,0.0277,-0.007307,0.014237,-0.013082,0.000826,-0.010315,-0.013524,-0.003912,0.000253,0.00264,-0.006503,-0.009858,-0.000866,-0.002958,0.007712,0.009221
C9:ITA_PoggioPelliccia_EMA_POP001___AD_861___Coverage_69.71%,0.112685,0.148267,0.009051,-0.029393,0.023389,-0.016733,-0.00705,-0.003,0.013703,0.031527,0.009094,0.004946,-0.013677,0,-0.002307,-0.001591,0.001956,-0.002027,0.006285,-0.002376,-0.000998,-0.002968,-0.001972,-0.005543,0.009221
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR120___AD_500___Coverage_44.44%,0.108132,0.153345,0.012068,-0.03876,0.016926,-0.011435,-0.0047,-0.010615,0.009613,0.023144,-0.000162,0.005845,-0.005054,0.000413,-0.009908,-0.004508,-0.011995,0.007095,0.001257,-0.000375,0.000374,0.010758,0.002095,-0.003976,0.003233
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR121___AD_500___Coverage_49.71%,0.112685,0.151314,0.000754,-0.031331,0.020927,-0.007251,0.00235,-0.003692,0.005727,0.024602,-0.004872,0.01079,-0.009663,0.001239,-0.013029,-0.006232,-0.008996,0,0.007668,-0.009004,0.001622,0,0.006039,0.000482,-0.011735
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR122___AD_500___Coverage_78.75%,0.102441,0.153345,0.000377,-0.044574,0.016003,-0.019801,-0.00235,0.000231,0.004909,0.031891,0.003085,0.006894,-0.013231,0.006331,-0.0095,-0.010077,-0.007432,-0.007601,0.003897,-0.005378,-0.001248,-0.005564,0.003574,0.005784,0.000239
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR52___AD_1355___Coverage_53.43%,0.102441,0.147252,-0.001508,-0.046189,0.017542,-0.01004,-0.00799,-0.007154,0.004704,0.027882,0.008444,0.000899,-0.009068,-0.007019,-0.01045,-0.016309,-0.008084,0.004561,0.003142,-0.012881,-0.001123,0.011994,-0.00037,-0.010122,0.002275
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR53___AD_1355___Coverage_75.73%,0.111547,0.147252,-0.011691,-0.041667,0.014156,-0.022032,-0.001645,-0.011538,0.009817,0.020957,0.001461,0.001049,-0.003122,0.008533,-0.011129,-0.0118,-0.009518,-0.00266,-0.000628,-0.005628,0.007986,-0.000124,0.002095,-0.004338,-0.002395
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR57___AD_1355___Coverage_72.46%,0.112685,0.150298,-0.012822,-0.031008,0.016311,-0.015897,-0.003525,0.000923,-0.000614,0.021868,0.001461,0.003447,-0.011298,-0.001651,-0.012079,-0.00769,-0.007562,-0.001014,0.003645,-0.003001,0.003494,0.003586,-0.003821,-0.002651,0.000718
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR59___AD_905___Coverage_79.06%,0.10927,0.148267,-0.003771,-0.037468,0.01908,-0.013108,0.002585,-0.003,0.003272,0.02041,0.001299,-0.004946,-0.003122,-0.000275,-0.013708,-0.017767,-0.010952,0.004307,-0.001885,-0.006128,0.005241,0.004699,-0.009737,-0.010483,0.001796
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR60___AD_905___Coverage_87.24%,0.10927,0.145221,0.00528,-0.028101,0.009848,-0.009761,0.00799,-0.005077,0.012067,0.010023,-0.003573,-0.001948,-0.00446,0.003028,-0.002443,-0.007027,-0.015255,0.002027,-0.00088,-0.004627,-0.00836,-0.00371,-0.002835,0.004699,0.000479
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1283___AD_855___Coverage_69.04%,0.108132,0.152329,0,-0.036822,0.028313,-0.009203,0.00141,0.006692,0.01309,0.024966,-0.000162,-0.001199,-0.014866,-0.000688,-0.012622,0.002652,0.001956,-0.007855,0.001131,-0.0005,0.006239,0.003339,-0.003574,-0.000602,-0.00012
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1285___AD_1015___Coverage_66.72%,0.112685,0.151314,0.008297,-0.030362,0.027082,-0.011156,-0.004465,-0.004154,0.020248,0.034989,-0.005034,0.004796,-0.015312,0.003991,0,-0.01074,-0.00691,0.005448,0.009176,-0.008504,0.002496,0.010881,-0.003821,-0.004217,-0.001197
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1287___AD_1425___Coverage_71.54%,0.118376,0.155376,0.012445,-0.028747,0.031698,-0.01004,-0.002115,-0.002308,0.007567,0.028793,0.004222,0.008243,-0.014866,-0.001651,-0.007465,-0.008221,-0.004824,0.001774,0.004399,-0.011756,0.000873,0.00272,-0.002958,0.006748,0.000479
C9:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ009___AD_978___Coverage_73.49%,0.108132,0.137096,0.001508,-0.037791,0.030467,-0.01506,-0.00047,0,0.011044,0.02041,0.007307,0.008542,-0.015461,0.007844,0.002036,-0.011005,-0.013299,0.006714,0.004399,-0.006003,-0.006239,0.007296,-0.004314,0.001325,-0.001676
C9:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ011___AD_959___Coverage_66.23%,0.10927,0.157407,0.00792,-0.029393,0.027082,-0.011156,-0.002585,0.006231,0.007567,0.015672,0.006333,0.01154,-0.012339,-0.002202,-0.000271,-0.005436,-0.012126,-0.002534,-0.002514,-0.01038,0.000873,-0.002597,0.001232,-0.00494,0.007903
C10:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR104___AD_631___Coverage_60.60%,0.121791,0.159438,0.035826,-0.056525,0.073244,-0.022869,-0.00564,0.001154,0.047245,0.085469,-0.002598,0.014087,-0.02438,-0.01679,-0.015608,-0.002254,0.018515,-0.006081,0.004651,-0.011506,-0.004492,-0.011623,-0.013557,-0.023738,0.004071
C11:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR63___AD_990___Coverage_88.88%,0.120652,0.147252,0.039221,0.007752,0.049548,-0.006693,0.000235,-0.002538,0.028838,0.034625,-0.003735,0.006894,-0.014123,-0.010735,0.006243,0.007027,0.01017,0.00152,-0.005279,0.011005,-0.005241,-0.001113,-0.000986,0.001687,0.006826
C11:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1289___AD_1425___Coverage_57.18%,0.122929,0.142174,0.043369,0.006783,0.045239,-0.001673,-0.005875,0.002077,0.030679,0.034807,0,0.009741,-0.024232,-0.012799,0.009636,0.008221,0.013038,-0.006208,0.003645,0.008004,0.005241,0.00507,-0.005053,0.001084,-0.005748
C12:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR014___AD_1006___Coverage_30.15%,0.1161,0.152329,-0.023759,-0.040375,0.014464,-0.022032,0.013161,0.005538,-0.006136,0.024602,0,0.002098,-0.009812,0.008257,-0.018729,0.003978,-0.000391,-0.000633,0.001257,0.007379,-0.012478,0.003586,0.004314,0.01458,-0.001796

PCA

WghPi7O.png
 
The samples that cluster closest to northern Italy are dated to 500 AD. However, the problem is that the samples from Rome are a clusterf*ck of different people and this is true for every period, even today.

These are all the Central Italian samples from AD 400 to 1650 divided by cluster.

Code:
C1:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR130___AD_400___Coverage_78.50%,0.103579,0.150298,-0.037335,-0.063308,-0.001846,-0.021753,0.00047,-0.010846,0.003681,0.030069,0.008444,-0.001948,-0.003419,-0.002064,-0.00285,-0.009546,0.002868,0.002534,-0.000628,-0.000875,0.004118,0.001855,-0.013557,-0.001325,-0.00455
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR30___AD_500___Coverage_79.47%,0.101303,0.147252,-0.019987,-0.054264,0.013849,-0.024263,0.000235,-0.008077,0.0045,0.020228,0.000487,0.004196,-0.011447,-0.001514,-0.016558,-0.007027,0.00339,0.003041,0.005028,0.005628,0.001996,0.001237,0.003451,0.002289,-0.003233
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR32___AD_500___Coverage_53.38%,0.101303,0.155376,-0.007542,-0.044574,0.021542,-0.019243,-0.00376,-0.007154,0.002863,0.023326,-0.001137,0.003297,-0.008028,-0.006331,-0.002036,-0.004773,0.005867,-0.003294,-0.005782,0.003877,0.002121,-0.004081,0.003451,-0.011568,-0.000359
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR34___AD_500___Coverage_70.78%,0.101303,0.152329,-0.023381,-0.059432,0.007386,-0.023985,0.001175,-0.000692,-0.003272,0.018406,0.002923,0.005095,-0.002973,0.00289,-0.007465,-0.005834,0.007041,0.004054,-0.002011,0.000125,-0.006364,0.004081,0.003944,-0.003012,-0.001557
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR35___AD_500___Coverage_50.76%,0.103579,0.150298,-0.011314,-0.046189,0.013541,-0.020638,0.00047,-0.008769,0.006954,0.021868,0.00341,0.002847,0.000149,-0.002064,-0.010179,-0.001724,0.008605,0.0019,0.000754,0.000125,-0.008235,-0.00136,0.002711,-0.010965,0.002395
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR117___AD_500___Coverage_65.46%,0.104717,0.150298,-0.014708,-0.039406,0.011694,-0.015897,-0.00329,-0.01223,0.003272,0.014032,-0.00341,0.010341,-0.013082,0.003853,-0.013843,0.003845,0.004303,0.006841,0.003897,-0.014757,-0.005116,-0.000495,-0.005669,0.005543,-0.00491
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR133___AD_400___Coverage_82.28%,0.108132,0.14319,-0.023381,-0.056202,0.006463,-0.020638,0.00658,0.000462,-0.005727,0.026971,0.007307,0.005245,-0.006244,-0.001651,-0.010993,0.01127,0.021122,-0.003547,0.003645,-0.005628,-0.006613,-0.003586,-0.003204,0.005422,0.005868
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR134___AD_400___Coverage_71.86%,0.097888,0.151314,-0.028284,-0.059432,0.008309,-0.020917,-0.0047,-0.006461,-0.004295,0.019681,0.000162,0.004196,0.00446,0.003853,-0.006107,-0.004641,0.000913,-0.002534,-0.005154,0.00025,-0.004243,0.004204,-0.002958,0.001325,-0.002994
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR136___AD_400___Coverage_86.69%,0.108132,0.149283,-0.013199,-0.040698,0.011079,-0.011435,-0.001645,-0.006,-0.000818,0.018224,0.00747,0.001199,-0.003568,0.004679,-0.008007,-0.001856,0.00339,0,0.005782,-0.005753,0.000125,0.006059,0,0.000964,0.003952
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR137___AD_400___Coverage_76.65%,0.110408,0.15436,-0.018856,-0.052003,0.010463,-0.008367,0.00047,-0.008538,-0.006954,0.028793,0.005846,0.005845,-0.012785,-0.007019,-0.017372,0.003845,0.007432,0.000887,-0.000126,-0.007629,-0.009483,0.000247,-0.000616,-0.002289,-0.003113
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR54___AD_1355___Coverage_60.26%,0.113823,0.145221,-0.015839,-0.04199,0.018157,-0.013666,0.003055,-0.005538,0.008999,0.017677,-0.002761,0.004946,-0.005054,-0.000413,-0.004614,0.001856,0.004563,-0.003801,0.010182,-0.007504,0.000125,0.006677,0.001972,0.003253,-0.000718
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR56___AD_1355___Coverage_62.53%,0.106994,0.14319,-0.006788,-0.051357,0.014156,-0.016733,-0.00094,-0.008307,-0.003272,0.014032,0.001299,0.003897,-0.008176,0.00289,-0.017372,-0.000265,0.004172,-0.00266,0.00088,-0.008129,-0.000749,0,-0.005176,0.00735,0.003592
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR58___AD_1100___Coverage_81.82%,0.10927,0.150298,-0.010559,-0.046189,0.016003,-0.016455,-0.00141,-0.006461,0.001227,0.016401,-0.004872,0.001798,-0.013379,-0.006055,-0.001357,0.000796,0.004172,-0.002154,-0.001885,-0.003752,0.004367,0.005935,0.000616,0.005663,0.000718
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR64___AD_1110___Coverage_88.28%,0.105855,0.142174,-0.004148,-0.041344,0.009232,-0.02259,0.004465,-0.005769,-0.000409,0.01877,0.007145,0.008692,-0.005946,-0.006193,-0.006786,0.003182,-0.00326,0.003927,0.000754,-0.007754,0.000998,-0.001237,0.000493,0.003615,-0.002515
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR65___AD_1110___Coverage_88.58%,0.111547,0.147252,-0.012822,-0.047804,0.013233,-0.02008,0.00188,-0.004384,0.002045,0.020593,0.001137,0.004196,-0.008474,-0.001927,-0.011265,0.012994,0.016298,0.000253,-0.002891,-0.001126,-0.001248,0.00272,0.002342,0.007953,-0.002515
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1290___AD_1348___Coverage_70.05%,0.108132,0.14319,-0.000377,-0.041667,0.017849,-0.015339,0.000705,-0.003461,0.007976,0.021868,0.006496,0.007943,-0.002825,-0.000138,-0.006107,0.00769,0.001825,-0.00228,-0.004777,-0.001876,-0.002745,0.00779,0.000986,0.010845,0.000599
C2:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ003___AD_841___Coverage_61.68%,0.097888,0.144205,-0.00792,-0.027778,0.013541,-0.017012,0.001175,-0.012692,0.006749,0.018224,0.002761,0.006444,-0.001189,-0.003991,-0.000407,-0.005569,0.005998,0.00266,-0.001508,-0.001251,0.004617,0.002349,-0.006039,0.007109,0.007185
C2:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR973___AD_1650___Coverage_69.60%,0.111547,0.145221,-0.00264,-0.042636,0.010463,-0.018128,-0.0047,-0.002769,0.001432,0.021686,-0.005684,0.005095,-0.011596,-0.00523,-0.004614,0.005304,0.011083,0.004054,0.006662,-0.003752,0.001747,-0.001237,0.004314,0.006627,-0.004431
C3:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR31___AD_412___Coverage_88.66%,0.137726,0.142174,0.066373,0.047158,0.048317,0.008367,0.00423,0.009923,0.008795,0.004009,0.002273,0.002098,-0.002973,-0.009221,0.016965,0.021612,0.008345,0.002787,0.007793,0.013757,0.008735,0.00779,-0.003944,0.013737,-0.004071
C3:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1286___AD_1430___Coverage_69.41%,0.135449,0.13405,0.058454,0.036822,0.033237,0.015618,0.00893,0.007846,-0.002045,-0.001093,-0.009256,0.005095,-0.011744,-0.013625,0.019272,0.018563,0.004955,0.000127,0.000251,0.006378,0.004367,0.010758,-0.007518,0.012652,-0.005987
C4:ITA_Marsiliana_Imperial_MAS003___AD_465___unknown_coverage,0.091058,0.150298,0.004903,-0.050711,0.036314,-0.030957,0.00141,-0.003923,0.028633,0.030069,0.00406,0.003897,-0.008771,-0.002202,-0.007736,-0.001591,0.011995,-0.008235,-0.008045,-0.003752,-0.011105,-0.001731,0.013804,0.001928,0.010179
C5:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR105___AD_500___Coverage_72.43%,0.122929,0.146236,0.034695,-0.004522,0.040623,-0.00251,-0.00094,0.003231,0.01309,0.016766,0.00341,0.002698,-0.003865,-0.00055,0.003257,-0.004773,-0.012126,-0.006588,-0.000503,-0.001376,0.00025,0.001237,-0.003574,-0.006627,0.004191
C5:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR108___AD_500___Coverage_70.45%,0.12862,0.140143,0.042615,0.006783,0.043085,0.00502,0.001175,-0.008769,0.003477,0.01385,0.000325,0.002398,-0.001189,-0.008533,0.00475,0.005171,-0.000391,0.000633,0.002765,0,0.001373,0.001237,-0.004437,0.002892,0.00012
C5:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR61___AD_1355___Coverage_79.69%,0.122929,0.144205,0.037335,0.004845,0.035391,0.000558,0.001645,0.004615,0.016157,0.020957,-0.001299,0.005245,-0.000149,0.004954,-0.004886,-0.009679,-0.006258,0.0019,0.003897,-0.001251,0.000125,-0.006554,0.006286,0.005422,-0.001078
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1220___AD_1485___Coverage_66.47%,0.121791,0.145221,0.039598,0.01615,0.034776,0.012829,-0.00752,0.000923,0.007976,0.010752,-0.007795,0.004796,-0.011001,-0.007156,0.013165,0.001458,-0.002477,-0.002534,-0.000628,-0.002251,0.008235,-0.000618,0.004067,0.006627,-0.001796
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1221___AD_1485___Coverage_75.67%,0.121791,0.139128,0.026021,0.018088,0.0397,-0.004462,0.001645,0.005769,0.007567,0.01877,-0.005521,0.007194,-0.006392,-0.011285,0.004479,-0.002519,-0.004042,0.007601,0.001131,0.001626,0.000998,0.007419,-0.001109,0.000964,0.002754
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1224___AD_1485___Coverage_68.45%,0.129758,0.147252,0.04186,0.022287,0.043085,0.011713,0.00376,0.005538,0.007976,0.016583,-0.008607,0.008692,-0.010704,-0.006331,0.007736,0.005304,-0.001434,0.000633,0.001257,0.001126,0,0.000989,-0.000863,0.002651,-0.001078
C6:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR106___AD_500___Coverage_68.57%,0.120652,0.136081,0.042992,0.03876,0.038161,0.005299,-0.000235,0.003231,0.002454,0.008383,-0.000487,0.007493,-0.009812,-0.008945,0.010993,0.00358,-0.002477,0.003041,0.014581,-0.006628,0.01148,0.008161,0.001356,0.005543,-0.005389
C6:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR62___AD_1215___Coverage_83.66%,0.127482,0.137096,0.042992,0.027778,0.037545,0.003068,0.0047,0.007615,0.009408,0.004374,0.000974,0.00045,-0.007582,-0.011698,0.004207,0.007425,0.014733,0.004307,0.005531,-0.007379,0.009234,0.002102,-0.003821,0.007712,0.008023
C6:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1288___AD_1425___Coverage_70.88%,0.121791,0.13405,0.055814,0.025517,0.049855,0.006972,0.005875,0.007154,0.006136,0.000911,-0.009419,0.002098,-0.007879,0,0.008686,0.002784,0.004563,-0.00228,0.006411,0.006503,0.004367,0.007048,-0.001232,0.010483,-0.00479
C6:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1219___AD_1442___Coverage_81.96%,0.122929,0.142174,0.046763,0.031654,0.036314,0.009761,0.004465,0.008077,0.008795,0.002005,-0.004222,0.001349,-0.015907,0.00812,0.007329,0.002519,0.001956,0.00038,0.004902,0.000375,0.007986,0.007914,0.007518,0.007953,-0.005029
C7:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR003___AD_1073___Coverage_22.58%,0.111547,0.1635,0.008297,-0.026809,0.017542,-0.01757,0,-0.005307,0.000409,0.016583,0.005359,0.005695,-0.004757,-0.009771,0.003664,0.000928,-0.004042,0.009755,0.002011,0.003752,0.003993,-0.000618,-0.005053,-0.007953,0.007544
C7:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR007___AD_862___Coverage_46.76%,0.119514,0.148267,0.005657,-0.012274,0.029852,-0.005578,-0.004935,-0.008077,0.003681,0.010023,0.002598,0.013038,-0.017988,0.00578,-0.000679,-0.000398,0.000391,-0.00114,-0.000503,0.011756,0.004367,-0.004451,0.00493,-0.001084,0.001317
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR36___AD_500___Coverage_74.85%,0.114961,0.15436,0.003017,-0.022287,0.022773,-0.008925,0.00658,-0.003692,0.001023,0.018224,0.008931,0.001649,-0.008474,-0.009909,-0.001357,0.002784,0.002347,-0.000633,0.002263,-0.003126,0.003119,0.001484,-0.001356,0.005061,-0.000958
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR107___AD_500___Coverage_80.22%,0.119514,0.149283,-0.004525,-0.031654,0.022773,-0.02008,-0.00893,-0.004615,0.010226,0.021322,-0.000325,0.005545,-0.00223,0.00578,-0.007872,-0.007425,0.009127,-0.00038,-0.000251,0.007504,-0.003993,-0.001607,0.010106,0.00012,-0.00012
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR118___AD_500___Coverage_51.56%,0.108132,0.145221,0.003771,-0.033915,0.020619,-0.022311,-0.002115,0.003461,0.001227,0.023144,-0.004872,-0.000899,-0.017096,-0.006055,0.000814,0.009016,0.020861,-0.00152,0.006788,0.006128,-0.003369,0.004451,0.001232,0.002771,0.001557
C7:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ022___AD_1091___Coverage_51.91%,0.114961,0.150298,0.006411,-0.016473,0.026159,-0.020638,0.003995,-0.005077,0.006545,0.025149,0.00065,0.007943,-0.01665,-0.006055,-0.006107,0.00305,0.011604,-0.006588,0.007919,0.001251,0.004367,0.011005,-0.000986,-0.004097,0.001796
C7:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR969___AD_1650___Coverage_92.48%,0.113823,0.148267,0,-0.0323,0.01231,-0.012271,-0.000705,0.000231,0.006749,0.022962,0.006496,0.004796,-0.008771,-0.012386,-0.004479,0.011933,0.013821,0.004941,-0.000251,0.004377,-0.003369,0.001607,-0.001232,0.005663,-0.001437
C7:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR970___AD_1650___Coverage_49.54%,0.10927,0.14319,0.003394,-0.024225,0.023081,-0.000837,-0.00423,-0.004846,0.007772,0.015308,0.001137,0.001948,-0.007433,-0.005092,-0.00095,0.002387,0.015776,-0.006461,0.000126,0.004752,-0.005615,0.003462,0.000246,0.00494,0.001796
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR33___AD_500___Coverage_82.11%,0.124067,0.147252,0.024513,-0.012274,0.03416,-0.00251,0.00423,0.003,0.017589,0.026789,-0.003897,0,-0.012933,-0.003303,-0.005565,-0.005304,0.000652,0.00228,0.005656,-0.004252,-0.001872,0.002102,-0.005176,0.007591,-0.011855
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR109___AD_500___Coverage_42.34%,0.122929,0.147252,0.039598,-0.011628,0.039392,-0.004741,0.000235,0.009692,0.018203,0.02041,-0.002436,0.012889,-0.015758,-0.014726,0.005565,0.000796,0.012126,0.002534,0.006411,-0.004502,0.005615,0.007048,-0.003204,0.011206,-0.004431
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR110___AD_500___Coverage_54.33%,0.127482,0.141159,0.033564,-0.005814,0.033545,-0.006693,-0.000705,0.001846,0.019225,0.034078,0.003735,0.008842,-0.016799,-0.004954,0.00665,0.002254,0.009388,0.007475,0.010182,0.007629,-0.009733,0.004946,0.001232,-0.000964,0.003712
C8:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR55___AD_1355___Coverage_80.21%,0.124067,0.137096,0.027907,-0.010982,0.033545,0.002789,-0.000705,0.001615,0.007567,0.022051,-0.000974,0.004046,-0.009812,0.001514,0.000407,0.008353,0.008866,-0.005954,0.010559,-0.001376,-0.008235,-0.001113,-0.00419,0.00723,0.001078
C9:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR010___AD_950___Coverage_57.27%,0.121791,0.152329,0.008297,-0.035853,0.017234,-0.015618,-0.00047,0.000231,0.010226,0.03262,-0.002273,0.012589,-0.014123,-0.004817,-0.002579,-0.013922,-0.007041,0.005701,0.002137,-0.006628,-0.006364,-0.006059,0.006532,0.00964,-0.002515
C9:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR013___AD_968___Coverage_55.68%,0.117238,0.150298,-0.000377,-0.037791,0.022158,-0.01506,0.00188,-0.003,0.008795,0.0277,-0.007307,0.014237,-0.013082,0.000826,-0.010315,-0.013524,-0.003912,0.000253,0.00264,-0.006503,-0.009858,-0.000866,-0.002958,0.007712,0.009221
C9:ITA_PoggioPelliccia_EMA_POP001___AD_861___Coverage_69.71%,0.112685,0.148267,0.009051,-0.029393,0.023389,-0.016733,-0.00705,-0.003,0.013703,0.031527,0.009094,0.004946,-0.013677,0,-0.002307,-0.001591,0.001956,-0.002027,0.006285,-0.002376,-0.000998,-0.002968,-0.001972,-0.005543,0.009221
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR120___AD_500___Coverage_44.44%,0.108132,0.153345,0.012068,-0.03876,0.016926,-0.011435,-0.0047,-0.010615,0.009613,0.023144,-0.000162,0.005845,-0.005054,0.000413,-0.009908,-0.004508,-0.011995,0.007095,0.001257,-0.000375,0.000374,0.010758,0.002095,-0.003976,0.003233
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR121___AD_500___Coverage_49.71%,0.112685,0.151314,0.000754,-0.031331,0.020927,-0.007251,0.00235,-0.003692,0.005727,0.024602,-0.004872,0.01079,-0.009663,0.001239,-0.013029,-0.006232,-0.008996,0,0.007668,-0.009004,0.001622,0,0.006039,0.000482,-0.011735
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR122___AD_500___Coverage_78.75%,0.102441,0.153345,0.000377,-0.044574,0.016003,-0.019801,-0.00235,0.000231,0.004909,0.031891,0.003085,0.006894,-0.013231,0.006331,-0.0095,-0.010077,-0.007432,-0.007601,0.003897,-0.005378,-0.001248,-0.005564,0.003574,0.005784,0.000239
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR52___AD_1355___Coverage_53.43%,0.102441,0.147252,-0.001508,-0.046189,0.017542,-0.01004,-0.00799,-0.007154,0.004704,0.027882,0.008444,0.000899,-0.009068,-0.007019,-0.01045,-0.016309,-0.008084,0.004561,0.003142,-0.012881,-0.001123,0.011994,-0.00037,-0.010122,0.002275
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR53___AD_1355___Coverage_75.73%,0.111547,0.147252,-0.011691,-0.041667,0.014156,-0.022032,-0.001645,-0.011538,0.009817,0.020957,0.001461,0.001049,-0.003122,0.008533,-0.011129,-0.0118,-0.009518,-0.00266,-0.000628,-0.005628,0.007986,-0.000124,0.002095,-0.004338,-0.002395
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR57___AD_1355___Coverage_72.46%,0.112685,0.150298,-0.012822,-0.031008,0.016311,-0.015897,-0.003525,0.000923,-0.000614,0.021868,0.001461,0.003447,-0.011298,-0.001651,-0.012079,-0.00769,-0.007562,-0.001014,0.003645,-0.003001,0.003494,0.003586,-0.003821,-0.002651,0.000718
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR59___AD_905___Coverage_79.06%,0.10927,0.148267,-0.003771,-0.037468,0.01908,-0.013108,0.002585,-0.003,0.003272,0.02041,0.001299,-0.004946,-0.003122,-0.000275,-0.013708,-0.017767,-0.010952,0.004307,-0.001885,-0.006128,0.005241,0.004699,-0.009737,-0.010483,0.001796
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR60___AD_905___Coverage_87.24%,0.10927,0.145221,0.00528,-0.028101,0.009848,-0.009761,0.00799,-0.005077,0.012067,0.010023,-0.003573,-0.001948,-0.00446,0.003028,-0.002443,-0.007027,-0.015255,0.002027,-0.00088,-0.004627,-0.00836,-0.00371,-0.002835,0.004699,0.000479
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1283___AD_855___Coverage_69.04%,0.108132,0.152329,0,-0.036822,0.028313,-0.009203,0.00141,0.006692,0.01309,0.024966,-0.000162,-0.001199,-0.014866,-0.000688,-0.012622,0.002652,0.001956,-0.007855,0.001131,-0.0005,0.006239,0.003339,-0.003574,-0.000602,-0.00012
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1285___AD_1015___Coverage_66.72%,0.112685,0.151314,0.008297,-0.030362,0.027082,-0.011156,-0.004465,-0.004154,0.020248,0.034989,-0.005034,0.004796,-0.015312,0.003991,0,-0.01074,-0.00691,0.005448,0.009176,-0.008504,0.002496,0.010881,-0.003821,-0.004217,-0.001197
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1287___AD_1425___Coverage_71.54%,0.118376,0.155376,0.012445,-0.028747,0.031698,-0.01004,-0.002115,-0.002308,0.007567,0.028793,0.004222,0.008243,-0.014866,-0.001651,-0.007465,-0.008221,-0.004824,0.001774,0.004399,-0.011756,0.000873,0.00272,-0.002958,0.006748,0.000479
C9:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ009___AD_978___Coverage_73.49%,0.108132,0.137096,0.001508,-0.037791,0.030467,-0.01506,-0.00047,0,0.011044,0.02041,0.007307,0.008542,-0.015461,0.007844,0.002036,-0.011005,-0.013299,0.006714,0.004399,-0.006003,-0.006239,0.007296,-0.004314,0.001325,-0.001676
C9:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ011___AD_959___Coverage_66.23%,0.10927,0.157407,0.00792,-0.029393,0.027082,-0.011156,-0.002585,0.006231,0.007567,0.015672,0.006333,0.01154,-0.012339,-0.002202,-0.000271,-0.005436,-0.012126,-0.002534,-0.002514,-0.01038,0.000873,-0.002597,0.001232,-0.00494,0.007903
C10:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR104___AD_631___Coverage_60.60%,0.121791,0.159438,0.035826,-0.056525,0.073244,-0.022869,-0.00564,0.001154,0.047245,0.085469,-0.002598,0.014087,-0.02438,-0.01679,-0.015608,-0.002254,0.018515,-0.006081,0.004651,-0.011506,-0.004492,-0.011623,-0.013557,-0.023738,0.004071
C11:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR63___AD_990___Coverage_88.88%,0.120652,0.147252,0.039221,0.007752,0.049548,-0.006693,0.000235,-0.002538,0.028838,0.034625,-0.003735,0.006894,-0.014123,-0.010735,0.006243,0.007027,0.01017,0.00152,-0.005279,0.011005,-0.005241,-0.001113,-0.000986,0.001687,0.006826
C11:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1289___AD_1425___Coverage_57.18%,0.122929,0.142174,0.043369,0.006783,0.045239,-0.001673,-0.005875,0.002077,0.030679,0.034807,0,0.009741,-0.024232,-0.012799,0.009636,0.008221,0.013038,-0.006208,0.003645,0.008004,0.005241,0.00507,-0.005053,0.001084,-0.005748
C12:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR014___AD_1006___Coverage_30.15%,0.1161,0.152329,-0.023759,-0.040375,0.014464,-0.022032,0.013161,0.005538,-0.006136,0.024602,0,0.002098,-0.009812,0.008257,-0.018729,0.003978,-0.000391,-0.000633,0.001257,0.007379,-0.012478,0.003586,0.004314,0.01458,-0.001796

PCA

WghPi7O.png

Some few early Medieval samples do cluster with Northern Italians. But most of Northern Italian-like medieval samples are from late Middle Ages. I will check back when I have time for all this.
 
Can you please stop confounding the PCA with these made-up clusters? I have stated before, the paper itself has them divided by haplotype sharing, and they form as clusters.

Dodecad K12b may not be a good calculator for analyzing prehistoric source populations that fall outside of the modern genetic continuum of West Eurasians. But Dodecad is indeed a good calculator for looking at modern populations in Southern Europe that do. Of which these Italian samples fall into.

Also now that we see the difference between G25 and the southern Arc paper's model, we know G25 is also not a good calculator for analyzing prehistoric source populations, given the discrepancy.

That's exactly what I see when comparing the two calculators to the paper.
 

All empires die from within they say. First the city decayed, then it was sacked. Same is true for Constantinople. It was a mere shadow of its former self when it was conquered by the Ottomans.
 
All empires die from within they say. First the city decayed, then it was sacked. Same is true for Constantinople. It was a mere shadow of its former self when it was conquered by the Ottomans.

This is my whole problem with using samples from a cosmopolitan center of an Empire to make conclusions about source populations for modern countries. That famous "tail" into the Levant in the case of Ancient Rome disappeared because the population steadily declined, and merchants, artisans, and the slaves they used left the city.

Then, almost from Late Antiquity, to the early Middle Ages, to the 1400s and the Renaissance, when it had a "local" population drawn from who knows where, but probably some "true" locals, but also people from neighboring areas like Campania, the Abruzzo and Toscana, and numbering only 20-30,000 people, it was inundated by pilgrims from all over Christendom, and most particularly from all over Italy, who also, given the diseases prevalent in the city, consisting not only of the plague, but malaria and typhus, promptly died and left their bones to be analyzed as well.

This is why, as I have said over and over again, you can't just analyze the autosomes of these samples. You have to do an analysis of burial context. Some bone found by who knows who by the side of the road and then left to molder in a museum just won't do. You absolutely must do isotope analysis as well, as was done in the excellent paper on the Lombards, to weed at least some of them out, although some "transients" will slip through. You should also do a uniparental analysis.

Most importantly, it's madness to take averages of such disparate samples. It will completely distort any analysis you're trying to do.
 
The samples that cluster closest to northern Italy are dated to 500 AD. However, the problem is that the samples from Rome are a clusterf*ck of different people and this is true for every period, even today.

These are all the Central Italian samples from AD 400 to 1650 divided by cluster.

Code:
C1:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR130___AD_400___Coverage_78.50%,0.103579,0.150298,-0.037335,-0.063308,-0.001846,-0.021753,0.00047,-0.010846,0.003681,0.030069,0.008444,-0.001948,-0.003419,-0.002064,-0.00285,-0.009546,0.002868,0.002534,-0.000628,-0.000875,0.004118,0.001855,-0.013557,-0.001325,-0.00455
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR30___AD_500___Coverage_79.47%,0.101303,0.147252,-0.019987,-0.054264,0.013849,-0.024263,0.000235,-0.008077,0.0045,0.020228,0.000487,0.004196,-0.011447,-0.001514,-0.016558,-0.007027,0.00339,0.003041,0.005028,0.005628,0.001996,0.001237,0.003451,0.002289,-0.003233
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR32___AD_500___Coverage_53.38%,0.101303,0.155376,-0.007542,-0.044574,0.021542,-0.019243,-0.00376,-0.007154,0.002863,0.023326,-0.001137,0.003297,-0.008028,-0.006331,-0.002036,-0.004773,0.005867,-0.003294,-0.005782,0.003877,0.002121,-0.004081,0.003451,-0.011568,-0.000359
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR34___AD_500___Coverage_70.78%,0.101303,0.152329,-0.023381,-0.059432,0.007386,-0.023985,0.001175,-0.000692,-0.003272,0.018406,0.002923,0.005095,-0.002973,0.00289,-0.007465,-0.005834,0.007041,0.004054,-0.002011,0.000125,-0.006364,0.004081,0.003944,-0.003012,-0.001557
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR35___AD_500___Coverage_50.76%,0.103579,0.150298,-0.011314,-0.046189,0.013541,-0.020638,0.00047,-0.008769,0.006954,0.021868,0.00341,0.002847,0.000149,-0.002064,-0.010179,-0.001724,0.008605,0.0019,0.000754,0.000125,-0.008235,-0.00136,0.002711,-0.010965,0.002395
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR117___AD_500___Coverage_65.46%,0.104717,0.150298,-0.014708,-0.039406,0.011694,-0.015897,-0.00329,-0.01223,0.003272,0.014032,-0.00341,0.010341,-0.013082,0.003853,-0.013843,0.003845,0.004303,0.006841,0.003897,-0.014757,-0.005116,-0.000495,-0.005669,0.005543,-0.00491
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR133___AD_400___Coverage_82.28%,0.108132,0.14319,-0.023381,-0.056202,0.006463,-0.020638,0.00658,0.000462,-0.005727,0.026971,0.007307,0.005245,-0.006244,-0.001651,-0.010993,0.01127,0.021122,-0.003547,0.003645,-0.005628,-0.006613,-0.003586,-0.003204,0.005422,0.005868
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR134___AD_400___Coverage_71.86%,0.097888,0.151314,-0.028284,-0.059432,0.008309,-0.020917,-0.0047,-0.006461,-0.004295,0.019681,0.000162,0.004196,0.00446,0.003853,-0.006107,-0.004641,0.000913,-0.002534,-0.005154,0.00025,-0.004243,0.004204,-0.002958,0.001325,-0.002994
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR136___AD_400___Coverage_86.69%,0.108132,0.149283,-0.013199,-0.040698,0.011079,-0.011435,-0.001645,-0.006,-0.000818,0.018224,0.00747,0.001199,-0.003568,0.004679,-0.008007,-0.001856,0.00339,0,0.005782,-0.005753,0.000125,0.006059,0,0.000964,0.003952
C2:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR137___AD_400___Coverage_76.65%,0.110408,0.15436,-0.018856,-0.052003,0.010463,-0.008367,0.00047,-0.008538,-0.006954,0.028793,0.005846,0.005845,-0.012785,-0.007019,-0.017372,0.003845,0.007432,0.000887,-0.000126,-0.007629,-0.009483,0.000247,-0.000616,-0.002289,-0.003113
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR54___AD_1355___Coverage_60.26%,0.113823,0.145221,-0.015839,-0.04199,0.018157,-0.013666,0.003055,-0.005538,0.008999,0.017677,-0.002761,0.004946,-0.005054,-0.000413,-0.004614,0.001856,0.004563,-0.003801,0.010182,-0.007504,0.000125,0.006677,0.001972,0.003253,-0.000718
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR56___AD_1355___Coverage_62.53%,0.106994,0.14319,-0.006788,-0.051357,0.014156,-0.016733,-0.00094,-0.008307,-0.003272,0.014032,0.001299,0.003897,-0.008176,0.00289,-0.017372,-0.000265,0.004172,-0.00266,0.00088,-0.008129,-0.000749,0,-0.005176,0.00735,0.003592
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR58___AD_1100___Coverage_81.82%,0.10927,0.150298,-0.010559,-0.046189,0.016003,-0.016455,-0.00141,-0.006461,0.001227,0.016401,-0.004872,0.001798,-0.013379,-0.006055,-0.001357,0.000796,0.004172,-0.002154,-0.001885,-0.003752,0.004367,0.005935,0.000616,0.005663,0.000718
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR64___AD_1110___Coverage_88.28%,0.105855,0.142174,-0.004148,-0.041344,0.009232,-0.02259,0.004465,-0.005769,-0.000409,0.01877,0.007145,0.008692,-0.005946,-0.006193,-0.006786,0.003182,-0.00326,0.003927,0.000754,-0.007754,0.000998,-0.001237,0.000493,0.003615,-0.002515
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR65___AD_1110___Coverage_88.58%,0.111547,0.147252,-0.012822,-0.047804,0.013233,-0.02008,0.00188,-0.004384,0.002045,0.020593,0.001137,0.004196,-0.008474,-0.001927,-0.011265,0.012994,0.016298,0.000253,-0.002891,-0.001126,-0.001248,0.00272,0.002342,0.007953,-0.002515
C2:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1290___AD_1348___Coverage_70.05%,0.108132,0.14319,-0.000377,-0.041667,0.017849,-0.015339,0.000705,-0.003461,0.007976,0.021868,0.006496,0.007943,-0.002825,-0.000138,-0.006107,0.00769,0.001825,-0.00228,-0.004777,-0.001876,-0.002745,0.00779,0.000986,0.010845,0.000599
C2:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ003___AD_841___Coverage_61.68%,0.097888,0.144205,-0.00792,-0.027778,0.013541,-0.017012,0.001175,-0.012692,0.006749,0.018224,0.002761,0.006444,-0.001189,-0.003991,-0.000407,-0.005569,0.005998,0.00266,-0.001508,-0.001251,0.004617,0.002349,-0.006039,0.007109,0.007185
C2:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR973___AD_1650___Coverage_69.60%,0.111547,0.145221,-0.00264,-0.042636,0.010463,-0.018128,-0.0047,-0.002769,0.001432,0.021686,-0.005684,0.005095,-0.011596,-0.00523,-0.004614,0.005304,0.011083,0.004054,0.006662,-0.003752,0.001747,-0.001237,0.004314,0.006627,-0.004431
C3:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR31___AD_412___Coverage_88.66%,0.137726,0.142174,0.066373,0.047158,0.048317,0.008367,0.00423,0.009923,0.008795,0.004009,0.002273,0.002098,-0.002973,-0.009221,0.016965,0.021612,0.008345,0.002787,0.007793,0.013757,0.008735,0.00779,-0.003944,0.013737,-0.004071
C3:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1286___AD_1430___Coverage_69.41%,0.135449,0.13405,0.058454,0.036822,0.033237,0.015618,0.00893,0.007846,-0.002045,-0.001093,-0.009256,0.005095,-0.011744,-0.013625,0.019272,0.018563,0.004955,0.000127,0.000251,0.006378,0.004367,0.010758,-0.007518,0.012652,-0.005987
C4:ITA_Marsiliana_Imperial_MAS003___AD_465___unknown_coverage,0.091058,0.150298,0.004903,-0.050711,0.036314,-0.030957,0.00141,-0.003923,0.028633,0.030069,0.00406,0.003897,-0.008771,-0.002202,-0.007736,-0.001591,0.011995,-0.008235,-0.008045,-0.003752,-0.011105,-0.001731,0.013804,0.001928,0.010179
C5:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR105___AD_500___Coverage_72.43%,0.122929,0.146236,0.034695,-0.004522,0.040623,-0.00251,-0.00094,0.003231,0.01309,0.016766,0.00341,0.002698,-0.003865,-0.00055,0.003257,-0.004773,-0.012126,-0.006588,-0.000503,-0.001376,0.00025,0.001237,-0.003574,-0.006627,0.004191
C5:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR108___AD_500___Coverage_70.45%,0.12862,0.140143,0.042615,0.006783,0.043085,0.00502,0.001175,-0.008769,0.003477,0.01385,0.000325,0.002398,-0.001189,-0.008533,0.00475,0.005171,-0.000391,0.000633,0.002765,0,0.001373,0.001237,-0.004437,0.002892,0.00012
C5:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR61___AD_1355___Coverage_79.69%,0.122929,0.144205,0.037335,0.004845,0.035391,0.000558,0.001645,0.004615,0.016157,0.020957,-0.001299,0.005245,-0.000149,0.004954,-0.004886,-0.009679,-0.006258,0.0019,0.003897,-0.001251,0.000125,-0.006554,0.006286,0.005422,-0.001078
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1220___AD_1485___Coverage_66.47%,0.121791,0.145221,0.039598,0.01615,0.034776,0.012829,-0.00752,0.000923,0.007976,0.010752,-0.007795,0.004796,-0.011001,-0.007156,0.013165,0.001458,-0.002477,-0.002534,-0.000628,-0.002251,0.008235,-0.000618,0.004067,0.006627,-0.001796
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1221___AD_1485___Coverage_75.67%,0.121791,0.139128,0.026021,0.018088,0.0397,-0.004462,0.001645,0.005769,0.007567,0.01877,-0.005521,0.007194,-0.006392,-0.011285,0.004479,-0.002519,-0.004042,0.007601,0.001131,0.001626,0.000998,0.007419,-0.001109,0.000964,0.002754
C5:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1224___AD_1485___Coverage_68.45%,0.129758,0.147252,0.04186,0.022287,0.043085,0.011713,0.00376,0.005538,0.007976,0.016583,-0.008607,0.008692,-0.010704,-0.006331,0.007736,0.005304,-0.001434,0.000633,0.001257,0.001126,0,0.000989,-0.000863,0.002651,-0.001078
C6:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR106___AD_500___Coverage_68.57%,0.120652,0.136081,0.042992,0.03876,0.038161,0.005299,-0.000235,0.003231,0.002454,0.008383,-0.000487,0.007493,-0.009812,-0.008945,0.010993,0.00358,-0.002477,0.003041,0.014581,-0.006628,0.01148,0.008161,0.001356,0.005543,-0.005389
C6:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR62___AD_1215___Coverage_83.66%,0.127482,0.137096,0.042992,0.027778,0.037545,0.003068,0.0047,0.007615,0.009408,0.004374,0.000974,0.00045,-0.007582,-0.011698,0.004207,0.007425,0.014733,0.004307,0.005531,-0.007379,0.009234,0.002102,-0.003821,0.007712,0.008023
C6:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1288___AD_1425___Coverage_70.88%,0.121791,0.13405,0.055814,0.025517,0.049855,0.006972,0.005875,0.007154,0.006136,0.000911,-0.009419,0.002098,-0.007879,0,0.008686,0.002784,0.004563,-0.00228,0.006411,0.006503,0.004367,0.007048,-0.001232,0.010483,-0.00479
C6:ITA_Rome_Renaissance_RMPR1219___AD_1442___Coverage_81.96%,0.122929,0.142174,0.046763,0.031654,0.036314,0.009761,0.004465,0.008077,0.008795,0.002005,-0.004222,0.001349,-0.015907,0.00812,0.007329,0.002519,0.001956,0.00038,0.004902,0.000375,0.007986,0.007914,0.007518,0.007953,-0.005029
C7:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR003___AD_1073___Coverage_22.58%,0.111547,0.1635,0.008297,-0.026809,0.017542,-0.01757,0,-0.005307,0.000409,0.016583,0.005359,0.005695,-0.004757,-0.009771,0.003664,0.000928,-0.004042,0.009755,0.002011,0.003752,0.003993,-0.000618,-0.005053,-0.007953,0.007544
C7:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR007___AD_862___Coverage_46.76%,0.119514,0.148267,0.005657,-0.012274,0.029852,-0.005578,-0.004935,-0.008077,0.003681,0.010023,0.002598,0.013038,-0.017988,0.00578,-0.000679,-0.000398,0.000391,-0.00114,-0.000503,0.011756,0.004367,-0.004451,0.00493,-0.001084,0.001317
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR36___AD_500___Coverage_74.85%,0.114961,0.15436,0.003017,-0.022287,0.022773,-0.008925,0.00658,-0.003692,0.001023,0.018224,0.008931,0.001649,-0.008474,-0.009909,-0.001357,0.002784,0.002347,-0.000633,0.002263,-0.003126,0.003119,0.001484,-0.001356,0.005061,-0.000958
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR107___AD_500___Coverage_80.22%,0.119514,0.149283,-0.004525,-0.031654,0.022773,-0.02008,-0.00893,-0.004615,0.010226,0.021322,-0.000325,0.005545,-0.00223,0.00578,-0.007872,-0.007425,0.009127,-0.00038,-0.000251,0.007504,-0.003993,-0.001607,0.010106,0.00012,-0.00012
C7:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR118___AD_500___Coverage_51.56%,0.108132,0.145221,0.003771,-0.033915,0.020619,-0.022311,-0.002115,0.003461,0.001227,0.023144,-0.004872,-0.000899,-0.017096,-0.006055,0.000814,0.009016,0.020861,-0.00152,0.006788,0.006128,-0.003369,0.004451,0.001232,0.002771,0.001557
C7:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ022___AD_1091___Coverage_51.91%,0.114961,0.150298,0.006411,-0.016473,0.026159,-0.020638,0.003995,-0.005077,0.006545,0.025149,0.00065,0.007943,-0.01665,-0.006055,-0.006107,0.00305,0.011604,-0.006588,0.007919,0.001251,0.004367,0.011005,-0.000986,-0.004097,0.001796
C7:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR969___AD_1650___Coverage_92.48%,0.113823,0.148267,0,-0.0323,0.01231,-0.012271,-0.000705,0.000231,0.006749,0.022962,0.006496,0.004796,-0.008771,-0.012386,-0.004479,0.011933,0.013821,0.004941,-0.000251,0.004377,-0.003369,0.001607,-0.001232,0.005663,-0.001437
C7:ITA_Tivoli_Renaissance_RMPR970___AD_1650___Coverage_49.54%,0.10927,0.14319,0.003394,-0.024225,0.023081,-0.000837,-0.00423,-0.004846,0.007772,0.015308,0.001137,0.001948,-0.007433,-0.005092,-0.00095,0.002387,0.015776,-0.006461,0.000126,0.004752,-0.005615,0.003462,0.000246,0.00494,0.001796
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR33___AD_500___Coverage_82.11%,0.124067,0.147252,0.024513,-0.012274,0.03416,-0.00251,0.00423,0.003,0.017589,0.026789,-0.003897,0,-0.012933,-0.003303,-0.005565,-0.005304,0.000652,0.00228,0.005656,-0.004252,-0.001872,0.002102,-0.005176,0.007591,-0.011855
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR109___AD_500___Coverage_42.34%,0.122929,0.147252,0.039598,-0.011628,0.039392,-0.004741,0.000235,0.009692,0.018203,0.02041,-0.002436,0.012889,-0.015758,-0.014726,0.005565,0.000796,0.012126,0.002534,0.006411,-0.004502,0.005615,0.007048,-0.003204,0.011206,-0.004431
C8:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR110___AD_500___Coverage_54.33%,0.127482,0.141159,0.033564,-0.005814,0.033545,-0.006693,-0.000705,0.001846,0.019225,0.034078,0.003735,0.008842,-0.016799,-0.004954,0.00665,0.002254,0.009388,0.007475,0.010182,0.007629,-0.009733,0.004946,0.001232,-0.000964,0.003712
C8:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR55___AD_1355___Coverage_80.21%,0.124067,0.137096,0.027907,-0.010982,0.033545,0.002789,-0.000705,0.001615,0.007567,0.022051,-0.000974,0.004046,-0.009812,0.001514,0.000407,0.008353,0.008866,-0.005954,0.010559,-0.001376,-0.008235,-0.001113,-0.00419,0.00723,0.001078
C9:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR010___AD_950___Coverage_57.27%,0.121791,0.152329,0.008297,-0.035853,0.017234,-0.015618,-0.00047,0.000231,0.010226,0.03262,-0.002273,0.012589,-0.014123,-0.004817,-0.002579,-0.013922,-0.007041,0.005701,0.002137,-0.006628,-0.006364,-0.006059,0.006532,0.00964,-0.002515
C9:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR013___AD_968___Coverage_55.68%,0.117238,0.150298,-0.000377,-0.037791,0.022158,-0.01506,0.00188,-0.003,0.008795,0.0277,-0.007307,0.014237,-0.013082,0.000826,-0.010315,-0.013524,-0.003912,0.000253,0.00264,-0.006503,-0.009858,-0.000866,-0.002958,0.007712,0.009221
C9:ITA_PoggioPelliccia_EMA_POP001___AD_861___Coverage_69.71%,0.112685,0.148267,0.009051,-0.029393,0.023389,-0.016733,-0.00705,-0.003,0.013703,0.031527,0.009094,0.004946,-0.013677,0,-0.002307,-0.001591,0.001956,-0.002027,0.006285,-0.002376,-0.000998,-0.002968,-0.001972,-0.005543,0.009221
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR120___AD_500___Coverage_44.44%,0.108132,0.153345,0.012068,-0.03876,0.016926,-0.011435,-0.0047,-0.010615,0.009613,0.023144,-0.000162,0.005845,-0.005054,0.000413,-0.009908,-0.004508,-0.011995,0.007095,0.001257,-0.000375,0.000374,0.010758,0.002095,-0.003976,0.003233
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR121___AD_500___Coverage_49.71%,0.112685,0.151314,0.000754,-0.031331,0.020927,-0.007251,0.00235,-0.003692,0.005727,0.024602,-0.004872,0.01079,-0.009663,0.001239,-0.013029,-0.006232,-0.008996,0,0.007668,-0.009004,0.001622,0,0.006039,0.000482,-0.011735
C9:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR122___AD_500___Coverage_78.75%,0.102441,0.153345,0.000377,-0.044574,0.016003,-0.019801,-0.00235,0.000231,0.004909,0.031891,0.003085,0.006894,-0.013231,0.006331,-0.0095,-0.010077,-0.007432,-0.007601,0.003897,-0.005378,-0.001248,-0.005564,0.003574,0.005784,0.000239
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR52___AD_1355___Coverage_53.43%,0.102441,0.147252,-0.001508,-0.046189,0.017542,-0.01004,-0.00799,-0.007154,0.004704,0.027882,0.008444,0.000899,-0.009068,-0.007019,-0.01045,-0.016309,-0.008084,0.004561,0.003142,-0.012881,-0.001123,0.011994,-0.00037,-0.010122,0.002275
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR53___AD_1355___Coverage_75.73%,0.111547,0.147252,-0.011691,-0.041667,0.014156,-0.022032,-0.001645,-0.011538,0.009817,0.020957,0.001461,0.001049,-0.003122,0.008533,-0.011129,-0.0118,-0.009518,-0.00266,-0.000628,-0.005628,0.007986,-0.000124,0.002095,-0.004338,-0.002395
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR57___AD_1355___Coverage_72.46%,0.112685,0.150298,-0.012822,-0.031008,0.016311,-0.015897,-0.003525,0.000923,-0.000614,0.021868,0.001461,0.003447,-0.011298,-0.001651,-0.012079,-0.00769,-0.007562,-0.001014,0.003645,-0.003001,0.003494,0.003586,-0.003821,-0.002651,0.000718
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR59___AD_905___Coverage_79.06%,0.10927,0.148267,-0.003771,-0.037468,0.01908,-0.013108,0.002585,-0.003,0.003272,0.02041,0.001299,-0.004946,-0.003122,-0.000275,-0.013708,-0.017767,-0.010952,0.004307,-0.001885,-0.006128,0.005241,0.004699,-0.009737,-0.010483,0.001796
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR60___AD_905___Coverage_87.24%,0.10927,0.145221,0.00528,-0.028101,0.009848,-0.009761,0.00799,-0.005077,0.012067,0.010023,-0.003573,-0.001948,-0.00446,0.003028,-0.002443,-0.007027,-0.015255,0.002027,-0.00088,-0.004627,-0.00836,-0.00371,-0.002835,0.004699,0.000479
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1283___AD_855___Coverage_69.04%,0.108132,0.152329,0,-0.036822,0.028313,-0.009203,0.00141,0.006692,0.01309,0.024966,-0.000162,-0.001199,-0.014866,-0.000688,-0.012622,0.002652,0.001956,-0.007855,0.001131,-0.0005,0.006239,0.003339,-0.003574,-0.000602,-0.00012
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1285___AD_1015___Coverage_66.72%,0.112685,0.151314,0.008297,-0.030362,0.027082,-0.011156,-0.004465,-0.004154,0.020248,0.034989,-0.005034,0.004796,-0.015312,0.003991,0,-0.01074,-0.00691,0.005448,0.009176,-0.008504,0.002496,0.010881,-0.003821,-0.004217,-0.001197
C9:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1287___AD_1425___Coverage_71.54%,0.118376,0.155376,0.012445,-0.028747,0.031698,-0.01004,-0.002115,-0.002308,0.007567,0.028793,0.004222,0.008243,-0.014866,-0.001651,-0.007465,-0.008221,-0.004824,0.001774,0.004399,-0.011756,0.000873,0.00272,-0.002958,0.006748,0.000479
C9:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ009___AD_978___Coverage_73.49%,0.108132,0.137096,0.001508,-0.037791,0.030467,-0.01506,-0.00047,0,0.011044,0.02041,0.007307,0.008542,-0.015461,0.007844,0.002036,-0.011005,-0.013299,0.006714,0.004399,-0.006003,-0.006239,0.007296,-0.004314,0.001325,-0.001676
C9:ITA_Tarquinia_EMA_TAQ011___AD_959___Coverage_66.23%,0.10927,0.157407,0.00792,-0.029393,0.027082,-0.011156,-0.002585,0.006231,0.007567,0.015672,0.006333,0.01154,-0.012339,-0.002202,-0.000271,-0.005436,-0.012126,-0.002534,-0.002514,-0.01038,0.000873,-0.002597,0.001232,-0.00494,0.007903
C10:ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity_RMPR104___AD_631___Coverage_60.60%,0.121791,0.159438,0.035826,-0.056525,0.073244,-0.022869,-0.00564,0.001154,0.047245,0.085469,-0.002598,0.014087,-0.02438,-0.01679,-0.015608,-0.002254,0.018515,-0.006081,0.004651,-0.011506,-0.004492,-0.011623,-0.013557,-0.023738,0.004071
C11:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR63___AD_990___Coverage_88.88%,0.120652,0.147252,0.039221,0.007752,0.049548,-0.006693,0.000235,-0.002538,0.028838,0.034625,-0.003735,0.006894,-0.014123,-0.010735,0.006243,0.007027,0.01017,0.00152,-0.005279,0.011005,-0.005241,-0.001113,-0.000986,0.001687,0.006826
C11:ITA_Rome_MA_RMPR1289___AD_1425___Coverage_57.18%,0.122929,0.142174,0.043369,0.006783,0.045239,-0.001673,-0.005875,0.002077,0.030679,0.034807,0,0.009741,-0.024232,-0.012799,0.009636,0.008221,0.013038,-0.006208,0.003645,0.008004,0.005241,0.00507,-0.005053,0.001084,-0.005748
C12:ITA_Chiusi_EMA_ETR014___AD_1006___Coverage_30.15%,0.1161,0.152329,-0.023759,-0.040375,0.014464,-0.022032,0.013161,0.005538,-0.006136,0.024602,0,0.002098,-0.009812,0.008257,-0.018729,0.003978,-0.000391,-0.000633,0.001257,0.007379,-0.012478,0.003586,0.004314,0.01458,-0.001796

PCA

WghPi7O.png

None of these samples land in Toscana or Emilia, despite your previous calculations. Instead, as the paper stated, the C6 samples cover the area from CENTRAL Italy to Southern Italy. Of course, there are also samples from more northern parts of Italy.

In addition, just looking at your PCA and assuming its accuracy for the moment, how could you possibly think using averages is at all helpful? It's useless and leads to inaccurate conclusions. I might even say it's misinformation.
 
@Er Monnezza


1) the wikipedia page (which just reports what is said in the sources linked) says clearly that the language spoken around Rome belonged to the southern group, hence it was NOT part of the central group, and indeed was "much" closer to Neapolitan than to dialects of the central group. Honestly, you're just using sophistry if you're going to debate such a point.
2)Look at the graph from the study I have posted: also Turkey_IA and antiquity centroid is above 20%.
3) The medieval samples from Rome, minus the north Italian-like individuals, clustuer around south Italians (who, I believe, are Sicilian samples), as it has been said many times.
4)The late antiquity samples are more southern on average than medieval Rome (which remains a better proxy for south Italy),with a good chunk of the samples actually southern of south Italians, I wonder how is it possible that the average still comes out as significantly more northern than southern Italians then on G25 and dodecad12.
5) Anyway, you must keep in mind that the important point is that G25 shows quite lower levels of Levant_N compared to the results shown in this paper, so even if G25 showed the same levels of Levant_N in Italians as shown by this paper, there would still be the discrepancy of why G25 lowers it in everybody else except Italians.
6) Let's follow the line of argument that somehow Rome_medievalmodern and Rome_antiquity can't be used to approximate south Italians (though it is wrong): if we take it that Rome medieval on G25 shows an average of 5% Levant_N, but according to this study it is around 8%, then we can infer that if Campanians and Sicilians were to be analysed with the same methodology they'd have a centroid/average at 16%, which is roughly the centroid for imperial Rome, but since southern Italians cluster quite northern to the centroid of imperial Rome, there must have been another northern gene flow that pulled them to their position, which means that they must have started with a higher level of Levant_N than that of the average for imperial Rome: do you get why it is nonsensical?
7)Notice that according to the data in the paper Anatolia experience and decrease in Levant_N ancestry from the BA to the byzantine period, so the suggestion that western Anatolia overall experienced and increase in levantine ancestry compared to antiquity is debunked.
8)Though I don't believe the conclusions of the paper(s) are sound, still one of the conclusion is that Anatolia was the source of the gene flow into Italy, so there is no indication of another gene flow directly from the Levant or nearby; ok, it's true that both the imperial age samples and byzantine samples had a portion of Levantine individuals, but they were a minority, and I am not sure whether they alone are enough to explain the amount of Levantine ancestry G25 shows, and my reasonings at point 6) suggest that according to the same methodology used ( it is logically important to be consistent) the imperial Rome average still might not be enough, though it is a good question what G25 would show.
9) Anyway, the Daunian paper and the last paper about southern Italians found no affinities of modern south Italians towards MENA people compared to ancient Mycenaean samples. so I am just arguing to show that there is still a discrepancy (again) between this paper and G25 when it comes to Italians.
View attachment 13575

If, after looking at Figure S20, people don't get why samples from port cities are problematic for historical analysis, as was also shown by the paper on Carthaginian port cities, and why burial contexts are important, then they just choose not to understand because of their own bizarre agendas.
 
I have an off-topic question, why does Piedmont plot further south than Liguria? I was a little surprised to see the PCA.
 
I have an off-topic question, why does Piedmont plot further south than Liguria? I was a little surprised to see the PCA.

It is only a single Ligurian sample, so it is not really representative of the population.
 
It is only a single Ligurian sample, so it is not really representative of the population.

I didn't know there was only one Ligurian sample. Thanks for the reply.
 
I have an off-topic question, why does Piedmont plot further south than Liguria? I was a little surprised to see the PCA.

The one sample labeled Liguria is from Genova. The so-called Piedmont sample is actually from an area in the Apennines "recently" incorporated by Piemonte but actually mountain Ligure in origin, as can be seen by the fact that they speak a Ligurian dialect, the towns all have the name "Ligure" in them, and the road used by these villages led to Genova.

Autosomally, I think they're a bit closer to eastern Liguria than western Liguria, although not by much, and they border Piacenza and far western Emilia as well.

So far as I know there "is" no official Emilia sample, so they've basically "guessed".
 
The one sample labeled Liguria is from Genova. The so-called Piedmont sample is actually from an area in the Apennines "recently" incorporated by Piemonte but actually mountain Ligure in origin, as can be seen by the fact that they speak a Ligurian dialect, the towns all have the name "Ligure" in them, and the road used by these villages led to Genova.

Autosomally, I think they're a bit closer to eastern Liguria than western Liguria, although not by much, and they border Piacenza and far western Emilia as well.

So far as I know there "is" no official Emilia sample, so they've basically "guessed".

So the sample named Piedmont is actually the same as the one from Liguria, right? I didn't know that the sample came from the tip of the Apennine Mountains. Thank you for the very interesting information. I wonder what other regions of Piedmont are like.
 
This is my whole problem with using samples from a cosmopolitan center of an Empire to make conclusions about source populations for modern countries. That famous "tail" into the Levant in the case of Ancient Rome disappeared because the population steadily declined, and merchants, artisans, and the slaves they used left the city.

I think most people left the city, including the people who belonged to the Levant. But they were probably dissolved in Italy. Some elites must have migrated to Constantinople.
 
I think most people left the city, including the people who belonged to the Levant. But they were probably dissolved in Italy. Some elites must have migrated to Constantinople.

I mean during the exact time of the rise and fall of Rome, Central Italy and Southern Italy shifted towards substantially exactly towards West Asia. And Rome having over 1.5M inhabitants and other cities of Italy similar to Rome were populated heavily too for ancient standards. (like the sample town of Pompeii having 12,000 - 20,000 inhabitants)
That would be such a coincidence if the vast majority of them just left.

Merchants were a small fractions of the overall population. You must consider most of those people that plot near the Levant or Anatolia, slaves or soldiers. And even during the fall of Rome many or most of merchants lost their wealth.
 
So the sample named Piedmont is actually the same as the one from Liguria, right? I didn't know that the sample came from the tip of the Apennine Mountains. Thank you for the very interesting information. I wonder what other regions of Piedmont are like.

Sorry, no. There is one sample labeled Liguria which is from Genova, the capital city of Liguria.

Then there are a number of samples from an isolated area in the Apennines which are politically part of Piedmont, and are so labeled, but whose people are genetically, linguistically, and culturally Ligurian. They are slightly south of the one sample from Genova.

It's confusing, I know.

As for the rest of Piemonte, there are French like areas like Valle d'Aosta among others, but within Torino itself locals are almost outnumbered by people from other parts of Italy, especially from the south, who came to work in the Fiat factories, among other places.
 
I mean during the exact time of the rise and fall of Rome, Central Italy and Southern Italy shifted towards substantially exactly towards West Asia. And Rome having over 1.5M inhabitants and other cities of Italy similar to Rome were populated heavily too for ancient standards. (like the sample town of Pompeii having 12,000 - 20,000 inhabitants)
That would be such a coincidence if the vast majority of them just left.

Merchants were a small fractions of the overall population. You must consider most of those people that plot near the Levant or Anatolia, slaves or soldiers. And even during the fall of Rome many or most of merchants lost their wealth.

Those who had the means left, many for Constantinople. Those who didn't mostly died. That's true for all the major and minor urban centers not just of Italy but of all of western Europe. That's what happens to the inhabitants of urban centers when their civilization crumbles around them.

You're aware the city was sacked, yes? You know what that means? It means put to the torch. Statues and plinths toppled. Aqueducts closed. Men killed, women raped and killed. Even if you survived that, how were you to live? What were you to eat? City dwellers weren't farmers. They were, yes, merchants and artisans of all sorts, and laborers, or slaves. This was the same story for almost all of the cities not just of Italy but of all western Europe.

Cities don't feed themselves; they exist on food brought in from the countryside, or imported from further afield,like Egypt. However, the Germanic invasions almost completely disrupted trade. The roads weren't kept up, and where passable were crawling with brigands. How was food to get to the city, what food there was, because a change in the climate drastically reduced crop yields, and the granaries of Egypt were a distant memory.

Of course we mustn't forget the plague, and the re-emergent malaria, because no one was keeping up the draining of the swamps, and on and on and on.

Then, of course, the Byzantines decided they wanted to reconquer Italy for the Empire, and what wasn't already destroyed, was destroyed during the war between the Goths and the Byzantines, with Rome being sacked a further five times.

Italy suffered a drastic reduction in population, quality of life, etc. but so did the rest of western Europe.

The only people who survived were people who lived on fortified farms which would become the nucleus for feudalism, or in small villages which might hold local markets, or in the hills and mountains.

Honestly, before pontificating it would be nice if you picked up a history book.

I'd start with "The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization" by Bryan Ward Perkins, one of the books highly recommended by Razib Khan, or a history of The Gothic Wars.

Excerpts from the Ward-Perkins book are available through Google Books:
https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Fall_of_Rome/dPig9bm268sC?hl=en
 
Sorry, no. There is one sample labeled Liguria which is from Genova, the capital city of Liguria.
Then there are a number of samples from an isolated area in the Apennines which are politically part of Piedmont, and are so labeled, but whose people are genetically, linguistically, and culturally Ligurian. They are slightly south of the one sample from Genova.
It's confusing, I know.
As for the rest of Piemonte, there are French like areas like Valle d'Aosta among others, but within Torino itself locals are almost outnumbered by people from other parts of Italy, especially from the south, who came to work in the Fiat factories, among other places.
It's complicated, but I believe I understand what you mean. I think Piedmont, like the rest of Italy clearly needs more additional samples from other regions Thank you for your kind explanation.
 

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