Collection of skulls.

The Catholic Houses also carry a lot of Germanic ancestry because of constant intermarriage with the Hapsburgs, often to ill effect, but not as much, for obvious reasons.

I hardly think we would need to shave the heads of this father and son, because they barely have any hair left, and I don't see any curve whatsoever. That is, btw, what I said originally, which is that they have a flattened occiput. I don't know what Dinaric means either.

Btw, the current English dynasty changed their name to "House of Windsor" during World War II, as the Battenbergs changed their name to Mountbatten, for the same reason a lot of American Schmidts became Smith, and Mullers became Millers. Having a Germanic surname was not the message you wanted to send during the second World War against a German Empire.
 
There's no pretend about it. In general, every Protestant dynasty in Europe has been "heavily" ; until the last half century. All those German princelings married each other, married over and over again into the British royal family after a Germanic princeling became king, and got asked by other countries to become kings, i.e. Romania and Greece. The Romanov's became, basically, a Germanic dynasty. It wasn't just the Empress Alexandra who made it that way; it went back generations.

As to Prince Philip, his family tree is extensive and verified. As the descendant of Danish kings I don't know how he could be more Germanic. His ancestors would have had to take Protestant wives, so the daughters of Germanic houses in the vast majority of cases. His only English ancestry comes by way of a daughter of Queen Victoria and a German princeling (Battenberg), and that daughter was the daughter of Prince Albert,who was also German. Even Victoria was mostly German because it's a German dynasty and they continued to marry Germans traditionally until quite late. I think George III was the first of the Hanoverian kings to speak English as his first language.

VUJbmEmXtqC3llLkj2rhGHzp96Pd-vJtC3ZlI5EExKQWltCz8sXP-982cIuFtVivrGF68V1LUIqR_pZxZLZdXGr_Ip4XTOUL9aLUD1A1YUdvOK5V8mP2fVy6LY4jNSHBsF5hrio=w1200-h630-p-k-no-nu (752×630) (googleusercontent.com)

Surely I made a little mistake in using "pretend", I thought "affirm". Thanks for the documentation. But in my opinion the nobility, whatever the proportions of its ancestry, is since long ago cutted from his possible previous ethnic affiliation. It's the feudality baby.
ATW my aim is not to study present days nobility.
 
Surely I made a little mistake in using "pretend", I thought "affirm". Thanks for the documentation. But in my opinion the nobility, whatever the proportions of its ancestry, is since long ago cutted from his possible previous ethnic affiliation. It's the feudality baby.
ATW my aim is not to study present days nobility.

No problem. I find the whole nobility/royalty thing a little absurd in this day and age, especially given the fact they're marrying "commoners" left, right and center, although the British don't seem to agree. :) Each to their own. Plus, their sovereigns have been a hell of a lot more admirable than mine.
 
Trepanation in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia:
Trepanations-in-ancient-Armenia-1-Bakheri-chala-bur-18-2-Bover-bur-7-3-Tekhut.png

- small two holes on Botai skull on 3,500 bc (page 33)
http://iggc.kz/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Rezultaty-raboty-Lab-Pop-Gen-noyab-2016.pdf

- mogou cemetery of Qijia culture at tarim basin where seima turbino reached at late bronze:
Superior-view-of-skulls-with-trepanations-found-at-Mogou-a-1331-R2-b-662R2-c.png



- mogou shaft and side chamber grave. (It seems to me that the grave was reused.)
urn:cambridge.org:id:binary:20221130151029009-0747:S0003598X22001570:S0003598X22001570_fig4.png


- catacomb culture shaft and side chamber grave:
1-s2.0-S2352409X21001061-gr2.jpg


- ancient mexican tombs:
Depiction-of-the-range-of-shaft-tomb-forms-found-within-the-Atemajac-valley-Modified.png

[FONT=var(--nova-font-family-display)]Depiction of the range of shaft tomb forms found within the Atemajac valley. Modified from Galván 1991:224, Figure 1.




[/FONT]

https://www.researchgate.net/public...MAJAC_VALLEY_AND_THEIR_RELATION_TO_SETTLEMENT
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352409X21001061
https://www.cambridge.org/core/jour...thwest-china/D9F02DC603DA921BFB73D6ABE04F9B20
 
Scholar don't know when Armenoid type appeared at west asia. As far as I know, Alpine skulls were found in Hittite.

Armenia late bronze age skull. Now we knew that R1b and I reached at that time
1-s2.0-S0018442X16300567-gr1.jpg


Trepanation in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia:
Trepanations-in-ancient-Armenia-1-Bakheri-chala-bur-18-2-Bover-bur-7-3-Tekhut.png

neolithic skull at south Caucasus:
Fl-G-7o-XEAATHn-W.jpg


"Genome-wide data for 3 neolithic individuals from Mentesh-Tepe, Azerbaidjan

The South Caucasus is at the outskirt of the Fertile Crescent, one the main centers of Neolithization. Despite this localization, Neolithic developed here only at the beginning of the 6 th millennium, and its origins remains unclear. Here we present genomic data for three new individuals from Mentesh Tepe in Azerbaijan dating back to the beginning of the Shomu-Shulaveri culture. Mentesh Tepe Neolithic population is the product of a recent gene-flow between Anatolian farmer-related population, and Caucasus/Iranian population, demonstrating that population admixture was at the core of the development of agriculture in the South-Caucasus. During the Bronze Age, new gene flows between Pontic Steppe populations and Mentesh Tepe related groups contributed to the make-up of Kura-Araxes and modern Caucasian populations. Genetic analyzes of the Mentesh Tepe Shomu-Shulaveri inhabitants also provide evidence that the two juveniles buried embracing each other were brothers.
https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB54894"

["The majority of the chalcolithic and copper age population ofAnatolia were dolichocephalic and mesocephalic. The basic popu18] Fürst, C. M. «Zur Kenntnis der Anthropologie der PrM~istorischen Bevölkerung der Insel Cypern». Lunds universitets Arsskrift, n. 1. Avd. 2, Bd. XXIX,no. 6 (L~~r~ d, 1933). (cited by Krogman, 1937).Copper age and Hittite Skulls 245lation of the copper age appears to be a continuation of the chalcolithic people. There does not appear to have been a change inthe racial make-up of Anatolia between these periods. In theseperiods the brachycephals were rare and probably belonged tothe invaders [9]. This study indicates that the earliest inhabitantsof Anatolia were dolichocephalic and that brachycephals camein later.From the studies of prehistoric crania in Europe we knowthat the dolichocephals preceded the arrival of the brachycephals.Thus, it is probable that in Anatolia also the populations of theperiods preceding the chalcolithic age were dolichocephalic.But by this we do not mean that there were no brachycephalicindividuals present in the earlier periods of Anatolia. Indeed theskull found at Kumtepe, which is said to be neolithic, is brachycephalic (Prof. ~evket Aziz Kansu, 1937). By this what we meanis that the greatest majority of the people were dolichocephalicin the earlier periods too.The evidence indicates that about 2000 B. C. a new invasiontook place in Anatolia. This was made by the Hittites who werepredominantly of alpine stock. The craniological evidence, however, suggests that the Hittite invaders did not annihilate the nativepopulation they found in Anatolia, but on the contrary mixedwith them and tried to assimilate them.A few brachycephalic skulls from the chalcolithic and thecopper ages also are ot the alpine race. But the Hittites represent a new and a more extensive alpine invasion. In the Hittiteperiod, in the sites examined, the number of the brachycephalshad increased. For instance, in Alisar there were no brachycephals in the copper age, but they were present in the Hittite period of this city. Though we have not sufficient evidence to besure, from the situation at Alisar it would appear possible thatpopulations of the Bronze and Hittite periods may have been ofthe same stock.This study has also shed some light on the problem of theorigin of the armenoid race. The craniological evidence indicatesthat this race did not originate in Anatolia and that its place oforigin must be looked for further east."]
 
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"The Kumsay burial site was first discovered in 2009, and is named after the village it was found nearby, near the Ulriver in western Kazakhstan. Roughly this location.
This burial site was classified as being part of the Yamnaya horizon based on the burials rites of the perople. These burials were '"pit graves" covered with an earthen mound. Just like with the Yamnaya. Furthermore, many of the people ad a supine position with flexed legs, similar to the positions seen with the Yamnaya. And the people buried here were sprinkled with red ochre, another tradition also prevalent in the Yamnaya horizon.
What is interesting about the people here was that many of them were really big, sturdy people. Aside from the general robust features and all, several of the people here were well over 190 cm, reaching up to and above 2 meters tall! "

https://musaeumscythia.blogspot.com/2021/11/a-look-at-kumsay-graveyard-of-giants.html
Does convex nose originate in Denisovan near lake baikal?


1. Neolithic west siberian:
Graphical-facial-reconstruction-of-a-man-from-the-Neolithic-cemetery-of-Zhelezinka-by.ppm

SJ9w7nFo.png




1. https://www.researchgate.net/figure...thic-cemetery-of-Zhelezinka-by_fig1_336560655


Ancient human DNA recovered from a Palaeolithic pendant

Elena Essel, Elena I. Zavala, Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Maxim B. Kozlikin, Helen Fewlass, Benjamin Vernot, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Katerina Douka, Ian Barnes, Marie-Cécile Soulier, Anna Schmidt, Merlin Szymanski, Tsenka Tsanova, Nikolay Sirakov, Elena Endarova, Shannon P. McPherron, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Janet Kelso, Svante Pääbo, Mateja Hajdinjak, Marie Soressi & Matthias Meyer

Nature (2023)

Abstract

Artefacts made from stones, bones and teeth are fundamental to our understanding of human subsistence strategies, behaviour and culture in the Pleistocene. Although these resources are plentiful, it is impossible to associate artefacts to specific human individuals1 who can be morphologically or genetically characterized, unless they are found within burials, which are rare in this time period. Thus, our ability to discern the societal roles of Pleistocene individuals based on their biological sex or genetic ancestry is limited2,3,4,5. Here we report the development of a non-destructive method for the gradual release of DNA trapped in ancient bone and tooth artefacts. Application of the method to an Upper Palaeolithic deer tooth pendant from Denisova Cave, Russia, resulted in the recovery of ancient human and deer mitochondrial genomes, which allowed us to estimate the age of the pendant at approximately 19,000–25,000 years. Nuclear DNA analysis identifies the presumed maker or wearer of the pendant as a female individual with strong genetic affinities to a group of Ancient North Eurasian individuals who lived around the same time but were previously found only further east in Siberia. Our work redefines how cultural and genetic records can be linked in prehistoric archaeology.
 
Last edited:
johen said:

05-0001.JPG


Gold_Mask_%28%E9%BB%84%E9%87%91%E9%9D%A2%E7%BD%A9%29.jpg



A Chinese archaeologist is maybe a their descendant
s200_lin.meicun.jpg

How about beautiful michelle yeoh, 60?
w/ her husband:
malaysian-actress-michelle-yeoh-and-french-motor-racing-news-photo-1678713625.jpg


Michelle_Yeoh_Cannes_2.jpg
 
Skull of a Neolithic Sardinian man.

This skull belongs to the Ozieri culture
The Ozieri culture (or San Michele culture) was a prehistoric pre-Nuragic culture which occupied Sardinia from -3200 to 2800 BCE.

F4b9rfvXAAAcDs4

F4b-KdfWkAArUpF

F4b9w7RWsAA5VED

F4b96AWWQAAnk57


Source:
F4b-18bXMAA_B9g
 
no surprise if it (he?) was from a pre-Neolithic pop. Strong affinities with some Mesolithic 'cromagnoid', I think (not 'capelloid', not 'brünnoid'), and nothing recalling diverse 'mediters' IMO.
Thanks, glad to have some docs like this one.
 
Sorry. Pre-Nouragic doesn't mean pre-Neolithic, but this man has apparently nothing in common with first Neolithic people. So a forager or a Neolithic man but with dominance of Forager in him, by crossing of true EEF people with Mesolithic ones.
 
Reconstruction_of_a_Karakol_culture_individual_%28Altai_Mountains_village_of_Mendur-Sokkon%29.jpg


"Reconstruction of a Karakol culture individual (Altai Mountains village of Mendur-Sokkon). The burial is dated to the end of 3rd – beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The craniological features of the local anthro-pological component of the composition of the early bronze cultures of southern Siberia with intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial features are clearly manifested on the skull of a woman from Mendur-Sokkon. One can argue about the great morphological similarity of the buried with individuals buried in the unified cultural burials of Ozernoye and Karakol in Central Altai. On a territorially wider scale, the skull of a woman from a burial in the village of Mendur-Sokkon resembles the craniological series of the Okunevo culture of the Minusinsk depression, which of all the cultural formations of the early bronze of southern and southern Western Siberia anthropologically is the most related to the Karakol one."
 
Interesting Johen - some Russian anthropologists think this kind of type with features evoking partly 'west-eurasian' and 'east-eurasian' types, ought not their features to a recent crossing but could have an heritage from before the specializations leading to typical 'westeurasian' as opposed to 'easteurasian'. I wonder if some of the pseudo 'dinaroid' or 'touranid' people of Tadjikistan have not partly this heritage at the phoenotypic level?
 
Reconstruction_of_a_Karakol_culture_individual_%28Altai_Mountains_village_of_Mendur-Sokkon%29.jpg


"Reconstruction of a Karakol culture individual (Altai Mountains village of Mendur-Sokkon). The burial is dated to the end of 3rd – beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The craniological features of the local anthro-pological component of the composition of the early bronze cultures of southern Siberia with intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial features are clearly manifested on the skull of a woman from Mendur-Sokkon. One can argue about the great morphological similarity of the buried with individuals buried in the unified cultural burials of Ozernoye and Karakol in Central Altai. On a territorially wider scale, the skull of a woman from a burial in the village of Mendur-Sokkon resembles the craniological series of the Okunevo culture of the Minusinsk depression, which of all the cultural formations of the early bronze of southern and southern Western Siberia anthropologically is the most related to the Karakol one."
However, I don't think her mouth and eyes looks like that above:

okunevo (-mayan) people
Okunev_figurine_from_Itkul_II_mound_14%2C_northern_Minusinsk_Basin._Uybat_stage_of_the_Okunevo_Culture_%28second_half_of_the_3rd_millennium_BC%29_1.jpg

Okunev_figurine_from_Itkul_II_mound_14%2C_northern_Minusinsk_Basin._Uybat_stage_of_the_Okunevo_Culture_%28second_half_of_the_3rd_millennium_BC%29_2.jpg


This altai people migrated to south:
Gold_Mask_%28黄金面罩%29.jpg
 
A facial approximation of a Bronze Age woman.

"Researchers used scans of a Bronze Age woman's skull to create a facial approximation of what she may have looked like 3,800 years ago. (Image credit: Cícero Moraes)"

whatever population genetics say, anthropology is still persuasive:

"Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically related to or differs from any other. When 24 craniofacial measurements of a series of human populations are used to generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other. The surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants, although the prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat more apparent in southern Europe. It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa. Basques and Canary Islanders are clearly associated with modern Europeans. When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it."





48490143-0-image-a-2_1632820895453.jpg


"Brought back to life: The faces of three ancient Egyptian men who lived up to 2,797 years ago have been reconstructed using genetic data extracted from their mummified remains"
 
Reconstruction_of_a_Karakol_culture_individual_%28Altai_Mountains_village_of_Mendur-Sokkon%29.jpg


"Reconstruction of a Karakol culture individual (Altai Mountains village of Mendur-Sokkon). The burial is dated to the end of 3rd – beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The craniological features of the local anthro-pological component of the composition of the early bronze cultures of southern Siberia with intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial features are clearly manifested on the skull of a woman from Mendur-Sokkon. One can argue about the great morphological similarity of the buried with individuals buried in the unified cultural burials of Ozernoye and Karakol in Central Altai. On a territorially wider scale, the skull of a woman from a burial in the village of Mendur-Sokkon resembles the craniological series of the Okunevo culture of the Minusinsk depression, which of all the cultural formations of the early bronze of southern and southern Western Siberia anthropologically is the most related to the Karakol one."
in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia:

Trepanations-in-ancient-Armenia-1-Bakheri-chala-bur-18-2-Bover-bur-7-3-Tekhut.png


65759e33d7906_img_desktop.jpeg

Reconstruction of the appearance of a man from the Vakhrushevo-1 burial ground
Vyacheslav Molodin and others / Ural Historical Bulletin, 2023

"At the same time a more massive
type of Europoid (the so-called Pamir-Fergana or Andronovo type), predom-
inated across most of Andronovo territory in the Urals, across all of Kazakhstan,
in Fergana, and as far as the Sayan-Altay and Minusinsk Basin (Debets 1948;
Levin 1954; Ginzburg 1957; 1962a; Alekseev 1961a, 1961c; 1967; Trofimova
1962a; Gokhman 1973; 1980; Rykushina 1976; 1979)"

"One is composed from the Andronovo (Fedorovka) groups
showing “Proto-European” traits”: those from the Middle
Yenisei, Kuznetsk Basin, northeastern Kazakhstan, the
Barnaul–Novosibirsk part of the Upper Ob basin, and
from the Chumysh area, as well as the Alakul group from
Yermak IV."

"Another cluster consists of Caucasoid groups without
any traces of Mongoloid admixture. Those people were
dolichocranic and had wide or medium wide faces.
Culturally, they were associated with Afanesyev, Timber-
grave (Srubnaya), and Tazabagyab cultures, with the
Andronovo (Alakul) culture of western Kazakhstan,
and with the Sintashta-like culture of Potapovka.
Morphologically, this cluster is intermediate between the
“Andronovo proper” (Proto-European) cluster and the
“Mediterranean” cluster. Accordingly, the “intermediate”
cluster includes both Proto-European and Mediterranean
series. Andronovo crania from Rudny Altai and from
Firsovo XIV, too, are members of this cluster"

" Craniometric indications of gene flow to the
Andronovo (Fedorovka) population of the Altai forest-
steppe from Western Siberian Mongoloid groups,
speci¿ cally those belonging to the Ob-Irtysh Mongoloid
variety, are minor."

"The origin of the Andronovo variant of the Proto-European
trait combination appears to be the least disputable. Its
wide distribution was evidently associated with the spread
of the Andronovo (Fedorovka) culture from a single area.
Because admixture seldom if ever results in the decrease
of the facial height (Bunak, 1980), very low faces of the
Andronovo people support the idea that this population
originated in a single region, and that isolation was the
major factor in its origin (Alekseyev, 1961)."


- Greek bronze:

"I have located the text of George Panagiaris important 1993 doctoral thesis on Greek skeletal material. This may be one of the most comprehensive efforts to study the Ancient Greek population from a physical anthropological perspective (413 male and 354 female crania, using 65 biometric characters as well odontological traits).
Panagiaris' conclusions in English can be found in p.10 of the document. He confirms that the greater period of discontinuity in the material is observed during the Helladic period (=Bronze Age in Greek archaeology), where broad-headed incoming groups appear, side by side with the older Mediterranean population. He attributes this to the arrival of such people from the highlands Pindos range, although he sees the possibility of Anatolian influences as well, but has no comparative data. He cites the tendency for broader skulls in higher latitudes, although this general trend in H. sapiens probably does not explain the local trend within Caucasoids where the key difference is between mountaineers (where the Alpine, Dinaric, Armenoid, and Pamir-Ferghana types are well-represented) and lowland folk. Perhaps, if various ancient DNA projects manage to study some Greek material we may be able to ascertain the events that were taking place in Greece at that time."

brace-2.jpg
 
A facial approximation of a Bronze Age woman.

"Researchers used scans of a Bronze Age woman's skull to create a facial approximation of what she may have looked like 3,800 years ago. (Image credit: Cícero Moraes)"

whatever population genetics say, anthropology is still persuasive:

"Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically related to or differs from any other. When 24 craniofacial measurements of a series of human populations are used to generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other. The surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants, although the prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat more apparent in southern Europe. It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa. Basques and Canary Islanders are clearly associated with modern Europeans. When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it."





48490143-0-image-a-2_1632820895453.jpg


"Brought back to life: The faces of three ancient Egyptian men who lived up to 2,797 years ago have been reconstructed using genetic data extracted from their mummified remains"
This metric survey (which I already saw) is not reliable. We cannot compare modern often gracilized pop's with ancient pop"s, without speaking of the changes in mesologic (and way of life) inputs.
features are made of internal proportions too and not by the addition of metrical dimensions put on incoherent PCA's!
auDNA confirmes current Europeans are descendants of Néolithic and Metal Ages people, without too much changes after IA; and a small part of diverse HG's features are also recognized here and there among modern people.
 
Reconstruction of the appearance of a man from the Vakhrushevo-1 burial ground
Vyacheslav Molodin and others / Ural Historical Bulletin, 2023

"At the same time a more massive
type of Europoid (the so-called Pamir-Fergana or Andronovo type), predom-
inated across most of Andronovo territory in the Urals, across all of Kazakhstan,
in Fergana, and as far as the Sayan-Altay and Minusinsk Basin (Debets 1948;
Levin 1954; Ginzburg 1957; 1962a; Alekseev 1961a, 1961c; 1967; Trofimova
1962a; Gokhman 1973; 1980; Rykushina 1976; 1979)"

"One is composed from the Andronovo (Fedorovka) groups
showing “Proto-European” traits”: those from the Middle
Yenisei, Kuznetsk Basin, northeastern Kazakhstan, the
Barnaul–Novosibirsk part of the Upper Ob basin, and
from the Chumysh area, as well as the Alakul group from
Yermak IV."

"Another cluster consists of Caucasoid groups without
any traces of Mongoloid admixture. Those people were
dolichocranic and had wide or medium wide faces.
Culturally, they were associated with Afanesyev, Timber-
grave (Srubnaya), and Tazabagyab cultures, with the
Andronovo (Alakul) culture of western Kazakhstan,
and with the Sintashta-like culture of Potapovka.
Morphologically, this cluster is intermediate between the
“Andronovo proper” (Proto-European) cluster and the
“Mediterranean” cluster. Accordingly, the “intermediate”
cluster includes both Proto-European and Mediterranean
series. Andronovo crania from Rudny Altai and from
Firsovo XIV, too, are members of this cluster"

" Craniometric indications of gene flow to the
Andronovo (Fedorovka) population of the Altai forest-
steppe from Western Siberian Mongoloid groups,
speci¿ cally those belonging to the Ob-Irtysh Mongoloid
variety, are minor."

"The origin of the Andronovo variant of the Proto-European
trait combination appears to be the least disputable. Its
wide distribution was evidently associated with the spread
of the Andronovo (Fedorovka) culture from a single area.
Because admixture seldom if ever results in the decrease
of the facial height (Bunak, 1980), very low faces of the
Andronovo people support the idea that this population
originated in a single region, and that isolation was the
major factor in its origin (Alekseyev, 1961)."


- Greek bronze:

"I have located the text of George Panagiaris important 1993 doctoral thesis on Greek skeletal material. This may be one of the most comprehensive efforts to study the Ancient Greek population from a physical anthropological perspective (413 male and 354 female crania, using 65 biometric characters as well odontological traits).
Panagiaris' conclusions in English can be found in p.10 of the document. He confirms that the greater period of discontinuity in the material is observed during the Helladic period (=Bronze Age in Greek archaeology), where broad-headed incoming groups appear, side by side with the older Mediterranean population. He attributes this to the arrival of such people from the highlands Pindos range, although he sees the possibility of Anatolian influences as well, but has no comparative data. He cites the tendency for broader skulls in higher latitudes, although this general trend in H. sapiens probably does not explain the local trend within Caucasoids where the key difference is between mountaineers (where the Alpine, Dinaric, Armenoid, and Pamir-Ferghana types are well-represented) and lowland folk. Perhaps, if various ancient DNA projects manage to study some Greek material we may be able to ascertain the events that were taking place in Greece at that time."

brace-2.jpg
andronovo proper:
65759e33d7906_img_desktop.jpeg

Tarim basin:

Afanasievo:
Skulls-from-Kurotin-type-burials-of-the-Northwestern-Altai-1-Inskoi-Dol-kurgan-5-2.png


Sintashta:

A-skull-sculpture-and-graphic-forensic-facial-reconstruction-from-burial-1-kurgan-5.png


https://www.researchgate.net/figure...uction-from-burial-7-kurgan-11_fig2_304847706

A-skull-and-graphic-forensic-facial-reconstruction-from-burial-7-kurgan-11.png

https://www.researchgate.net/figure...burial-of-Kizilskiy-I-cemetery_fig3_304847706

- FATYANOVO CULTURE (corded ware culture in Russia):

The-skull-from-the-destroyed-burial-on-the-square-of-the-Nikultsino-burial-ground.png

 
Reconstruction_of_a_Karakol_culture_individual_%28Altai_Mountains_village_of_Mendur-Sokkon%29.jpg


"Reconstruction of a Karakol culture individual (Altai Mountains village of Mendur-Sokkon). The burial is dated to the end of 3rd – beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. The craniological features of the local anthro-pological component of the composition of the early bronze cultures of southern Siberia with intermediate Caucasoid-Mongoloid racial features are clearly manifested on the skull of a woman from Mendur-Sokkon. One can argue about the great morphological similarity of the buried with individuals buried in the unified cultural burials of Ozernoye and Karakol in Central Altai. On a territorially wider scale, the skull of a woman from a burial in the village of Mendur-Sokkon resembles the craniological series of the Okunevo culture of the Minusinsk depression, which of all the cultural formations of the early bronze of southern and southern Western Siberia anthropologically is the most related to the Karakol one."

Tarim mummies skulls:

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This flat-skull people seemed to migrate to china:

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Ephthalites (white Hun)
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