Genome-wide data from medieval German Jews. Preprint.

Lots of R1b males, what's up with that?

Seems all 3 R1b samples are z2103.
Mb missed one R1b-L4.
Courtesy of Pylsteen from the other forum.
 
here are there g25 values posted by erikl86 from anthrogenica
and done by davidski(y)

Erfurt_ME:I13861,0.103579,0.15436,-0.018856,-0.051357,0.006463,-0.017012,0.008695,-0.000462,0.006954,0.017677,0.011042,-0.006894,0.002379,-0.013762,-0.005836,0.009414,0.008345,-0.001014,-0.005154,0.002251,-0.005989,0.004451,0.001602,-0.00253,0.002515
Erfurt_ME_o:I13863,0.093335,0.132019,-0.020742,-0.064277,0.011079,-0.016455,-0.00423,-0.001846,0.01268,0.024602,0.007632,-0.003447,0.005203,-0.004542,-0.007465,-0.003713,-0.003129,-0.002914,-0.004902,-0.005378,-0.006239,-0.014838,-0.003574,-0.001687,-0.006586
Erfurt_ME:I13864,0.094473,0.151314,-0.019233,-0.052972,0.010463,-0.014502,-0.00188,-0.001615,0.018612,0.024784,0.005684,-3e-04,0.003271,0.003853,0.002714,0.001193,-0.01369,0.003421,0.003645,-0.012881,0.00262,0.002597,-0.002711,0.006266,-0.003113
Erfurt_ME:I13865,0.092197,0.142174,-0.014331,-0.059755,0.020619,-0.026774,-0.00611,-0.000923,0.01268,0.02041,0.00406,-0.000599,0.00446,0.003441,0.002036,-0.007027,-0.011474,0.004307,0.000126,-0.012506,-0.002745,-0.003957,0.008134,-0.005422,-0.003832
Erfurt_ME_o:I13870,0.094473,0.148267,-0.01697,-0.057494,0.008001,-0.024542,-0.00282,-0.000692,0.019839,0.008018,0.005034,0.004946,0.016 204,-0.004679,-0.002036,0.007027,0.006389,-0.000887,-0.004902,-0.014882,-0.00025,0.002102,-0.008258,0.006989,0.003353
Erfurt_ME:I14737,0.08992,0.147252,-0.017725,-0.048773,0.008617,-0.028726,-0.00517,0.001385,0.013908,0.020228,0.00341,-0.001649,0.008176,0.007844,-0.012215,-0.0179,-0.017732,-0.002407,-0.000754,0.006878,-0.000873,-0.001113,0.005916,-0.002048,0.003832
Erfurt_ME:I14739,0.08992,0.144205,-0.018102,-0.063631,0.01508,-0.03012,0.00235,-0.006923,0.007567,0.01713,0.001624,0.001349,0.0099 6,-0.001927,-0.002172,-0.00305,-0.008214,0.000887,-0.01169,0.001251,0.000998,-0.001978,0.008134,-0.008194,-0.000838
Erfurt_ME:I14741,0.101303,0.145221,-0.017348,-0.053941,0.011387,-0.020638,0.00752,0.020999,0.033951,0.021504,0.0038 97,0.007194,0.005203,-0.00289,-0.007193,0.001458,0.014081,0.002154,-0.005908,0.003377,-0.009733,0.005812,-0.002465,0.025305,-0.009221
Erfurt_ME:I14851,0.097888,0.141159,-0.015839,-0.056848,0.011079,-0.01255,-0.00235,-0.009923,0.001841,0.016037,0.013153,0,0.006838,0.0 03716,-0.005429,-0.000265,-0.013299,-0.006588,-0.004525,-0.002001,-0.004617,-0.004328,-0.003204,-0.004458,0.002275
Erfurt_ME:I14852,0.103579,0.148267,-0.016593,-0.062662,0.005232,-0.022032,-0.001175,-0.018461,0.010431,0.022597,-0.001624,0.003747,0.001784,0.001789,-0.008686,0.002121,0.002477,0.004054,-0.009679,-0.004752,-0.00262,-0.018548,0.006779,0.012652,0.007185
Erfurt_ME:I14903,0.103579,0.146236,-0.021496,-0.051034,0.004001,-0.015897,0.000235,-0.003692,0.005318,0.024966,0.002111,-0.009292,-0.000595,-0.002752,-0.010179,0.000398,-0.002217,0.003674,-0.002388,0.002876,-0.00549,-0.00371,0.002711,0.000843,0.000958
Erfurt_ME_o:I13867,0.093335,0.13405,-0.002263,-0.049096,0.014772,-0.018686,-0.00658,-0.006231,0.011249,0.016948,0.008119,-0.001649,0.006987,0.000275,-0.003936,0.001193,0.001565,-0.000887,-0.004777,0.001626,-0.00574,-0.000742,0.007641,0.007953,0.000958
Erfurt_ME_o:I14736,0.092197,0.139128,0.001131,-0.047804,0.012925,-0.012829,0.00141,0.001846,0.00859,0.018041,0.00568 4,0.002398,0.010555,-0.00
0138,0.006922,0.008884,0.01708,0.004181,0,-0.004252,-0.000499,0.004451,-0.00037,-0.002048,-0.008263


Erfurt_EU:I13862,0.110408,0.122879,0.00264,-0.010982,0.010771,-0.005578,0.00235,0.002769,0.00859,0.009294,0.00682 ,-0.003147,-0.003419,0.010046,-0.011943,-0.008486,-0.004955,0.00038,-0.00088,-0.006003,-0.007986,-0.000866,0.008751,-0.002651,-0.003233
Erfurt_EU:I13866,0.106994,0.118817,0.006034,-0.014212,0.016311,-0.010319,-0.00282,0.004615,0.001636,0.014943,-0.006333,-0.000899,0.003717,0.00523,-0.012758,-0.003713,0.008996,0.003927,-0.003142,0.003877,-0.007362,-0.001607,0.001109,0.006386,-0.002754
Erfurt_EU:I13868,0.105855,0.127957,0.012822,-0.018088,0.024312,-0.002231,-0.00188,0.000231,0.01268,0.007289,0.002111,0.00719 4,0.005649,0.010184,-0.001357,-0.004375,0.009388,-0.000507,-0.004022,0.008254,-0.001497,-0.004328,0.0053,-0.003856,0.000599
Erfurt_EU:I14738,0.112685,0.126941,0.012822,-0.013889,0.01508,-0.002789,-0.00188,0.002077,0.001227,0.008201,-0.006333,-0.002847,0.006541,0.007294,-0.00475,0.001061,0.006128,-0.000127,0.000126,-0.004252,0.002121,0.004081,0.006779,0.004217,-0.005987
Erfurt_EU:I14740,0.100164,0.121864,0.014708,-0.011305,0.011694,-0.004462,-0.00705,0.003231,0.005113,0.006743,-0.007145,-0.003147,0.002973,0.008945,-0.012351,0.000133,0.001043,-0.003421,-0.000377,-0.004877,-0.00549,-0.003215,0.000863,-0.003012,0.00467
Erfurt_EU:I14847,0.103579,0.127957,0.001508,-0.018734,0.014156,-0.00502,0.00094,-0.001615,0.002863,0.007289,0.003248,-0.00045,0.004014,0.004679,-0.001493,-0.019888,-0.006128,0.004814,0.003645,-0.006378,-0.004492,-0.00272,0.003451,0.00253,-0.005029
Erfurt_EU:I14850,0.103579,0.140143,0.013199,-0.017119,0.01908,-0.006136,-0.000235,0.011307,0.005113,0.004556,0.000974,-0.002098,-0.000743,0.007156,-0.004886,-0.012198,-0.008996,-0.003167,0.005782,-0.010005,-0.000749,-0.001484,0.012078,0.005543,0.002634
Erfurt_EU:I14904,0.106994,0.116786,0.007165,-0.018411,0.023389,-0.008367,0.004935,0.010384,0.00225,0.016583,-0.004709,0.009591,0.001933,0.008395,0.000814,-0.008486,-0.022296,-0.002914,-0.001383,0,0.002246,-0.008903,0.002958,0.001687,0.003233
Erfurt_EU:I14897,0.09675,0.142174,-0.003017,-0.039406,0.005232,-0.012271,0.013396,0.006231,0.005113,0.013121,0.000 812,-0.001049,0.000595,0.012937,-0.001629,0.001061,-0.021774,0.003294,0.005279,-0.014007,0.001373,-0.011871,0.0053,-0.006025,-0.006347



agamemnon
user anthrogenica cent on those 2 groups of erfurt jews

Close up of the different Western Jewish populations:

0TTMiiq.png


Erfurt_ME overlaps with German, French and Italian Jews as well as Sephardim to a large extent. Erfurt_o is within EAJ variation by the looks of it while Erfurt_EU strongly resembles Mainland Greeks. The latter's Eastern European pull can be clearly seen using the averages:

MWpcdr5.png

 
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For reference the Khazars aren’t described as looking Mongolic at all but rather more similar to the traditional descriptions for Scythians - you’d assume it wouldn’t be as pronounced but they were still said to be a red-haired people.

Could you link me to and/or more information on that?
 
fjeSedl.png


Yppg1Vb.png


Seems the southern European admixture is South Italian like, as some speculated after the Rome papers and the implied Jewish communities within Rome falling on the East-Med cline.

I haven't read the paper, but to me it is not surprising considering that Jews were expelled from the South of Italy, and eventually ended up in Germany in the Middle Ages.

During the early period of the Middle Ages, Calabria, Basilicata and Apulia forming the Catepanate of Italy were under Byzantine rule. By the 11th century, the region was again a peaceful haven for the Jews. During this time many Apulian Torah scholars had regular contact with the Rabbinic academies of the east. The Chronicle of Ahimaaz in 1054 contains many details on Apulian Jewry. Apulian poets of the time include Shephatiah of Oria who wrote the poem "Yisrael Nosha" which is included in the Neilah service on the Day of Atonement in the Ashkenazi liturgy.[1] Amittai in Oria, and Silano in Venosa were also well-known poets. Torah scholars are mentioned from the middle of the tenth century in Bari, Oria, and Otranto. The Josippon chronicle, composed sometime in the mid-tenth century, is a product of the southern Italian Jewish/Hebrew culture. The south Italian Jewry contributed to the early Ashkenazi culture in central Europe. The Jews of France and Germany recognized the scholarship of the Apulian center as late as the 12th century. This is acknowledged in a quote by the French Tosafist, Jacob ben Meir: "For out of Bari goes forth the Law and the word of the Lord from Otranto" Other rabbinic scholars of Apulia in the 13th century include Isaiah ben Mali of Trani (the Elder), his grandson Isaiah ben Elijah of Trani, and Solomon ben ha-Yatom. The lives of the Jews in Apulia continued to be tolerable until the end of the 13th century. Jews in Apulia owned land, were employed in crafts, such as the dyeing industry. Thomas Aquinas, a native of southern Italy, refers to the employment of the Jews in southern Italy in 1274, saying: "it would do better to compel the Jews to work for their living, as is done in parts of Italy, than to allow them… to grow rich by usury."


Toleration of the Jews in Apulia came to end when Apulia, as well as other parts of southern Italy, fell to the Kingdom of Naples. King Charles II of Anjou ordered the forced baptism of all Jews in his realm. Many Apulian Jews fled to neighboring central Italy and northern Italy. Many also moved to the Germanic areas of central Europe. All synagogues at that time were converted into Roman Catholic Churches and all Torah academies were closed. Many of the Jews who had been coerced into Christianity, still practised the Jewish faith in secret. These Jews became the historic population of Neofiti. These Crypto-Jews, also known in Hebrew as Anusim, were frequently compelled to live in special quarters known as Giudecca. They were regarded by the local Catholic population as heretics. In 1311 King Robert directed that those who had either secretly practised or relapsed back into Judaism should be severely punished; the order was renewed in 1343 by Joanna I. Both Jews and Neofiti who had again settled in Apulia in the 15th century were subjected to mob attacks occurring in Bari and Lecce in 1463. The invasion of Otranto by the Ottoman Turks in 1480 led to a large massacre of Jews who lived in the area.


In 1492, after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, many Spanish and Portuguese Jews settled in Apulia. This led to a small revival of Jewish life in the area. Isaac Abrabanel lived in Apulia at this time after leaving Spain. However, the revival was short lived. In 1495, the Kingdom of Naples fell to the French and King Charles VIII ordered more restrictions to be placed on the Jews of Apulia. Also in 1495, the Jews Lecce were massacred and the Jewish quarter was burned to the ground.[2] Lecce was the birthplace of Abraham de Balmes a noted Hebrew expert. One Balmes' pupils was Daniel Bomberg.


Among the privileges granted the city council of Martina Franca (Taranto) in 1495, King Frederick of Aragon forbade Crypto-Jews and Neofiti to press charges against those who robbed them (probably during the riots of 1494–1495 during the French invasion of the Kingdom of Naples) and prohibited their coming to live in that city. Also in 1495, the Jews of Martina Franca were massacred.


When Apulia fell to the Spanish in 1510, the beginning of the end was in sight for the Apulian Jews. The Spanish Inquisition reached Apulia because of the large number of Jews, Crypto-Jews and Neofiti living in the area. A series of expulsions started 1511. Most Jews and Neofiti were expelled and or tortured to death. Most Jewish property was seized and all remaining Synogoues were rededicated as Catholic Churches.


By 1540, the last expulsion finally ended Jewish life in Apulia. Most remaining Crypto-Jews were driven so deep underground that their presence finally came to an end as well. Some of the Apulian Jewish refugees fled north. However, most of them settled in Greece or the Aegean islands. The Apulian Jews set up new congregations in Corfu, Arta and Salonika. The last remnants of the Apulian Jews were murdered during the Holocaust.[3] [4]

History of the Jews in Apulia - Wikipedia
 
^^That's all true, but to the best of my recollection there were already well-established Jewish communities in some German cities by the 9th century.

Now, whether their numbers were increased by migration from Southern Italy and Sicily hundreds of years later I don't know. I do know many of the Jews expelled by Spaniards fled to Ottoman domains where they were treated better.

I think that might have been a better bet for them than Germany, where beginning at the time of the First Crusade in 1096, they had already been decimated by pogroms, pogroms which continued in successive centuries.

Regardless, it does seem to be rather a consensus among Jewish researchers that, as you say, the route was though Italy, perhaps picking up ancestry along the way.
 
Maybe in this city who knows

After the destruction of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem and the associated dispersion (diaspora) of the Jews, there is evidence of a Jewish community in Cologne. In 321 CE, Emperor Constantine approved the settlement of a Jewish community with all the freedoms of Roman citizens. It is assumed that it was located near the Marspforte within the city wall. The Edict of Constantine to the Jews is the oldest documented evidence in Germany.[9][10]

Source:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cologne
 
^^That's all true, but to the best of my recollection there were already well-established Jewish communities in some German cities by the 9th century.

Now, whether their numbers were increased by migration from Southern Italy and Sicily hundreds of years later I don't know. I do know many of the Jews expelled by Spaniards fled to Ottoman domains where they were treated better.

I think that might have been a better bet for them than Germany, where beginning at the time of the First Crusade in 1096, they had already been decimated by pogroms, pogroms which continued in successive centuries.

Regardless, it does seem to be rather a consensus among Jewish researchers that, as you say, the route was though Italy, perhaps picking up ancestry along the way.

From looking at how they are composed using the K8 model, I think it is likely that they are some kind of Southern European with a clear Near eastern (actual levantine Jewish) influence.

Rswxx9Q.png


They look different from C5 and C4, but look like they are more C6 but with a blend of C4 and 5.
 
rsRjUIC.png


The Erfurt EU looks like it clusters with Northern Greece/Balkans and the Erfurt ME looks like it clusters with Late Antiquity Eastern Mediterranean.

Interesting how Erfurt EU and Erfurt ME are so distant from one another.

Perhaps Modern Ashkenazi moved "north" on the PCA because of the Slavic admixture?

Also interesting how there's so much variation for them in the K8 model. Wonder what causes it.
 
the erfurt data is here:

https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/datasets

p.s
it is waldman paper
i think this is where davidski and erikl86
anlaysed the data because i don't see any bam in ENA site nada
 
I took the dataset from the same place, … same data, different calculator:

… (some of us, avoid using calculators made by people with a bias against my people !)

https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/41751-aDNA-(Dodecad-K12b)?p=649177&viewfull=1#post649177

salento
is there is any way you can do the same great job you did with those erfurt k12b values
with eurogenes k13 values of these erfurt remains
( or you need admixture studio for it )?
that would great

p.s
i am very interested to see there eurogenes k13 values
of those 2 groups erfurt _ me and erfurt_ eu
 
salento
is there is any way you can do the same great job you did with those erfurt k12b values
with eurogenes k13 values of these erfurt remains
( or you need admixture studio for it )?
that would great

p.s
i am very interested to see there eurogenes k13 values
of those 2 groups erfurt _ me and erfurt_ eu

... the only reason I do the EU K13 is because you asked me.

... Testing my data: I know that I processed the Datasets in the same way as those that processed the SZ Dataset to produce the EU K13 coordinates, because I can replicate their results with my Dataset.

I used the ENA .fastq for most of the SZ Dod. Globe 13, I only used the Dataset for 8 of the SZ samples.

... testing some of my EU K13 dataset results vs Vahaduo EU K13 (exactly the same, my processed Datasets are correct, obviously each calculator will give a different result).

48CX7fB.gif



All the EU K13 Waldman 2022 divided by "OK" coverage, and 'very low' coverage:

... OK coverage
Code:
I13861_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_28.29%,12.99,6.72,19.54,13.05,39.70,5.71,1.38,0,0,0,0.79,0,0.12
I13862_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_70.83%,15.74,18.25,16.62,10.77,25.75,5.79,4.35,0.17,1.29,0.57,0.35,0.34,0
I13863_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_22.78%,11.55,4.48,21.79,9.91,39.93,7.34,0,1.35,0.05,0.63,1.08,1.85,0.04
I13864_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_58.15%,14.81,2.66,23.98,8.73,40.12,6.57,1.25,0,0,0,0,0.73,1.14
I13865_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_47.43%,17.88,4.47,20.21,7.77,38.18,7.80,0,1.56,0,0,0.56,1.31,0.27
I13866_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_55.33%,20.08,14.61,17.13,8.85,29.51,2.19,3.09,1.55,1.02,1.07,0.74,0,0.16
I13867_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_67.05%,16.78,7.86,18.13,8.62,35.15,8.26,0,1.29,0.85,1.12,0,0.96,0.97
I13868_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_53.41%,19.16,16.65,19.12,8.91,25.89,3.36,1.20,1.65,0,1.09,0.56,1.91,0.51
I13869_F-Eurogenes_K13_cov_52.00%,21.51,10.25,20.09,10.05,23.53,8.58,0,2.06,3.08,0,0,0.87,0
I13870_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_31.52%,13.58,4.34,17.24,9.14,45.54,8.29,0.33,0,0,0,1.20,0.34,0
I14736_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_59.21%,19.56,6.60,18.48,11.94,31.29,8.44,0,0.14,1.06,0.16,0,0.83,1.49
I14737_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_33.67%,11.47,9.62,18.66,7.59,41.51,6.90,0,0,0.29,0,1.12,0,2.84
I14738_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_71.04%,20.15,18.10,15.23,11.82,23.57,5.78,1.57,1.10,1.03,1.66,0,0,0
I14739_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_28.47%,12.40,4.80,22.29,11.32,38.35,7.23,0,0.68,0,0,0.90,1.52,0.52
I14740_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_71.84%,19.57,17.26,14.24,11.71,24.38,5.62,0.59,0.95,2.74,0.92,0,1.11,0.89
I14741_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_10.95%,12.93,8.67,21.80,3.99,45.21,3.90,1.15,1.32,0.17,0,0.88,0,0
I14846_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_5.18%,12.51,0,23.57,12.53,36.95,8.84,1.44,2.30,0,0,0,0,1.86
I14847_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_73.06%,21.60,14.38,17.23,9.46,27.99,3.47,1.45,1.94,0,0.38,0.50,0.09,1.51
I14850_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_49.02%,20.19,18.50,14.35,11.37,29.36,2.14,0,0,1.76,0,0.36,1.28,0.69
I14851_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_38.41%,14.96,5.43,18.68,11.97,38.70,6.66,0,0.94,0,1.30,0.06,0.87,0.42
I14852_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_22.05%,19.71,3.72,19.29,11.88,34.34,9.97,0,0.48,0,0.39,0.22,0,0
I14853_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_45.63%,18.18,11.10,18.12,12.52,33.25,2.78,0,0.93,0.90,0.01,0.04,0,2.18
I14897_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_19.67%,22.82,7.75,15.29,14.12,28.90,8.16,0,0,2.02,0,0,0.94,0
I14898_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_9.81%,25.51,2.23,21.08,6.46,34.90,4.82,0.94,0,0.95,0.14,1.00,0.36,1.59
I14903_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_51.78%,15.21,4.17,19.21,13.47,40.77,4.99,1.17,0.23,0.49,0.10,0,0,0.19
I14904_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_60.46%,23.59,11.79,19.65,9.51,22.70,5.28,0,2.64,2.36,0,1.26,0.30,0.94

very low coverage
Code:
I14848_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.17%,1.85,11.94,24.12,20.12,31.35,6.79,1.52,1.49,0,0.84,0,0,0
I14849_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.22%,3.09,14.83,14.43,0,55.61,6.61,0,0,0,0,0,5.43,0
I14854_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.35%,14.30,3.12,11.10,1.50,44.19,16.52,9.25,0,0,0,0,0,0
I14855_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_3.39%,22.66,11.72,26.73,0,21.60,15.85,0,0,0,0,0,0,1.44
I14899_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.63%,21.67,21.37,6.95,6.55,33.45,10.01,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
I14900_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_0.93%,0,3.17,45.74,39.05,5.67,0,0,0,0,0,4.44,1.91,0
I14901_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_5.73%,7.19,24.90,20.90,11.22,21.40,4.67,0,2.26,2.99,2.03,0,0,2.44
 
... the only reason I do the EU K13 is because you asked me.

... Testing my data: I know that I processed the Datasets in the same way as those that processed the SZ Dataset to produce the EU K13 coordinates, because I can replicate their results with my Dataset.

I used the ENA .fastq for most of the SZ Dod. Globe 13, I only used the Dataset for 8 of the SZ samples.

... testing some of my EU K13 dataset results vs Vahaduo EU K13 (exactly the same, my processed Datasets are correct, obviously each calculator will give a different result).

48CX7fB.gif



All the EU K13 Waldman 2022 divided by "OK" coverage, and 'very low' coverage:

... OK coverage
Code:
I13861_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_28.29%,12.99,6.72,19.54,13.05,39.70,5.71,1.38,0,0,0,0.79,0,0.12
I13862_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_70.83%,15.74,18.25,16.62,10.77,25.75,5.79,4.35,0.17,1.29,0.57,0.35,0.34,0
I13863_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_22.78%,11.55,4.48,21.79,9.91,39.93,7.34,0,1.35,0.05,0.63,1.08,1.85,0.04
I13864_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_58.15%,14.81,2.66,23.98,8.73,40.12,6.57,1.25,0,0,0,0,0.73,1.14
I13865_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_47.43%,17.88,4.47,20.21,7.77,38.18,7.80,0,1.56,0,0,0.56,1.31,0.27
I13866_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_55.33%,20.08,14.61,17.13,8.85,29.51,2.19,3.09,1.55,1.02,1.07,0.74,0,0.16
I13867_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_67.05%,16.78,7.86,18.13,8.62,35.15,8.26,0,1.29,0.85,1.12,0,0.96,0.97
I13868_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_53.41%,19.16,16.65,19.12,8.91,25.89,3.36,1.20,1.65,0,1.09,0.56,1.91,0.51
I13869_F-Eurogenes_K13_cov_52.00%,21.51,10.25,20.09,10.05,23.53,8.58,0,2.06,3.08,0,0,0.87,0
I13870_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_31.52%,13.58,4.34,17.24,9.14,45.54,8.29,0.33,0,0,0,1.20,0.34,0
I14736_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_59.21%,19.56,6.60,18.48,11.94,31.29,8.44,0,0.14,1.06,0.16,0,0.83,1.49
I14737_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_33.67%,11.47,9.62,18.66,7.59,41.51,6.90,0,0,0.29,0,1.12,0,2.84
I14738_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_71.04%,20.15,18.10,15.23,11.82,23.57,5.78,1.57,1.10,1.03,1.66,0,0,0
I14739_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_28.47%,12.40,4.80,22.29,11.32,38.35,7.23,0,0.68,0,0,0.90,1.52,0.52
I14740_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_71.84%,19.57,17.26,14.24,11.71,24.38,5.62,0.59,0.95,2.74,0.92,0,1.11,0.89
I14741_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_10.95%,12.93,8.67,21.80,3.99,45.21,3.90,1.15,1.32,0.17,0,0.88,0,0
I14846_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_5.18%,12.51,0,23.57,12.53,36.95,8.84,1.44,2.30,0,0,0,0,1.86
I14847_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_73.06%,21.60,14.38,17.23,9.46,27.99,3.47,1.45,1.94,0,0.38,0.50,0.09,1.51
I14850_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_49.02%,20.19,18.50,14.35,11.37,29.36,2.14,0,0,1.76,0,0.36,1.28,0.69
I14851_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_38.41%,14.96,5.43,18.68,11.97,38.70,6.66,0,0.94,0,1.30,0.06,0.87,0.42
I14852_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_22.05%,19.71,3.72,19.29,11.88,34.34,9.97,0,0.48,0,0.39,0.22,0,0
I14853_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_45.63%,18.18,11.10,18.12,12.52,33.25,2.78,0,0.93,0.90,0.01,0.04,0,2.18
I14897_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_19.67%,22.82,7.75,15.29,14.12,28.90,8.16,0,0,2.02,0,0,0.94,0
I14898_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_9.81%,25.51,2.23,21.08,6.46,34.90,4.82,0.94,0,0.95,0.14,1.00,0.36,1.59
I14903_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_51.78%,15.21,4.17,19.21,13.47,40.77,4.99,1.17,0.23,0.49,0.10,0,0,0.19
I14904_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_60.46%,23.59,11.79,19.65,9.51,22.70,5.28,0,2.64,2.36,0,1.26,0.30,0.94

very low coverage
Code:
I14848_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.17%,1.85,11.94,24.12,20.12,31.35,6.79,1.52,1.49,0,0.84,0,0,0
I14849_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.22%,3.09,14.83,14.43,0,55.61,6.61,0,0,0,0,0,5.43,0
I14854_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.35%,14.30,3.12,11.10,1.50,44.19,16.52,9.25,0,0,0,0,0,0
I14855_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_3.39%,22.66,11.72,26.73,0,21.60,15.85,0,0,0,0,0,0,1.44
I14899_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_1.63%,21.67,21.37,6.95,6.55,33.45,10.01,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
I14900_M_Eurogenes_K13_cov_0.93%,0,3.17,45.74,39.05,5.67,0,0,0,0,0,4.44,1.91,0
I14901_F_Eurogenes_K13_cov_5.73%,7.19,24.90,20.90,11.22,21.40,4.67,0,2.26,2.99,2.03,0,0,2.44


thanks salento great work (y)
interesting
 
fyi … F stands for ‘female’ and M for ‘male’ :)
 
^^That's all true, but to the best of my recollection there were already well-established Jewish communities in some German cities by the 9th century.

Now, whether their numbers were increased by migration from Southern Italy and Sicily hundreds of years later I don't know. I do know many of the Jews expelled by Spaniards fled to Ottoman domains where they were treated better.

I think that might have been a better bet for them than Germany, where beginning at the time of the First Crusade in 1096, they had already been decimated by pogroms, pogroms which continued in successive centuries.

Regardless, it does seem to be rather a consensus among Jewish researchers that, as you say, the route was though Italy, perhaps picking up ancestry along the way.

indeed
the ottomans treat them much better
i am planning a trip to spain
i want to see the jewish quarters in toledo
after all the parllell branch (e-s20057) to mine are all descendnet of sefhardi or portuguase jews( beside 1 saudi)
so i could say there is high chances that they lived there in those quarters before the explusion
i also score sefhardi autosomally in ftdna my origins 3.0 ( i am 1/4 bulgarian sefhardi geneologically)
so it will be exciting to be in spain maybe i will also go to portugal will see about that

p.s
afcorse it all depende on the covid situation :frown:
 
indeed
the ottomans treat them much better
i am planning a trip to spain
i want to see the jewish quarters in toledo
after all the parllell branch (e-s20057) to mine are all descendnet of sefhardi or portuguase jews( beside 1 saudi)
so i could say there is high chances that they lived there in those quarters before the explusion
i also score sefhardi autosomally in ftdna my origins 3.0 ( i am 1/4 bulgarian sefhardi geneologically)
so it will be exciting to be in spain maybe i will also go to portugal will see about that

p.s
afcorse it all depende on the covid situation :frown:

I recommend a visit to Toledo. Spend a whole day in the city visiting everything on foot walking through the medieval alleys (and seeing, of course, the cathedral, the synagogue, the Mosque, etc, etc). I went from Madrid to Toledo by bus, but you can also do it by train. A great ride. It is only 70 km from Madrid. Toledo's Damasquinado de Oro is an attraction in itself. I loved seeing personally the handmade process of jewelry making
 
I recommend a visit to Toledo. Spend a whole day in the city visiting everything on foot walking through the medieval alleys (and seeing, of course, the cathedral, the synagogue, the Mosque, etc, etc). I went from Madrid to Toledo by bus, but you can also do it by train. A great ride. It is only 70 km from Madrid. Toledo's Damasquinado de Oro is an attraction in itself. I loved seeing personally the handmade process of jewelry making

Thanks durate
For your tips
Sounds very nice (y)
 

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