How can IE migration be explained without mentioning Seima Turbino?

^
^
Ring (circle culture) arrived in Armenia late bronze age? (Arnold terminator?)
1-s2.0-S0018442X16300567-gr1.jpg


Trepanation in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia:
Trepanations-in-ancient-Armenia-1-Bakheri-chala-bur-18-2-Bover-bur-7-3-Tekhut.png

Trepanations in ancient Armenia: 1. Bakheri chala: bur. 18, 2. Bover: bur. 7, 3. Tekhut: bur. 1, 4. Barcryal: bur. 9, 5. Lchashen: bur. 83, 6. Karmir: bur. 1, 7. Artsvakar: bur. 5, 8. Bakheri chala: bur. 22, 9. Shirakavan I: bur. 9, 10. Lchashen: bur. 193/6.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0018442X16300567

In Ukraine:
uzor3.jpg
Symbols of the sun on Easter eggs
https://traditions.in.ua/zvychai-ta-obriady/obriadova-symvolika/315-ornament-pysanky

eyelid and ring:
sun-eye.jpg


In baikal:
Siberia01.jpg


And
EuropoidMaskLopNurChina2000-1000BCE.jpg


seima turbino rings:
image24_5f7ef8e436c06d0b0008eb30_jpg.jpeg


And celtic rings and rings
 
^
^
Circle heaven Square earth culture in armenia late bronze?
Public
CAPTION

Main view of the Bronze Age Karashamb Necropolis. The study includes 26 individuals from the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages of this site https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/947387

Circle B:
Plan-of-Grave-Circle-B-After-Dickinson-1977-fi-g-7.png




2 Plan of Grave Circle B (After Dickinson 1977, fi g. 7).

Graves in East Baikal[edit]

[ "Thousands of graves can now be seen in the southern Baikal area. In some cases they form a cemetery, with a clear plan and a strict order. For example, at lake Balzino about a hundred graves formed circles and rectangles. They are usually located at higher elevation, exposed to sun. Monumental burials mark greatness of the people who once lived there. They became an integral part of the East Baikal steppes cultural and historical landscape."]

t1.22315122_std.jpg

stone mound with embedded graves, typical Hongshan tomb structure
http://hongshanren.com/artifacts


looks like all ANE people had same philosophy of circle sky and square earth:

afanasievo:
Afanasievo-burial-shapes.jpg

okunevo:
Photo courtesy of expedition members



inside_burials.jpg
https://siberiantimes.com/science/c...500-years-old-with-links-to-native-americans/



Section and plan of the barrow from the cemetery of Kamyshevkha near Bakhmut, lower Donets basin.
https://www.donsmaps.com/rossosh.html

Maya also:
cosmos-maya-web.png

https://www.mayaarchaeologist.co.uk/school-resources/maya-world/maya-gods-and-goddesses/
 
Last edited:
^
^
Ladakh india
http://indpaedia.com/ind/index.php/Rock_Art:_Ladakh
https://www.sahapedia.org/early-records-petroglyphs-and-rock-art-twentieth-century-ladakh

image75.jpg

images
4a%20to%204d.jpg
Figure%201%20Francke%20Petroglyph%20sites.jpg

america shaman:
Shaman-and-coyote-petroglyph.gif


"The Importance of the Okunev Culture

In the northern fringes of the steppe belt, I stressed the extreme importance of the Okunev Culture which had on the one hand connections with the Far East and, on the other, definite links with the south of Central Asia.
Meanwhile I discovered a group of petroglyphs in the Indus Valley, near Chilas, that is connected with the engravings of the Okunev Culture by the main motifs and stylistic peculiarities. In addition to one report on my findings (Jettmar 1982: 298-302), others are forthcoming. It is not improbable that during the third and early second millemmia B.C. there were relations over thousands of kilometers, perhaps due to migrations of cattle-keeping Early Nomads. Other connections leading in the same direction were observed by Stacul (1977:251-252) and the Allchins (1982:111-116)."
Rock artist also migrated to Armenia:
Ukhtasar-4.jpg

Azhdahak-Rock.jpg

images

images


"THE IMPACT OF ANCIENT ARMENIAN TRADITIONS AND WORLDVIEW ON THE COGNITIVE CORE OF NORDIC CULTURE"
http://www.iatp.am/vahanyan/articles/scandinavia-en.pdf


lake baikal
1-s2.0-S104061821501201X-gr7.jpg


bronze age at sweden:
csm_Kalleby_2_04_45215487e1_33a1629ec3.jpg
Lur-blowers can be seen in rock carvings, like this example from Kalleby in Bohuslän, west Sweden.

https://www.academia.edu/31105712/The_Stranger_King_and_Rock_art
.


14-c2305a9841.jpg


https://www.academia.edu/31105712/The_Stranger_King_and_Rock_art
 
Last edited:
^
^
I-Y16649 found in Trialeti at Armenia mid-bronze age:

["
a cauldron found in Trialeti is nearly identical to the one from Shaft Grave 4 of Mycenae in Greece."]

urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20180930235710-65249-mediumThumb-fig7_19.jpg


Distribution-of-the-Scythian-bronze-cauldrons-in-the-Northern-Black-Sea-region-A.ppm


Distribution of the Scythian bronze cauldrons in the Northern Black Sea region;


1-cauldron-from-Rostov-on-Don-drawing-by-Vladimir-Guguev-2-cauldron-from.ppm


1 -cauldron from Rostov-on-Don (drawing by Vladimir Guguev); 2 -cauldron from Oktyabr'skoe; 3-4 -cauldron fragments from Mokryy Chaltyr' (drawing by Vladimir Guguev); 5-6 -cauldron from Sadovyy: Sarmatians in the Northeastern Azov Sea Region


Hun_üstök.jpg

HUN



TumulusMM_02.jpg

Phrygian period.
Click on the pictures for larger images.



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344879874_Tamgas_and_tamga-like_signs_from_Tanais
https://www.researchgate.net/figure...he-Northern-Black-Sea-region-A_fig1_344668558
https://www.cambridge.org/core/book...-25001500-bc/01CB137D97F99059028348CF3C230040
https://www.phrygianmonuments.com/gordion/
 
Last edited:
^
^

Rock artist also migrated to Armenia:


images

images


south asia

Figure%201%20Francke%20Petroglyph%20sites.jpg
albanian symbol
EhpgcwDWkAIe1ib


Ancient and unchanged tattoo Mithriac motifs and symbolism of the Yezidi Kurds …and therefore, Ancient Hurrians:
The history of the Kurdish people is as complex as it is ancient. By the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C., the culture and society of Kurdistan appear to have been unified under the Hurrians, a people who spoke a language belonging to the Caucasian family distantly related to modern Georgian and Laz. The fundamental legacy of the ancient Hurrians to the contemporary culture of the Kurds is manifest elementally in their religion, mythology, martial arts, genetics, and tattoos. But other religions left their mark on the tattoo traditions of the Yezidi Kurds, including the Aryans who extinguished the last Hurrian states in the Zagros-Taurus mountain regions by 850 B.C.Today, the Yezidi Kurds comprise less than five percent of the entire Kurdish population, but their tattooing traditions remain, as do many of their religious ceremonies like the Jam. Held at the sacred shrine in modern Lalish, Iraq, Jam coincides with the great Aryan festival of Mithrakan which celebrated the act of world creation by the sun god Mithras. The earliest known reference to Mithras dates to the 14th century B.C. and according to clay tablets excavated on the Anatolian plateau, he was worshipped for over two-thousand years. The Roman Emperor Commodus (180-192 A.D.) even brought “the cult of light” to his empire and afterwards Roman emperors more and more identified themselves with the Unconquered Sun, took the title of “Invictus” and wore a crown with sun rays.According to Izady, Kurdish men and women still wear tattoos (kutra’i in Kurdish) associated with Mithras. Some of the motifs are found adorning the outer walls of the Yezidi shrine at Lalish:The symbol combining a dog, a serpent hole, and the sun disc used by Yezidi women is a fascinating reminder of this combination in ancient Mithraic religious sculptures (the sun god Mithras killing the bull of heaven, from whose blood springs a serpent and a dog, the symbols of balancing forces of good and evil).Yezidi men’s hand tattoos from Iraq, ca.1930.Field remarked that the Yezidis tattooed most frequently a comb design, called misht or meshed, and a rayed circle or disc with a varying number of rays and sometimes a circular branded scar called kawi in the center. Westermark illustrates a related tattoo motif in Morocco which was called mechta, “comb,” very similar to the etymology of the Kurdish word misht, that resembles the carding comb tattoos of the Kabyle and Chaouian Berbers of Algeria. Cola Alberich reported that rayed crosses tattooed in Morocco were “expressions of the solar cult.” Thus, it seems that comb tattoos in Iraq were perhaps in some way related to solar motifs, because we know that iron carding combs and tattoos were used as fire symbols in North Africa.
As such, we see in the dominant motifs of Kurdish tattooing the value of a type of “holy formula” that Izady says “cannot be altered without losing its power. These markings are of considerable antiquity, and are ‘living’ examples of many ancient motifs preserved in this way.” In this vein, rayed semicircles enclosing a star and two dots were said by some Yezidi women to ward off the evil eye, while other tattoos were therapeutic used to cure rheumatism and headaches because of their perceived healing properties. It should be noted that tribal peoples in Iran also practiced these forms of medicinal tattooing.
Yet other authorities have argued that because the sun brought forth the new growth of plants, coinciding in a sense with animals giving birth to their young each spring, the heliolatrous significance of the tattooed cross, as a solar symbol, connoted procreation and ultimately served as a fertility mark; whereas the swastika, present in tattoo traditions of the Kurds, Berbers and indigenous groups in India, metamorphosed into a related form (via spirals, concentric circles, and rosettes). However, the sun ideograph may have also represented deified fire symbolizing properties of purification.
Source: Tattooing in North Africa, The Middle East and Balkans By Lars Krutak


Kurdish women’s tattoo designs from Iraq, ca. 1930.

828b76ab0f8c2ba95186e30aec60d299--tattoo-pied-africa-tattoos.jpg

Yezidi women’s ankle tattoos from Iraq, ca. 1930.
https://japanesemythology.wordpress.com/2014/10/04/ancient-and-unchanged-tattoo-mithriac-motifs-and-symbolism-of-the-yezidi-kurds-and-therefore-ancient-hurrians/​

first one is chinese oracle bone script of 東 (means "East" or "the place of sun to rise")
%25E6%259D%25B1.gif

sun and sun's ray
images


croatian tatoo
images





 
^
^
Later the symbol for ”man, I, one” was developed to these:
ebar.jpg

["which are the praying men. And three symbols of AR (Sun God) arose: Lion, Eagle and Aris (Aries), all three begin in Armenian with letters “ar”. From that time “three” came to us as a sacred figure and sign “w” became the first letter of Armenian Alphabet (letter “a”). "] ---> ["Anu, (Akkadian), Sumerian An, Mesopotamian sky god and a member of the triad of deities completed by Enlil and Ea (Enki)."]
https://allinnet.info/antiquities/armenian-language-analysis-paris-herouni/

Armenian ancestor drew human like I above. It is extremely nomal view. However chinese shang human did differently on orcle bone. See human's arm and leg angle of oracle bone script below first:
generalPreface.jpg

https://www.theepochtimes.com/exploring-chinese-characters_1523864.html

then, see seima turbino shaman(so called Toharian according to one russian scholar)
Statuette_Seima-Turbino_GIM.jpg



- North America
Quadrapeds%20Birds%20Snakes%20Lineart.jpg

https://sites.google.com/a/asu.edu/...closer-look-at-petroglyphs-and-their-meanings

918ZW72c1SL._AC_UY218_.jpg


Two Ancient Rock Inscriptions Indicate An Archaic Chinese Presence In The American Southwest
https://www.researchgate.net/public...ic_Chinese_Presence_In_The_American_Southwest


 
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Hebrew / Jewish Calendars
hebrewcalendar.jpg

https://www.crystalinks.com/calendarjewish.html

CLM_14456_71r_detail.jpg

"Circular diagrams showing the division of the day and of the week, from a Carolingian ms. (Clm 14456 fol. 71r) of St. Emmeram Abbey. The week is divided into seven days, and each day into 24 hours, 96 puncta (quarter-hours), 240 minuta (tenths of an hour) and 960"

Weekday_heptagram.svg

"Schematic comparison of the ordering of the classical planets (arranged in a circle) and the sequence of days in the week (forming a {7/3} heptagram within the circle)."

quote_icon.png
Originally Posted by johen

.
First One of Quijia culture in tarim where seima turbino reached: 7
Screen-Shot-2020-06-18-at-16.53.18.jpg


symbol of Hallstatt:7
Plate_with_geometric_design%2C_Hallstatt_culture_grave_goods%2C_Albstadt-Lautlingen%2C_%27Kriegs%C3%A4cker%27%2C_Zollernalbkreis%2C_8th_to_7th_century_BC%2C_ceramic_-_Landesmuseum_W%C3%BCrttemberg_-_Stuttgart%2C_Germany_-_DSC02800.jpg


https://www.iias.asia/the-newsletter...ns-early-china
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...-_DSC02800.jpg

7 Segments:



The Greek goddess Hecate portrayed in triplicate:
Hecate_Chiaramonti_Inv1922.jpg

Pliska Rosette, an archaeological find that is popular among the Bulgarian historians
Rosette_from_Pliska.svg


Fig. 3. The bronze Rosette-Horoscope with symbols of the Seven "planets" and zodiac constellations on its seven fingers.
http://www.math.bas.bg/~keleved/dplisros/

"Aztlán (from Nahuatl languages: Astlan, Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈast͡ɬãːn̥] (listen)) is the ancestral home of the Aztec peoples."
ToltecaChichimeca_Chicomostoc.jpg


 

Armenian ancestor drew human like I above. It is extremely nomal view. However chinese shang human did differently on orcle bone. See human's arm and leg angle of oracle bone script below first:
generalPreface.jpg

https://www.theepochtimes.com/exploring-chinese-characters_1523864.html

then, see seima turbino shaman(so called Toharian according to one russian scholar)
Statuette_Seima-Turbino_GIM.jpg
Kalash idol (see legs and arms):
gandao1.jpg

https://thekalashatimes.wordpress.com/author/thekalashatimes/page/17/

seima turbino eyes:
o9e9eblta1h61.png

http://nav.shm.ru/upload/iblock/8d4/8d4bf3bb074679fe38086fb96f282390.png

Mayan eyes:

GoldSicanFuneryMaskWithRedPaint.jpg


kalash
preview_01206792_001.jpg


china bronze
Jinsha_Stone_Captive_Figure_a.jpg


20th century wooden Kalash Gandau, note the cross (+) on it's chest. From the website: users.tpg.com.au
amer5-25.jpg

india

amer5-24.jpg

http://www.davidpratt.info/americas1.htm
 
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darafsh_dxap.jpg

Derafsh Kaviani
Aztec Glyph for Gold"
Aztec_Glyph_for_Gold.svg

aus_32_03_2.jpg

["Gold was understood to seep out of the earth. Its first appearance was compared to diaorrhea, and so it was called either the excrement of the sun or the excrement of the gods."]
https://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/ask-us/symbol-for-gold

"The vajra in South American cultures

In the new world we encounter a similar deadly lightning weapon used by the sky gods. In the Aztec culture there is the god Huitzilopochtli. Huitzilopochtli, with his weapon Xiuhcoatl, “ the fire serpent ”, killed his sister Coyolxauhqui soon after he was born. The Mayan rain deity Chaac and the later Aztec Tlaloc are both depicted carrying their lightning axe (Figure 6.). Sometimes they are depicted holding snakes, which represent lightning bolts, which they would hurl from the mountaintops where they made their retreat. In Peru, we find the god Illapa who is described as a man wielding a club in his left hand and a sling in his right."

P.s

Kurdish women’s tattoo designs from Iraq, ca. 1930.

Typological-chronology-of-the-Okunevo.png

okunevo symbols at the bottom of pottery

Flag_of_the_Hopi_Reservation.svg

american Indian Hopi

 
Kalash gandau:
gandao1.jpg
Resilience or Assimilation: A Critical Analysis of the Burial Practices of Kalasha in Pakistan:

["This paper investigates the burial practices and death rituals of the Kalasha tribe of Chitral, Pakistan and explores the process of change or development in the burial practices and decline of gandau (Kalashamon: burial memorial effigy) and gundurik (Kalashamon: burial memorial effigy) making."]

Sarcophagi of Carajía in Peru:

Karajia1.jpg


["The Sarcophagi of Carajía (Spanish: Sarcófagos de Carajía, or Karajía) are unusually large pre-Inca Chachapoyas culture sarcophagi at the archaeological site of Carajía in the Utcubamba Valley, located 48 km northwest of the city of Chachapoyas, Peru in Luya Province, Amazonas Region. The site contains eight Chachapoyan mummies located on a cliffside, referred to by local residents as the “ancient wise men”.[2] The Chachapoya culture had the tradition of protecting their dead and located their sarcophagi in protected difficult to get to locations."]

"A gandau funerary figure of a male riding a horse, carved from a single piece of Himalayan cedar"

feature-raffaele-statue-3.jpg

[h=2]Appearance of sarcophagi[edit][/h]"It is believed that the sarcophagi are evocations of the typical form of funeral bundle found in the coast and in the mountain range, corresponding to the period of the Tiahuanaco-Huari. In effect, the anthropomorphous form has been only given in the outlines of the human body, without the forms corresponding to the extremities taking shape. It is necessary to notice that the head of the sarcophagus has received sculptural treatment, and the face is the result of copying in clay funeral masks that were originally done in a wooden table, cut away in a half moon shape to represent the jaw."
 
Last edited:
Resilience or Assimilation: A Critical Analysis of the Burial Practices of Kalasha in Pakistan:

["This paper investigates the burial practices and death rituals of the Kalasha tribe of Chitral, Pakistan and explores the process of change or development in the burial practices and decline of gandau (Kalashamon: burial memorial effigy) and gundurik (Kalashamon: burial memorial effigy) making."]


I wonder how much of Kalash culture derives from pre-IE, ancient native sources vs the Indo European migrants. They're supposed to carry on some old aspects of early Indo Iranian or proto-Vedic religion before the rest of it evolved into what became Hinduism eventually, but now there's some controversy about the specifics of it. The population and ethnic history there may be a bit more complicated than some people think. Really interesting stuff though.
 
Ancient chinese script of sky (tian) on oracle bone:
%E5%A4%A9-bronze-shang.svg


circle B:
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/i...2i9kw&usqp=CAU


Mexico
fopyramidmanjpg.jpeg



MEXICO CITY—Archaeologists in southern Mexico announced Monday they have discovered a 2,700-year-old tomb of a dignitary inside a pyramid that may be the oldest such burial documented in Mesoamerica.
https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2...rn_mexico.html


PIE culture on mesomaerica:

Aztec-god-Tlaloc.jpg


"The vajra in South American cultures

In the new world we encounter a similar deadly lightning weapon used by the sky gods. In the Aztec culture there is the god Huitzilopochtli. Huitzilopochtli, with his weapon Xiuhcoatl, “ the fire serpent ”, killed his sister Coyolxauhqui soon after he was born. The Mayan rain deity Chaac and the later Aztec Tlaloc are both depicted carrying their lightning axe (Figure 6.). Sometimes they are depicted holding snakes, which represent lightning bolts, which they would hurl from the mountaintops where they made their retreat. In Peru, we find the god Illapa who is described as a man wielding a club in his left hand and a sling in his right."

so Kozintsev's opinion is plausible.


"Unlike the previously outlined Scenario 1, which placed the IE,
Uralic and Indo-Uralic homelands in the area east of the Caspian
Sea, not far from the presumed common Eurasiatic homeland,
Scenario 2 locates the latter in a much more easterly area
between Lake Balkhash and the Altai. With regard to proto-IE,
Scenario 2 is an extension of Scenario 1 back in time and space,
adding a very long initial stretch of the westward expansion of
Indo-Hittite across most of western Central Asia"

"In line with johanna nichols’ early view (1997, 1998), i postulated the primary westward spread of ie from that locus, caused by the transition of one of the early farming groups to seminomadic pastoralism. the spread, however, likely occurred, not by two routes (the northern one to the western steppe, the southern to the near east),but only by the southern mountainous route along the elburz. an additional fact supporting this scenario is that, judging by reconstructed PIE terms for topographical features, the indo-hittites, at some stage of their history, lived in a mountainous terrain, moreover, that the mountain was perceived as a “mighty cliff reaching to the sky”; in addition, there was a sea or large lake nearby (gamkrelidze, ivanov 1995: 574–577; dybo 2013). as the authors conclude, this eliminates the steppe as a primary homeland."

According to
Igor V. Kovtun
At the same time, the indirect influence ofthe Okunev cultural corpus on the formationof the proto-mythopoetic tradition of the earlyIndo-Aryans of the Seima-Turbino era, whichwas embodied in the quoted Vedic texts aftermore than a millennium, is not excluded.

According to AG:

UOO004; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; R1b-P297 (xM269) - very low coverage

UOO012; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; R1a2-YP4141>pre-YP5018 - 1 derived: YP5056+ T>C (3C) and 8 ancestral SNPs

UOO033; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; Q1a2-L54>M1107>M930>pre-L804 - 12 derived and 14 ancestral SNPs

UOO035; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; Q1a1-F1096* (xM25,F746) - very low coverage

"Interesting that a pre Q-L804 sample was found among Karelian hunter-gatherers. This subclade is very closely related to the subclades of Q present in Indigenous Americans."

UOO051; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; R1a1-pre-M459 - very low coverage

UOO052; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; Q1a1-F1096>pre-F746 (xM120,YP1500)

UOO053; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; Q1a1-F1096>pre-F746 (xM120,YP1500)

UOO059; Yuzniy Oleni Ostrov; Karelia_EHG; (pre-)J1-M267 (xZ2215,FT265222,F2306,Y158859,ZS50) - very low coverage

"Russia_Afanasievo I3950, Karasuk III, Altai Mountains, Russia, 2879-2632 calBCE, mtDNA: U5b2a1a-a*, Y-DNA: Q1b-FT380500, NarasimhanPattersonScience2019

Bohemia_CordedWare_Early DRO001, Droužkovice_20B-2, Bohemia, Czech Republic, 2872-2633 calBCE, mtDNA: H2b, Y-DNA: Q1b-FT380500, PapacSciAdv2021

Russia_Afanasievo I3949, Karasuk III, Altai Mountains, Russia, 2844-2496 calBCE, mtDNA: U5a1d2b*, Y-DNA: Q1b-FT380500, NarasimhanPattersonScience2019

Russia_Afanasievo I6714, Karasuk III, Altai Mountains, Russia, 2618-2468 calBCE, mtDNA: U5a1d2b*, Y-DNA: Q1b-FT380500, NarasimhanPattersonScience2019

Q1b-FT380500 formed from 12900<->9900 BCE (TMRCA 2700<->2600 BCE), so TTK and the PIEs share a common ANE ancestor who lived around 15400<->11100 BCE (TMRCA of Q-Y6826), assuming TTK is Q1b-pre-Y6798. Regardless, the Q1b-Y6802 result signifies that TTK and the PIEs derive from the same Central-North Asian ANE population."
https://anthrogenica.com/showthread...ithic-to-Neolithic-European-hunter-gatherers&

P.s
India:
image75.jpg


america shaman:
Shaman-and-coyote-petroglyph.gif


Yamna:
15-722580fde7.jpg


The celts:
XGMwqW.jpg
 
Last edited:
3. PIE moved further East:

seima turbino migration:
urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-32242-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig3g.jpg


"The model suggested by L.S. Klein is themost consistent, it takes into accountarchaeological material of theChemurchek culture (EasternTurkestan), which was discovered andstudied by Dr. A. A. Kovaliov [2004;2011; 2012a;b]. It was noted that theChemurchek materials are rather similarto the Elunino materials localized in theAltai Mountains and to the monumentsdiscovered in the north-east part ofKazakhstan [Grushin 2012; Merz, 2007;2010]. These materials are considered asan early step in the formation of SeimaTurbino metallurgical tradition, which inits turn influenced the formation of theYin-Shang industry in China [Kovaliov,2012a: 53-55; Novozhenov, 2012a;c]."


"Originally Posted by jormung
The problem of loanwords from indoeuropean to old chinese is very old and it is discussed in any good book about lndoeuropean linguistics.
But we can find the discussion in several papers, for example in "Tocharian Loan Words in Old Chinese: Chariots, Chariot Gear, and Town Building", by Alexander Lubolsky, or
"Indo-European Vocabulary in Old Chinese A New Thesis on the Emergence of Chinese Language and Civilization in the Late Neolithic Age" by Tsung-tung Chang
* dog, hound (ie: *kun-k, old ch: *huan(g),*khuen )
* goose (ie: *ghans, old ch:*gans)
* pork (ie: *pork, old ch:* pog)
* horse (ie: *mork, old ch:*mog )
* cow (ie: *gwhou , old ch: *gou )
and several other as milk, chariot, ...."

"The offspring of the first “settlers” founded new line of development in the north of Central Asia. In the area between the rivers Ob and Irtysh, this line of development is represented by the materials of EluninoOdinovsk type and Seima-Turbino circle. Cultural heritage of this line together with its outstanding metallurgical traditions were later incorporated into the new societies of Andronovo and Karasuk that emerged there. Presumably, the population of Central Plains of China borrowed terms related to chariot-riding from the Tocharians through the contacts with one of the two groups mentioned above (this hypothetical scenario implies that they obtained knowledge about prodicing and riding quadriga through contact with Early Andronovo clans). The cultural identity of the “Seima-Turbino Tocharians” existed for a very long time as part of the cultural association, which consisted of many related groups. It seems that they managed to preserve their identity due to technological advancement and sacred status of blacksmithing actities. The descendants of other production groups exploited other ecological niches and developed their own lines, keeping their potential “IndoIranian” or “Indo-Aryan” identity. As a result of these processes, a new center of cultural genesis emerged in the UralKazakh steppes. This center became the core of the new culture, which developed innovations in social structure, animal husbandry, weaponry, and wheeled transport (chariot riding) and formed its own means both for internal and external communications."

"that time. Later this territory located in the vast Saryarka peneplain, the Tarbagatay Mountains, Ob-Irtysh interfluve, and plain areas of the Southern Urals became the ancestral homeland of IEs; the identities of IIrs, Indo-Aryans, and of the Tocharian were formed there. The whidespread cross-breeding of IEs, which occurred through female line as a result of contacts in the process of development of new territories, was essential for formation of their cultural identity. However, with the expansion of the range of new pastures, the natural spreading of cattle-breading groups inevitably met resistance from the indigenous population. The most notable of the conflicts happened when these grops faced forest-steppe clans on Seima-Turbino territory. It was conflict between two communication systems; intense phase of communication where one side used chariots and the other was armed with socketed weapons. Very soon the nature of these relationships became synthetic, which was clearly manifested by mutual borrowing of advanced technological skills. Anyway, chariots, socketed weapons of SeimaTurbino type, and tin casting technology were actively used by representatives of Early Andronovo and later Karasuk societies. These set of innovations rapidly spread to all contact areas, where steppe clans interacted with ancient sedentary civilizations, and contributed to formation of Turanian, Chinese, Balkanian, and Iranian channels of communication [see: Novozhenov, 2012b:114-145; 2012d: 44-67; 2013: 100-117; 2013a; 2014a:18-267]."

from seima turbino to china bronze:
3c55d5e08dbc4064a6b4df925b118161.jpg

(first one is in erlitou culture, 2nd in tarim basin Quijia, 3rd in tianshan Xinjiang and 4th in Seima turbino)

Xia is erlitou culture:
"Unlike the Yangshao and Hemudu people, who came from southern China, the Huang Di nation came from west of China, from the western part of the Eurasian continent. They conquered the native people of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, who possessed a developed agricultural culture. By combining their own imported cultural factors with those of the native culture, the Huang Di people gradually developed a splendid new civilization in the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. They superseded the original native people to take the leading role on the stage of Chinese history. That the Huang Di nation was a branch of the archaic Indo-European people is one of the most remarkable facts thus far known to human history. But a large number of Indo-European words in Old Chinese language clearly attest to this fact. The relics left by the Huang Di people are related to the Longshan Culture in the archaeological chronicle, and the civilization of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and Qin秦 dynasties were its successors.27 Evidence for this claim comes from two sources: the first uses the evidence of ancient documents to show that the Zhou people, and thus the Yellow Emperor’s nation, were originally a nomadic people, and the second is to reveal that there were a large number of Indo-European words in the Zhou language, using the evidence of historical linguistics. The third is the similarity in religion between the Huang Di people and Proto-Indo-European. As to the last point, please refer to the author’s paper “Old Chinese ‘帝*tees’ and Proto-Indo-European ‘*deus’: Similarity in Religious Ideas and a Common Source in Linguistics” (Zhou 2005)."
["Tocharian agglutinative case inflexion as well as its single series of voiceless stops, the two most striking typological deviations from Proto-Indo-European, can be explained through influence from Uralic. A number of other typological features of Tocharian may likewise be interpreted as due to contact with a Uralic language. The supposed contacts are likely to be associated with the Afanas’evo Culture of South Siberia. This Indo-European culture probably represents an intermediate phase in the movement of speakers of early Tocharian from the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the Eastern European steppe to the Tarim Basin in Northwest China. At the same time, the Proto-Samoyedic homeland must have been in or close to the Afanas’evo area. A close match between the Pre-Proto-Tocharian and Pre-Proto-Samoyedic vowel systems is a strong indication that the Uralic contact language was an early form of Samoyedic."]

["Typological features of Tocharian show strong differences to other Indo-European languages, while being similar to Uralic languages, specifically to the Samoyedic branch. The Tocharian vowel system shows strong similarities to Yeniseian languages, and is structurally identical to the South Siberian system represented by Ket, while being different from the typical Indo-European vowel system. Another striking characteristic of Tocharian is agglutinative case marking and case functions, as well as the lack of dative case. Agglutinative case systems are widely found in Siberia and Eastern Asia, but the case functions, in particular the Tocharian perlative, best match Samoyedic and Yukaghir and comparable systems in South Siberia."]

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337813595_The_deviant_typological_profile_of_the_Tocharian_branch_of_Indo-European_may_be_due_to_Uralic_substrate_influence
https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?26280-quot-The-Genetic-History-of-the-Southern-Arc-A-Bridge-between-West-Asia-amp-Europe-quot/page239&

"Central China and the eastern Eurasian steppe with finds of spearheads with hooks typical of the Seima Turbino Phenomenon, second millennium BC. Map by Peter Hommel. Image modified from Rawson (2017)."
 
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^
["This paper was designed with two purposes in mind. The first is to convey the idea that there may have been a tribe of Indo-Europeans that conquered the Shang of the Yin dynasty, resulting in the establishment of China’s longest lasting and possibly most influential dynasty, the Zhou. The second purpose is to investigate, if this is the case, whether the myths and legends of China are in fact those of this Indo-European conquering tribe, and to suggest also that their systems of science and philosophy heavily influenced the ancient Chinese."]

For our purposes, four groups are of particular interest:

• The Chinese Indo-Europeans, who may have a genetic connection to the Zhou rulers whoconquered the Shang and came to control a large portion of the Yellow River Valley.

• The Indo-Aryan Indo-Europeans, who may have superimposed themselves on an indigenouspopulation and taken control over the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, includingmuch of what is now Pakistan.

• The Greek Indo-Europeans who perhaps superimposed themselves on an early Bronze Agepopulation by which means they came to control much of Greece.

• The Hittites who superimposed themselves on the Hattians, thus gaining control over northcentral Anatolia.
so Indo-european seems to have huge territory like mongol empire. I always think that
only tiny DNA of Genghiskan represents mongol empire. Without historical records population genetics would not draw mongol territory at all.
One more thing is the indo-european speakers seemed to create mayan civiliztion in India, china.

P.s
C O M M O N C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F T H E I N D O - E U R O P E A N S
• They possessed and used horses and chariots.
• They believed in a Sky God.
• Medicine was a major interest, whether it was developed natively or adopted from othercultures.
• They were governed by comitatus1and observed a hierarchical, social-ranking, non-rigid castelike system based on a shared tripartite stratification (priests; warriors or kings; farmers ortradesmen or commoners).
• They were able to absorb easily a wide range of cultural elements from other peoples.

http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp311_indo_europeans_china_zhou_dynasty.pdf

Abstract: "**tees"l was the supreme god worshipped by the early ancient people wholived in the Delta of the Yellow River (DYR). All the people of Xia4, Shangl and Zhouldynasties worshipped him. There are many striking similarities between Old Chinese "*tees" andProto-Indo-European "*deus," based on the ancient documents. In addition, we have proof fromcomparative historical linguistics to verify that the two words share the same source. Evidencefrom historical records and linguistics comes to a common conclusion: the early civilization ofDYR received crucial influence from early Indo-European civilization.
http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp167_old_chinese_proto_indo_european.pdf

XIE Ruo-qiu(Department of Chinese Language and Literature,Jieyang Vocational & Technical College,Jieyang,Guangdong 522000,China)

There are many issues that seem related to the initial formation process of the Chinese language in the study of Chinese history.The recent archaeological research shows that just as Chinese civilization is a pluralistic and mixed one,so can Chinese be very similar to it. Archaeology has confirmed that Xia Dynasty,Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty originated differently and their respective languages were naturally different,too.However,the three dynasties had close relationship with each other,so their languages had natural links. And
another notable fact is that Zhou Dynasty originated in part with Hudi tribe in North China.Therefore,we can draw the conclusion that the formation of Chinese is a complicated blending process.



 
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^ Triangle patterns on steppe culture seems to be sun's ray:
Typical-Seima-Turbino-hollow-core-cast-implements-a-deep-socketed-adze-axe-from-Rostovka.png





^ Seima turbino formula: sun/horse triangle up, snake diamond down

Outline-of-the-solar-cosmology-postulated-by-Kaul-1998-with-outline-drawings-of-the.png




"Outline of the solar cosmology postulated by Kaul (1998), with outline drawings of the Trundholm Sun Chariot and a decorated bronze razor from Denmark."


"The Sun Chariot illustrates several of the same ideas. It consists of a bronze disc mounted on wheels, and is drawn by a horse, also on wheels. It can be viewed from two sides. When it appears to travel from left to right – the movement of the sun across the sky during the day – the disc is covered in gold. When it returns, from right to left (as it would do at night), the surface of the disc is plain.

The same distinction has been recognised by Flemming Kaul (1998) in a study of the decorated metalwork of Bronze Age Scandinavia. Among the commonest artefacts are the razors which were normally deposited with the dead. They feature tiny drawings of boats and the sun. Again the direction of travel is all-important. Where a ship carries the sun from left to right, it is associated with a horse. Kaul describes these vessels as ‘day ships’. Where a boat is shown moving in the opposite direction, it is often accompanied by a sh or a snake. Kaul suggests that these pictures refer to the hours of darkness, and that while the sun returns from right to left it is hidden under water. In that case the crucial transitions occur at sunrise and sunset (Figure 1)"


So boat means death?
mummies' boat grave at tarim basin
244b675390e5f991bed5a17c7663fbbc.jpg


Kola Oleneostrovskiy Grave Field: A UniqueBurial Site in the European Arctic:
The burial constructions have been preservedas dark brown, decomposed woody or organicmatter. In many parts, the fibrous structure ofthe wood is still clearly visible, although in somecases the wood has already transformed into matter without any internal texture. The bones of thedead were covered with thin, dense, black organic matter – most likely the remains of clothingmade of animal skins.Most of the bodies had been buried in wooden, boat-shaped, lidded caskets, which lookedlike small boats or traditional Sámi sledges(Ru. kerezhka). It seems that the boards of theboats were made of thin wooden planks andwere probably tarred.
https://www.archeo.ru/struktura-1/o...in_Kolpakov_Shumkin_Khartanovich_Moiseyev.pdf


 
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Ancient chinese script of sky (tian) on oracle bone:
%E5%A4%A9-bronze-shang.svg


circle B:
https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/i...2i9kw&usqp=CAU

fopyramidmanjpg.jpeg



MEXICO CITY—Archaeologists in southern Mexico announced Monday they have discovered a 2,700-year-old tomb of a dignitary inside a pyramid that may be the oldest such burial documented in Mesoamerica.
https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2010/05/18/2700yearold_pyramid_tomb_found_in_southern_mexico.html
ceramics-fig4-6.jpg

"Drawings of Birdman image engraved on a shell cup from the Spiro site (top) and a Ripley Engraved bowl with pendant triangle scroll (bottom). Scalloped elements depict downy feathers. It is easy to see scalloping on Birdman, on the upper part of the wings with the long feathers hanging down below. To see scalloping on the scroll, you have to focus not on the dark pendant triangles but on the empty spaces between them."

https://texasbeyondhistory.net/pine/ceramics.html

sarmatian roundel and scythian torc:

main-image


x1_62_2-Bracelet.jpg.pagespeed.ic.gq0jyZWm6w.jpg

ceramics-fig4-10.jpg

"Drawing of four Piasas in a swastika pattern on shell cup from the Spiro site. The Piasas may be a reference to the Great Serpent manifest in the night sky"
 
art.jpg

Products made of jade and other ornamental stones were of great value, they were often taken with them as amulets, and therefore, by the form, method of use and manufacture of these things, one can try to trace the movement of peoples in the vast expanses of Asia. Many artifacts found in Northeast China, the Baikal region and further west are very similar. Experts do not exclude that new research in this area will help clarify the content of the Seima-Turbino intercultural phenomenon, which attracts scientists from all over the world. What is it?
In the middle of the 16th-15th centuries BC, very characteristic and skillfully made bronze products spread over a vast area from the Oka basin to Xinjiang (a region in northwestern China) and the Yellow River valley - spears, knives, Celtic axes, and so on. Usually they are found together with jade rings, which, according to many researchers, are of Baikal origin. It is interesting that visually the disks found in the Oka basin, in the Urals and in the Baikal region, look exactly the same. As scientists suggest, there was a small, but very skilled people, whose craftsmen made mainly weapons and parts of chariots from metal. Coming to any locality, the bearers of the Seima-Turba traditions became the top of society, while the basic culture remained local. The metal most likely came from the Altai Mountains - probably from the part that is now located on the territory of Kazakhstan and, possibly, China. Presumably, the mysterious craftsmen were in active contact with the taiga tribes of Eastern Siberia, from whom they also borrowed flint arrowheads — they are found together with jade and bronze. As part of the joint project, it is planned to conduct various mineralogical analyzes, which will determine the place of extraction of raw materials for all these artifacts.

Scientists of the IAET SB RAS do not exclude that the spread of the jade culture (in the broad sense of the term) throughout the continent began precisely from Siberia. The oldest discovery in Asia (up to 40 thousand years old) of a bracelet made of dark green chloritolite was made in the famous Denisova Cave in Altai. There are excellent deposits of high-quality jade (both green and milky white) in the Baikal region - many skillful products of the Neolithic and early Bronze Ages have been found there, the manufacturing technology of which resembles that used by the ancient masters of Macau.

Stone Bracelet May Have Been Made by Denisovans:
[COLOR=#707070 !important]
Siberia-Denisovan-bracelet.jpg
[/COLOR]


 
Steppe culture including yamna is sun and animal culture. it is same as american indian culture of sun and totem animal culture. totem animal's strong spirit protects and heal human being. steppe animal is a god, not an art nor style. i always think that steppe or nomad's expansion was caused by brutal animal spirit. capitalism's core element is also animal spirit. if human wants to succeed, he/she need ambition. ambition is called 野望. (野 wilderness, 望 hope/yearn to get something) so ambition is animal spirit?


1. According to david anthony, seima turbino ring pommel dagger spread at andronovo era. i think ring(sun, snake) was their religion, hence, the dagger seems like a christian's cross.

3c55d5e08dbc4064a6b4df925b118161.jpg

(first one is in erlitou culture, 2nd in tarim basin Qijia, 3rd in tianshan Xinjiang and 4th in Seima turbino)


Yan_State_Coins.jpg


- in shimao pyramid at china:
1804-2.jpg


- Upper Tibet chariot and okunevo culture-type sun deity:
22782444647_80f04af261.jpg

22880848510_919c3a6dde.jpg


- tibet ring pommel dagger




https://www.tibetarchaeology.com/march-2016/

- The celts
1386759735_2017-04-2710_59_39.jpg.e16ee9650f6d5e44da487228d67ec17c.jpg


- sarmatian
019_szarmata_clip_image002_0001.jpg

- Avar
Ring pommel sword spread whole eurasia, even to Japan. It is a symbol of nomad elites:
F1.large.jpg


- The Huns
27193243.jpg


- Han dynasty
Chinese-DaDao.jpg


Tombs of the kings of the Western Han dynasty (202 B.C.E.–9 C.E.) often contain burial items that are related to the material culture of the Eastern Eurasian Steppe.
These artifacts are usually interpreted in a general sense, for instance as a sign for the fascination of the Han elite with the exotic. A closer analysis of relevant finds, however, shows different strategies of dealing with foreign influences. While the exchange with the empire's northern neighbors is evidenced through goods for which identical excavated parallels from the steppe exist, the royal tombs of the Han also contained items that resemble and reference steppe motifs and objects but were clearly produced locally and for local consumers. Especially the latter type of artifacts can thus not simply be interpreted as the passive byproduct of exchange relations. Instead, we have to acknowledge that design, production, and usage of these objects were based on conscious decisions. Based on the insight that objects always have a social function, this article argues that the Han elite not only appropriated steppe influences and motifs (?) but also strategically (re)produced and integrated them into their world in order to redefine, enhance, and strengthen their position within their social framework.https://www.researchgate.net/publica...rn_Han_Dynasty

Of the more famous artifacts from Mawangdui were its
silk funeral banners; theseT-shaped banners were draped on the coffin of Tomb 1. The banners depicted the Chinese abstraction of the cosmos and the afterlife at the time of the western Han dynasty. A silk banner of similar style and function were found in Tomb 3.
The T-shaped silk funeral banner in the tomb of the Marquise (Tomb 1) is called the "name banner" with the written name of the deceased replaced with a portrait. We know the name because the tomb's original inventory is still intact, and this is what it is called on the inventory. The Marquise was buried in four coffins; the silk banner drapes the innermost of the coffins.[4]
On the T-shaped painted silk garment, the uppermost horizontal section of the T represents heaven. The bottom of the vertical section of the T represents the underworld. The middle (the top of the vertical) represents earth. In heaven we can see Chinese deities such as Nuwa and Chang'e, as well as Daoist symbols such as cranes (representing immortality). Between heaven and earth we can see heavenly messengers sent to bring Lady Dai to heaven. Underneath this are Lady Dai's family offering sacrifices to help her journey to heaven. Beneath them is the underworld - two giant sea serpents intertwined.

The dagger was discovered in tumulus No. 2, where a 10-centimeter coaly layer covered bone remains of a 9- or 10-year-old boy burnt in a special “crematorium”. In consistence with the necropolis funeral rites, the dagger was stuck into the floor of the bone chamber and covered with
crane fragments left after cremation. The tomb doesn’t look too rich, given the number and composition of funerary gifts, but such highly prestigious object as a knife with carved finial indicates that the boy belonged to the upper class of Seima-Tubino society. In the social structure of the latter, the main roles were played by nomadic warriors and bronze casters, who possessed the most sophisticated technologies of the time. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, they made a huge forced march from Xinjiang in the east to the lower reach of Dniester in the west, leaving only burial sites and memorial altars behind them. The hallmark of such altars were glorious bronze weapons: celts, hefty spearheads, daggers, etc

- Rome:
Ring-Pommel-Roman-Sword.jpg

https://swordencyclopedia.com/ring-sword/
Roman-type-Ring-Pommeled-swords-Miks-2009-156.ppm

https://www.researchgate.net/figure...sword-from-Mainz-Miks-2009-132_fig4_366398645


[h=1]Roman type Ring Pommeled swords (Miks 2009, 156)[/h]
https://www.researchgate.net/public...G-POMMELED_SWORD_FROM_CRVENO_POLE_N_MACEDONIA

- Byzantine
https://i0.wp.com/archaeonewsnet.co...swords-found-in-medieval-499555607.jpeg?ssl=1


2. animal culture
Abstracts:
In the mid-first B.C. a common pastrol-nomadic culture dispersed over the Eurasian steppe, from Hungary to china and siberia. Carried largely by Iranian peoples, it was distinguished by a "Scythic triad" of characteristic horse gear, weaponry, and art in the famous "animal style." The precise nature and developmental history of this art remain controversial despite much research. Many have stressed antecedents at Ziwiye in Iran while some find sources in China's Western chou culture. Since 1980, the precedence of Arzhan on the uppermpst Yenisey has become evident. A developmental chain from OKUNEVO to karasuk and Tagar(scythian) can be traced for 1000years.


Conclusion:

To summarize, it is possible to state that the truly primary source of the “animal style” are revealed in the stylistic pecurities of the depictions in the OKUNEVO culture.
----
In the black sea, there was formed, on this basis, the special scytho-greek art which evidently transmitted the same subject matter but with richer means, from the standpoint of classical cultures. Many reflections of the “animal styles” can be observed in the arts of Hunno-sarmatian tribes, in Celto-Germanic culture, in Viking culture, and in ancient Rusiian Arts.

- seima turbino
images
Artefacts_Seima-Turbino_GIM.jpg



-"Northwestern focuses (Karasuk) of the East-Asian metallurgical province: arsenical bronze producing. A-Karasuk inventory: B-Karasuk-Tagar knives (later phase)."

Northwestern-focuses-Karasuk-of-the-East-Asian-metallurgical-province-arsenical-bronze.png


- karasuk
karasuk.jpg


- shang china
04.jpg










 
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^
the dagger was discovered in tumulus no. 2, where a 10-centimeter coaly layer covered bone remains of a 9- or 10-year-old boy burnt in a special “crematorium”. in consistence with the necropolis funeral rites, the dagger was stuck into the floor of the bone chamber and covered with crane fragments left after cremation. the tomb doesn’t look too rich, given the number and composition of funerary gifts, but such highly prestigious object as a knife with carved finial indicates that the boy belonged to the upper class of seima-tubino society. in the social structure of the latter, the main roles were played by nomadic warriors and bronze casters, who possessed the most sophisticated technologies of the time. in the mid-2nd millennium bc, they made a huge forced march from xinjiang in the east to the lower reach of dniester in the west, leaving only burial sites and memorial altars behind them. the hallmark of such altars were glorious bronze weapons: celts, hefty spearheads, daggers, etc

in heaven we can see chinese deities such as nuwa and chang'e, as well as daoist symbols such as cranes (representing immortality). between heaven and earth we can see heavenly messengers sent to bring lady dai to heaven. underneath this are lady dai's family offering sacrifices to help her journey to heaven. beneath them is the underworld - two giant sea serpents intertwined.

Was a crane a golden bird at that time?

"The Golden Sun Bird or the Sun and Immortal Birds Gold Ornament (simplified Chinese: 太阳神鸟金饰; traditional Chinese: 太陽神鳥金飾; pinyin: Tàiyáng Shénniǎo Jīnshì) is an ancient artifact, unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China.[1]
It is a ring-shaped piece of foil, made of nearly pure gold. The pattern consists of four birds, flying in the same counterclockwise direction, located around the perimeter. The center is a sun pattern with twelve points. It is 12.5 cm in diameter, with a 5.29 cm inner diameter. It has a thickness of 0.02 cm, and weighs 20 grams.[2]
The piece is from the late Sanxingdui culture, and is now located in the Chengdu Jinsha Ruins Museum."

.JPG

20221222f73c4c066c474bde904f0a18f13bcb31_fca89aac-6427-4c71-80a0-8b8e22c052e1.jpg

cranes-flying-over-the-setting-sun.jpg

sandhill-cranes.jpg


see crane toes below and golden sun bird toes above:
e03d60943d79e0b11c3d4f28986d8b82-native-american-symbols-animal-patterns.jpg


https://english.news.cn/20221222/f73c4c066c474bde904f0a18f13bcb31/c.html
https://www.goodfreephotos.com/animals/birds/cranes-flying-over-the-setting-sun.jpg.php
https://www.pitara.com/science-for-kids/planet-earth-for-kids/high-tech-crane-migration/
https://www.michiganaudubon.org/a-plea-from-the-anishinaabek-people/
 
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Gold_Mask_%28%E9%BB%84%E9%87%91%E9%9D%A2%E7%BD%A9%29.jpg


Qin shihuwang
05-0001.JPG


on the T-shaped painted silk garment, the uppermost horizontal section of the T represents heaven. the bottom of the vertical section of the T represents the underworld. the middle (the top of the vertical) represents earth. in heaven we can see chinese deities such as nuwa and chang'e, as well as daoist symbols such as cranes (representing immortality). between heaven and earth we can see heavenly messengers sent to bring lady dai to heaven. underneath this are lady dai's family offering sacrifices to help her journey to heaven. beneath them is the underworld - two giant sea serpents intertwined.

chinese script or character of (sky): 2nd one and king above

tian-20panel.png


- Bronze mirrors at china bronze where seima turbino reached:

Screen-Shot-2020-06-18-at-16.53.18.jpg


symbol of Hallstatt:7
Plate_with_geometric_design%2C_Hallstatt_culture_grave_goods%2C_Albstadt-Lautlingen%2C_%27Kriegs%C3%A4cker%27%2C_Zollernalbkreis%2C_8th_to_7th_century_BC%2C_ceramic_-_Landesmuseum_W%C3%BCrttemberg_-_Stuttgart%2C_Germany_-_DSC02800.jpg

Pliska Rosette, an archaeological find that is popular among the Bulgarian historians
Rosette_from_Pliska.svg
"Aztlán (from Nahuatl languages: Astlan, Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈast͡ɬãːn̥] (listen)) is the ancestral home of the Aztec peoples."
ToltecaChichimeca_Chicomostoc.jpg


ojibwe clan systems:

original-7612599-1.jpg
 

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