How can IE migration be explained without mentioning Seima Turbino?




MeRHpLd.jpg


okunevo symbols at the bottom of pottery:

Typological-chronology-of-the-Okunevo.png

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[FONT=SkolarSans-BdCond_Cyr-Ltn]1[/FONT]Local women help the bride, Sellma Demirovic, to get dressed in traditional clothes for a typical wedding in Donje Ljubinje, a predominantly ethnic Bosniak village of some 3,000 residents located in the Shar Mountains on the border between Kosovo and North Macedonia.
- mycenaean mask replica
il_340x270.2613770321_7nux.jpg

eb8043977970adcb837e3d022387f2d1.jpg

korea traditional mask and wedding culture
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"they put powder made out of rice on their face to make it whiter."

^ This steppe culture migrated in northeast asia also.

see seima turbino artifact 32;
seymino-turbino-10.jpg


https://www.rferl.org/a/kosovo-village-painted-bride/31416488.html
https://makeupsoftheworld.weebly.com/korean-traditional-wedding-makeup.html
https://arheologija.ru/pamyatniki-seyminsko-turbinskogo-tipa-v-evrazii/

greece:
Orthian-masks-from-Carter-1987-90-fig-3-4.png




Orthian masks (from Carter 1987, 90 fig. 3-4).
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/An-early-6-th-century-Laconian-cup-from-the-Orthian-sanctuary-from-Lane-1933-34-plate_fig8_273403086

-
This steppe culture migrated in northeast asia also. see nose and brow ridge
7032748.1.jpg

7032647.1.jpg




- Lattoon disc, Ireland, Bronze Age

main-qimg-169c4f1e9df32d5d565de6ae5d9e2fce

- The spiral and triangle patterns seems to be connected to bronze mirror in Korea Iron age.
%EC%A0%95%EB%AC%B8%EA%B2%BD.jpg



Poulnabrone dolmen, the Burren, County Clare, Ireland
Dolmen at Ganghwa Island, South Korea



Thru steppe:


 
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- The celts
1386759735_2017-04-2710_59_39.jpg.e16ee9650f6d5e44da487228d67ec17c.jpg


- sarmatian
019_szarmata_clip_image002_0001.jpg

- Avar
Ring pommel sword spread whole eurasia, even to Japan. It is a symbol of nomad elites:


- The Huns
27193243.jpg


- Han dynasty
Chinese-DaDao.jpg

sky(america indian shaman)'s sunhead (Ring):
Shaman-and-coyote-petroglyph.gif


chinese script or character of (sky): 3rd one

tian-20panel.png
 
^
C O M M O N C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F T H E I N D O - E U R O P E A N S
• They possessed and used horses and chariots.
• They believed in a Sky God.
• Medicine was a major interest, whether it was developed natively or adopted from othercultures.
• They were governed by comitatus1and observed a hierarchical, social-ranking, non-rigid castelike system based on a shared tripartite stratification (priests; warriors or kings; farmers ortradesmen or commoners).
• They were able to absorb easily a wide range of cultural elements from other peoples.

http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp311_indo_europeans_china_zhou_dynasty.pdf

- Chariot people spread IE and left their footprint:

lCaC3ok.jpg



14-c2305a9841.jpg


-india
image75.jpg


-armenia
Ukhtasar-4.jpg


- chinese script or character of (sky): 2nd one:


tian-20panel.png




-america indian shaman (=sky):

Shaman-and-coyote-petroglyph.gif





"Anyway, chariots, socketed weapons of SeimaTurbino type, and tin casting technology were actively used by representatives of Early Andronovo and later Karasuk societies. These set of innovations rapidly spread to all contact areas, where steppe clans interacted with ancient sedentary civilizations, and contributed to formation of Turanian, Chinese, Balkanian, and Iranian channels of communication"


- Problem is too small people might migrate and barely genetic and linguistic impact upon farmers like mongol?



Originally Posted by Tutut View Post
Why IE share good amount of agricultural vocabulary but not about horses and riding?


quote_icon.png
Originally Posted by Tutut
I see no correlation between steppe ancestry and IE languages. German and Celtic have big amount of no IE vocabulary, they were simply IEsed very late if we take into account the etruscans.
--
Linguists believe that the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), from which all Indo-European languages descended, was spoken around 4000-2500 BC, but it is NOT directly attested in any written sources. Therefore, the exact nature and characteristics of PIE remain a subject of ongoing research and scholarly debate.
And more from Colin Renfrew:
"One important question is the extent to which it is legitimate to reconstruct a Proto-Indo-European language, drawing upon the cognate forms of the words in the various Indo-European languages that are known. Certainly it is questionable whether the nouns (for linguistic palaeontologists make little use of verbs or adjectives) can legitimately be used in the way advocated by Pictet and by Schrader to create an inventory, as it were, of the Urheimat, the original homeland of these Proto-Indo-Europeans."
That is, the words presented for PIE are a huge speculation. The only proven source is Sanskrit for an old IE language base.



 
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Stone Bracelet May Have Been Made by Denisovans:
[COLOR=#707070 !important]
Siberia-Denisovan-bracelet.jpg
[/COLOR]

"Map-scheme of the distribution of Baikal jade in the Bronze Age ( green shows the places of finds on the territory of Russia, brown - on the territory of China): 1 - Seimas; 2 - Ust-Vetluzhsky burial ground; 3 - Turbine; 4 - Okunevo-15; 5 - Shaman cape; 6 - Shumilikha; 7 , Khake, Inner Mongolia; 8 - Daqiao (Big Bridge) on the river. Wuyer, Helongjiang Province; 9 - Wanhaitun, Heilongjiang Province; 10 - Xinxingxiang, Jilin Province"

https://elementy.ru/nauchno-populyarnaya_biblioteka/434672/Raznye_tsveta_nefrita

- sky(america indian shaman)'s sunhead (Ring):
Shaman-and-coyote-petroglyph.gif


chinese script or character of (sky): 3rd one

tian-20panel.png



- then migrated to china, Jade 玉 = 王 king:

urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-32242-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig3g.jpg


urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-76677-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig2g.jpg


Erlitou culture above in the map is called Xia:


Abstract: "**tees" was the supreme god worshipped by the early ancient people wholived in the Delta of the Yellow River (DYR). All the people of Xia, Shangl and Zhouldynasties worshipped him. There are many striking similarities between Old Chinese "*tees" and Proto-Indo-European "*deus," based on the ancient documents. In addition, we have proof fromcomparative historical linguistics to verify that the two words share the same source. Evidence from historical records and linguistics comes to a common conclusion: the early civilization of DYR received crucial influence from early Indo-European civilization.




Gold_Mask_%28%E9%BB%84%E9%87%91%E9%9D%A2%E7%BD%A9%29.jpg


even to Yangtze Valley
IgspTrAGEE0.jpg


raznye_tsveta_nefrita_07_703.jpg
"On the left is a jade disk from Shumilikha, the Baikal region, processed according to the “northern” technology. Probably a semi-finished product from which the ring and disk were supposed to be obtained. On the right - the "northern" technology of cutting a disc from jade (according to S. A. Semenov)"

raznye_tsveta_nefrita_03_703.jpg
"jade figurines. Hongshan culture, about 5500 years ago. n. According to Chinese researchers, the pose of the jade "shaman" ( right ) speaks of his work with internal energy (qi)"
- statue menhirs

main-qimg-515d681ba5a0e9db67c7821173e752fc-lq_en0.jpeg


- chemurchek
http://suyun.info/userfiles/bulletin/2017-1/stone_statues_neolithic_europe_&_chemurchek.png


 
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seima turbino ring pommel dagger:
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sarmatian ring pommel sword:
sarmatian-sword-ring-pommel.jpeg
"Sarmatian sword with the distinctive ring-type handle ending. A leather strap was probably tied in the ring and in the hand of the warrior as well, in order to prevent the loss of the sword during combat (?) (Source: Periklis Deligiannis)."

[FONT=&quot]"The Sarmatian armies included among other types of combatants, many cataphract cavalrymen protected (like their horses) with nearly full-length metal armor (usually scale armor). They also included many horse-archers and horse-spearmen without any cuirass. The cataphracts fought mainly as lancers with a long heavy spear (like the subsequent European knights) as their main offensive weapon. They were also carrying a composite bow, a long sword and a dagger. The familiar to us, figure of the Late Medieval European knight was created when the East Germanics (Goths, Vandals, Burgundians), the Suebi Germanics (Marcomanni, Longobards/Lombards, Quadi) and the Romans adopted the full Sarmatian cavalry equipment. The decimation of the Roman army by the Gotho-Sarmatian cavalry at the battle of Adrianople in 378 AD, established the dominance of the knight (cataphract) during the Middle Ages. The Normans of Northern France were the ones who shaped the final form of chivalry."
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"A spangenhelm, popular to the Sarmatians (many researchers consider it to be of Sarmatian origin), the Later Romans, the Romano-Britons and many barbarian peoples (Goths, Huns, Saxons etc.) (Source: Periklis Deligiannis)."

"A representation of a Draconarius, a Roman standard-bearer of the Late Empire, by the British Historical Association Comitatus. He holds the banner of the Dragon which the Roman army bequeathed to the Romano–British army who confronted the Anglo-Saxons. The dragon was a Saka/Sarmatian symbol (and banner), adopted from China to the Roman Empire."


"These Iranian-Sarmatian elements of the figures of Parsifal and Balin enhances the likelihood of the Sarmatian origin of their ‘personal’ Epics, as well as the same origin of the general Legend of Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. The Hungarian epic Anna Molnar and the Turkish Targhyn have certainly the same nomadic origins. The name of the hero Targhyn has the same etymology as the aforementioned “Pendragon” of the Arthurian Cycle.

Arthur’s legend mentions the existence of two “magical swords”. The one was the sword of Uther, Arthur’s father, which was nailed to a rock. Arthur was proclaimed king when he dragged it off the cliff, while the other candidates for the throne had failed. It is characteristic that the Sarmatians worshiped their main deity in the form of a sword nailed to earth or rock. The second “magic sword” of the legend is the famous Excalibur, which Arthur received from the “Lady of the Lake”.
The episode of Excalibur is almost identical to the reports of ‘magic swords’ in the saga of Batradz, a hero of the Ossetians of the Caucasus, and also in the episode of Krabat’s death which is included in a popular history of the modern Sorbs of Eastern Germany. The modern Ossetians are the last surviving Sarmatians, being descendants of Alans. They are divided among the Russian Federation and Georgia (Autonomous Republics of Northern and Southern Ossetia respectively). The Sorbs, a people of a few tens of thousands which is surrounded by millions of Germans, are Slavs but they bear a Sarmatian tribal name. "

https://www.kavehfarrokh.com/uncate...erary-archaeological-and-historical-evidence/
[FONT=&quot]Dr. Kaveh Farrokh's blog[/FONT]
 
seima turbino shaman
440px-Moscow_State_Historical_Museum_-_IMG_3472.JPG


okunevo:
479BB7B000000578-5218061-image-a-78_1514470257456.jpg


Arkaim in sintahsta culture:
b29258dd729f61bcb1f81a874b2e82e7.jpg

23302c35d2789e517fc578fb46edaf8e.jpg


seima turbino:
images
 
seima turbino shaman
440px-Moscow_State_Historical_Museum_-_IMG_3472.JPG


okunevo:
479BB7B000000578-5218061-image-a-78_1514470257456.jpg


Arkaim in sintahsta culture:
b29258dd729f61bcb1f81a874b2e82e7.jpg

A noble chin?

R658x0.q70

R658x0.q70


“But assuming the information in the journal from 1833 is correct, Hilda passed away any time between 55BC to 400AD and was of Celtic origin.
"Believed to have been more than 60 years old when she died, Hilda is depicted as toothless although she still displays many features recognisable today. A female’s life expectancy at this time was roughly 31 years but it is now thought that living longer during the Iron Age is indicative of a privileged background."
“But assuming the information in the journal from 1833 is correct, Hilda passed away any time between 55BC to 400AD and was of Celtic origin."

According to grigoryev,
[...settlements with round plan, ceramics with roller, bone plate armours, developed metallurgy and domesticanimals.during xvi-xv centuries artefacts closely related to seyma tradition became typical for hoards in pannonia, france and england. thus, these bronzes distribution marks the moving of celts.a new wave of newcomers left f’odorovo culture sites. some include usually this culture, together withalakul culture, in andronovo culture.]

-


charles-spain.jpg
Charles II of Spain, the last ruler in the Habsburg family line. Note the prominent jaw. Credit: Wikimedia Commons."The Habsburgs were once the most powerful family in the world, ruling over countries such as the Holy Roman Empire, England, France, Germany, Russia, Poland, Hungary, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands. Their lineage lasted for 700 years.
In order to secure its influence, the family relied on generations of intermarriage, but this lack of genetic diversity eventually ended up being their downfall. Now, a new study has confirmed that facial deformities in Habsburg bloodline, colloquially known as the “Habsburg jaw”, can be traced to inbreeding."
https://www.zmescience.com/science/...bsburg-jaw-is-the-result-of-royal-inbreeding/

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"Retrognathic maxilla in "habsburg jaw". skeletofacial analysis of joanna of austria (1547-1578)."
 
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In India:
2000 BC Sanauli warrior in supine style with chariot
Trenches-India-Sanauli-Chariots-Mirror-Comb.jpg


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in the northern fringes of the steppe belt, i stressed the extreme importance of the okunev culture which had on the one hand connections with the far east and, on the other, definite links with the south of central asia. meanwhile i discovered a group of petroglyphs in the indus valley, near chilas, that is connected with the engravings of the okunev culture by the main motifs and stylistic peculiarities. in addition to one report on my findings (jettmar 1982: 298-302), others are forthcoming. it is not improbable that during the third and early second millemmia b.c. there were relations over thousands of kilometers, perhaps due to migrations of cattle-keeping early nomads. other connections leading in the same direction were observed by stacul (1977:251-252) and the allchins (1982:111-116).



Okunevo comb:

Bone_comb_from_grave_1%2C_mound_No._1_of_the_Krasny_Kamen_burial_ground%2C_Okunev_culture%2C_circa_2200_BCE.jpg


Okunev period figurine (with drawing reconstruction), Novosibirsk Tourist-2 archaeological site.[34] Dated 4601 ± 61 BP (3511–3127 cal BC, AMS date).[35] :

Okunev_period_figurine%2C_Novosibirsk_Tourist-2_archaeological_site.jpg



The Okunev people have been the subject of many studies, both with their origins and the interesting abstract drawings they left behind. In the geography they spread, the solar-headed petroglyphs carved on
steles and rocks are one of the oldest mythological archetypes related to the Sun. There is no definite data yet that these petroglyphs symbolize a sun god or a shaman. However, similar drawings often appear as sun gods in paintings dealing with both Asian and European mythologies.

https://ulukayin.org/okunev-petroglyphs-and-eurasian-solar-deities/
 
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Ancient DNA of the Bearers of the Fatyanovo and Abashevo Cultures (Concerning Migrations of the Bronze Age people in the Forest Belt on the Russian Plain)

Owners-of-different-haplogroups-on-the-plan-of-the-excavations-of-Pepkino-mound-related.jpg

A well-known Abashevo kurgan in
Pepkino contained the remains of twenty-eight males who appear to have died violent deaths.[15]


https://www.researchgate.net/figure...tions-of-Pepkino-mound-related_fig3_370414570



"This study addresses a fundamental question of the origins and migration patterns of paleopopulations of the Fatyanovo and the Middle Volga Abashevo archaeological cultures. It is for the first time that we report a paleogenetic analysis of 14 Abashevo individuals (Pepkino and Starshy Nikitinsky sites). Besides, we analysed ancient DNA samples of 25 Fatyanovo individuals.
Specifically, we performed analyses of STR marker and haplogroups of the Y chromosome, which revealed the distinct R1a (Z93) haplogroup in Fatyanovo samples. It indicates the influence of the founder effect and gene drift, confirming the hypothesis of their migrant origin. In contrast, the Abashevo culture samples are heterogenous, as we discovered 2 groups with different origins on the paternal line. To be more specific, three men from Pepkino mound are haplogroup R1b (Z2103) carriers, while seven other individuals have haplogroup R1a (Z93>Z94). In addition, close relatives with identical STR haplotypes of the Y-chromosome were identified in both Fatyanovo and Abashevo groups.
The comparative analyses of autosomal markers from 19 samples and previously published data uncovered similarities between Abashevo men from Pepkino mound (the haplogroup R1a (Z93>Z94)) with the Fatyanovo people, as well as with some representatives of the Unetice culture. These results are suggestive of the genetic continuity in the Russian Plain. Yet, less recent ancestors of Abashevo group interred in Pepkino mound could have migrated from the same region as the Fatyanovo predesessors."

However:


"the fact that bronze age tribes of the middle volga supported eastern (trans-uralian) cultural links is evidenced by materials from the yurino burial ground associated with the seima-turbino tradition, and by pottery with rolls and serpentine patterns from the chirki settlements. likewise, arsenic copper, of which artifacts from the pepkino and abashevo burials of the abashevo culture are made, comes from the tash-kazgan mines in the trans-ural region. eastern affinities are also documented by seima-type arrowheads belonging to abashevo warriors buried at pepkino and algashi mound 12. these artifacts resemble those from the krotovo burial grounds on the irtysh (inberen x, chernoozerye iv and vi). these contacts clearly date to the middle bronze age (early 2nd millennium bc)."

- So question is what the identity of Abashevo culture is and more important question is what relationship between ST and Abashevo is, Ukraine and Russia or Ukraine and Mongol?

(west side)
seima-turbino-phenomenon-parpola.jpg


Human skeletal remains from excavations of the Pepkino burial mound bear many traumatic wounds on the skulls and postcranial bones (Figure 4). The primary hypothesis is that young men of the Abashevo culture fell at the hands of enemies, which were the representatives of another tribe or culture [14,16]. After their discovery in the XX century, the skulls of killed people of the Abashevo culture were restored using anthropological paste, including beeswax. The inner and external surfaces of skulls, especially damaged, were covered by these materials. These restored surfaces were tested using X-ray microtomography in order to identify hidden defects. The beeswax layers were virtually separated and removed from the model.


(east side)
seima turbino migration:
urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-32242-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig3g.jpg


This research explores how social and environmental factors may have contributed to conflict during the early Bronze Age in Northwest China by analyzing violent trauma on human skeletal remains from a cemetery of the Qijia culture (2300-1500 BCE). The Qijia culture existed during a period of dramatic social, technological, and environmental change, though minimal research has been conducted on how these factors may have contributed to violence within the area of the Qijia and other contemporaneous material cultures. An osteological assessment was conducted on 361 individuals (n = 241 adults, n = 120 non-adults) that were excavated from the Mogou site, Lintan County, Gansu, China. Injuries indicative of violence, including sharp- and blunt-force trauma that was sustained ante- or peri-mortem, were identified, and the patterns of trauma were analysed.

unetice culture:
Nebra_Schwerter.jpg


seima turbino:
images


- unetice culture nebra disk:

a-The-Nebra-disc-adorned-with-gold-plates-that-might-represent-the-sun-the-moon-and.jpg

a. The Nebra disc adorned with gold plates that might represent the sun, the moon and stars. b. Back view. c. Profile
"The Nebra disc is one of the most sensational European discoveries of the decade. It appears to carry symbols of the sun, moon and stars wrought in gold on a flat bronze disc just over a foot across (320mm). It is not only very strange, but, famously, appears to be winking, initially raising the suspicion that it may be a hoax. Scholars have, however, claimed it firmly for the Bronze Age, and the debate now moves to the matter of its meaning. Here the authors offer a subtle interpretation that sees it as the shamanistic device of a local warrior society."

vs

Modern-Inuit-artistic-work-Nunavut-by-Kenojuak-Ashevak-Cape-Dorset-1993-Note-the.jpg


Modern Inuit artistic work. Nunavut, by Kenojuak Ashevak. Cape Dorset, 1993. Note the similarity in relative size, position and orientation of the centre objects with those on the 3600 year old Nebra disc (by courtesy of the West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative and Indian and Northern Affairs, Canada).

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig5_233530036
 
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"Map-scheme of the distribution of Baikal jade in the Bronze Age ( green shows the places of finds on the territory of Russia, brown - on the territory of China): 1 - Seimas; 2 - Ust-Vetluzhsky burial ground; 3 - Turbine; 4 - Okunevo-15; 5 - Shaman cape; 6 - Shumilikha; 7 , Khake, Inner Mongolia; 8 - Daqiao (Big Bridge) on the river. Wuyer, Helongjiang Province; 9 - Wanhaitun, Heilongjiang Province; 10 - Xinxingxiang, Jilin Province"


art.jpg



Stone Bracelet May Have Been Made by Denisovans:
[COLOR=#707070 !important]
Siberia-Denisovan-bracelet.jpg
[/COLOR]

Ancient human DNA recovered from a Palaeolithic pendant

Elena Essel, Elena I. Zavala, Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Maxim B. Kozlikin, Helen Fewlass, Benjamin Vernot, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Katerina Douka, Ian Barnes, Marie-Cécile Soulier, Anna Schmidt, Merlin Szymanski, Tsenka Tsanova, Nikolay Sirakov, Elena Endarova, Shannon P. McPherron, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Janet Kelso, Svante Pääbo, Mateja Hajdinjak, Marie Soressi & Matthias Meyer

Nature (2023)

Abstract

"Artefacts made from stones, bones and teeth are fundamental to our understanding of human subsistence strategies, behaviour and culture in the Pleistocene. Although these resources are plentiful, it is impossible to associate artefacts to specific human individuals1 who can be morphologically or genetically characterized, unless they are found within burials, which are rare in this time period. Thus, our ability to discern the societal roles of Pleistocene individuals based on their biological sex or genetic ancestry is limited2,3,4,5. Here we report the development of a non-destructive method for the gradual release of DNA trapped in ancient bone and tooth artefacts. Application of the method to an Upper Palaeolithic deer tooth pendant from Denisova Cave, Russia, resulted in the recovery of ancient human and deer mitochondrial genomes, which allowed us to estimate the age of the pendant at approximately 19,000–25,000 years. Nuclear DNA analysis identifies the presumed maker or wearer of the pendant as a female individual with strong genetic affinities to a group of Ancient North Eurasian individuals who lived around the same time but were previously found only further east in Siberia. Our work redefines how cultural and genetic records can be linked in prehistoric archaeology."

so a partner or food?
 
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unetice culture:
Nebra_Schwerter.jpg


seima turbino:
images
https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/bronze-age-sword-nordlingen-0018645

"So well preserved “it almost still shines” is what archaeologists have termed the incredible find of a 3,000-year-old Bronze Age sword found in the town of Nördlingen, Bavaria in Germany. This fortuitous discovery came to light during the excavation of a burial site containing the remains of a man, woman, and child. As of now, it is unclear whether the three individuals were related or interred in close succession."
perfect_0.jpg
The perfect sword was found in a burial, next to the remains of a man, woman, and child.
slightly.jpg
The slightly older Bronze age sword has some green tarnish due to its copper content, but otherwise every detail is preserved.
hilt.jpg
The hilt of the Bronze Age sword is secured to the blade with rivets.
 
seima turbino shaman
440px-Moscow_State_Historical_Museum_-_IMG_3472.JPG


okunevo:
479BB7B000000578-5218061-image-a-78_1514470257456.jpg


Arkaim in sintahsta culture:
b29258dd729f61bcb1f81a874b2e82e7.jpg

23302c35d2789e517fc578fb46edaf8e.jpg


seima turbino:
images

BURIALS WITH SEIMA-TURBINO INVENTORY FROM THE ORENBURG СIS-URALS: CHRONOLOGICAL, PALEODIETOLOGICAL AND MIGRATION ASPECTS
L.V. Kuptsova, М.V. Khalyapin

The paper presents for the first time the materials of 4 burials from the Sintashta culture necropolis in the Orenburg Cis-Urals, where the Seima-Turbino inventory was found. The studied burials of the burial ground nearby Beryozovaya Gora were carried out according to the Seima-Turbino rite. Two of them are character-ized by merging of cultural traditions. Appearance of bearers of the Seima-Turbino trasncultural phenomenon in the Orenburg Cis-Urals can be confi dently associated with the migration impulse from the Western Siberia. This is evidenced by archaeological, anthropological data and the results of the analysis of light isotopes (δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N). Representatives of the Sintashta culture and bearers of the Seima-Turbino phenomenon were buried on the same burial site with the burial rite characteristics of both groups, so in this case we can talk about their peaceful coexistence. It is possible that the bearers of the Seima-Turbino phenomenon have incorporated into the Sintashta community and have kept their social status. The period of intercultural contacts, according to the radiocarbon dating of the materials from the site under discussion, falls on the XX–XVIII centuries BC. The paper also introduces for the scientifi c use the unpublished AMS dates of the Sintashta complexes from the Orenburg Cis-Urals.

Conclusion
In the Sintashta burial ground near Mount Berezovaya, four burials with Seima-Turbino inventory were found, made according to the Seima-Turbino burial rites. At least two of the discussed complexes (Burial 4 and Burial 8) can be confidently associated with the migration of the population from Western Siberia to the Southern Urals: this is evidenced by archaeological, anthropological data and the results of the analysis of light isotopes. Due to the fact that for Burial 9 and Burial 10 a combination of the Seima-Tubino rite and the clothing complex with Sintashta traditions was noted and inventory, one can carefully assume their somewhat later appearance, as well as the fact that the people buried in them were born already in the Sintashta environment, but continued to broadcast the customs of their ancestors.
https://www.evrazstep.ru/index.php/aes/issue/view/42/63
 

Postglacial genomes from foragers across Northern Eurasia reveal prehistoric mobility associated with the spread of the Uralic and Yeniseian languages​

View ORCID ProfileTian Chen Zeng, Leonid M. Vyazov, Alexander Kim, Pavel N. Flegontov, Kendra Sirak, Robert Maier, Iosif Lazaridis, Ali Akbari, Michael Frachetti, Aleksei A. Tishkin, Natalia E. Ryabogina, Sergey A. Agapov, Danila S. Agapov, Anatoliy N. Alekseev, Gennady G. Boeskorov, Andrey A. Chizhevsky, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Viktor M. Dyakonov, Dmitry N. Enshin, Alexey V. Fribus, Yaroslav V. Frolov, Sergey P. Grushin, Alexander A. Khokhlov, Egor P. Kitov, Pavel Kosintsev, Igor V. Kovtun, Kirill Yu. Kiryushin, Yurii F. Kiryushin, Nikolai P. Makarov, Viktor V. Morozov, Egor N. Nikolaev, Marina P. Rykun, Tatyana M. Savenkova, Marina V. Shchelchkova, Svetlana N. Skochina, Vladimir Shirokov, Olga S. Sherstobitova, Sergey M. Slepchenko, Konstantin N. Solodnikov, Elena N. Solovyova, Aleksandr D. Stepanov, Aleksei A. Timoshchenko, Aleksandr S. Vdovin, Anton V. Vybornov, Elena V. Balanovska, Stanislav Dryomov, View ORCID ProfileGarrett Hellenthal, Kenneth Kidd, Johannes Krause, Elena Starikovskaya, Rem Sukernik, Tatiana Tatarinova, Mark G. Thomas, Maxat Zhabagin, Kim Callan, View ORCID ProfileOlivia Cheronet, View ORCID ProfileDaniel Fernandes, Denise Keating, Matthew Ferry, Candilio Francesca, Lora Iliev, Kadir Toykan Ozdogan, Kirsten Mandl, Matthew Mah, Adam Micco, Megan Michel, Inigo Olalde, Fatma Zalzala, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Ron Pinhasi, Vagheesh Narasimhan, David Reich

Abstract​

The North Eurasian forest and forest-steppe zones have sustained millennia of sociocultural connections among northern peoples. We present genome-wide ancient DNA data for 181 individuals from this region spanning the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age. We find that Early to Mid-Holocene hunter-gatherer populations from across the southern forest and forest-steppes of Northern Eurasia can be characterized by a continuous gradient of ancestry that remained stable for millennia, ranging from fully West Eurasian in the Baltic region to fully East Asian in the Transbaikal region. In contrast, cotemporaneous groups in far Northeast Siberia were genetically distinct, retaining high levels of continuity from a population that was the primary source of ancestry for Native Americans. By the mid-Holocene, admixture between this early Northeastern Siberian population and groups from Inland East Asia and the Amur River Basin produced two distinctive populations in eastern Siberia that played an important role in the genetic formation of later people. Ancestry from the first population, Cis-Baikal Late Neolithic-Bronze Age (Cisbaikal_LNBA), is found substantially only among Yeniseian-speaking groups and those known to have admixed with them. Ancestry from the second, Yakutian Late Neolithic-Bronze Age (Yakutia_LNBA), is strongly associated with present-day Uralic speakers. We show how Yakutia_LNBA ancestry spread from an east Siberian origin ~4.5kya, along with subclades of Y-chromosome haplogroup N occurring at high frequencies among present-day Uralic speakers, into Western and Central Siberia in communities associated with Seima-Turbino metallurgy: a suite of advanced bronze casting techniques that spread explosively across an enormous region of Northern Eurasia ~4.0kya. However, the ancestry of the 16 Seima-Turbino-period individuals--the first reported from sites with this metallurgy--was otherwise extraordinarily diverse, with partial descent from Indo-Iranian-speaking pastoralists and multiple hunter-gatherer populations from widely separated regions of Eurasia. Our results provide support for theories suggesting that early Uralic speakers at the beginning of their westward dispersal where involved in the expansion of Seima-Turbino metallurgical traditions, and suggests that both cultural transmission and migration were important in the spread of Seima-Turbino material culture.

However, seimaturbino penetrated china. So maybe they would speak Indo-Uralics :

urn:cambridge.org:id:binary-alt:20170920130655-32242-mediumThumb-S0003598X17001776_fig3g.jpg


Erlitou culture on the map is called Xia:
Abstract: "**tees" was the supreme g*d worshipped by the early ancient people wholived in the Delta of the Yellow River (DYR). All the people of Xia, Shangl and Zhouldynasties worshipped him. There are many striking similarities between Old Chinese "*tees" and Proto-Indo-European "*deus," based on the ancient documents. In addition, we have proof fromcomparative historical linguistics to verify that the two words share the same source. Evidence from historical records and linguistics comes to a common conclusion:the early civilization of DYR received crucial influence from early Indo-European civilization.

"Tocharian Loan Words in Old Chinese: Chariots, Chariot Gear, and Town Building", by Alexander Lubolsky, or
"Indo-European Vocabulary in Old Chinese A New Thesis on the Emergence of Chinese Language and Civilization in the Late Neolithic Age" by Tsung-tung Chang
* dog, hound (ie: *kun-k, old ch: *huan(g),*khuen )
* goose (ie: *ghans, old ch:*gans)
* pork (ie: *pork, old ch:* pog)
* horse (ie: *mork, old ch:*mog )
* cow (ie: *gwhou , old ch: *gou )
and several other as milk, chariot, ....


seima turbino shaman


the script of 人 (=human) on oracle bone
 
^
according to Andar:

"Most northern ancient R1a-Z93 found yet and it is from Seimo-Turbino (Site 6 on the map). The dating is probably incorrect and i guess there is reservoir effect and should rather be around 2000 B.C but still very interesting. Also seems to be rich in Yakutia_LNBA and WSHG admix."

I32552 2571-2348 calBCE Russia_SeymoTurbinoCulture Satyga-16 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kondinskiy District, Yagodny) Russia R-Z2122 R1a1a1b2a2

Quote:I32552. In the first set of qpAdm, this individual can be modeled as three-way admixtures between~47% Yakutia_LNBA + ~5-20% Srubnaya_LNBA, with the other two sources drawn from the FSHG cline (p>0.44). These models are in keeping with the behavior of this individual in ADMIXTURE (Fig.4B, Extended Data Figure 10). In the second set of qpAdms, with populations of the Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age Trans-Ural Steppe as sources, 3-way admixture models pass (p>0.10), with ~40% each of Russia_Tatarka_BA-related and FSHG-related ancestry, and ~15-20% ancestry from the Steppe_MLBA-related source. All passing models for this individual include a Yakutia_LNBA-related source.

[Image: Biwt8to.png]
 

"Map-scheme of the distribution of Baikal jade in the Bronze Age ( green shows the places of finds on the territory of Russia, brown - on the territory of China): 1 - Seimas; 2 - Ust-Vetluzhsky burial ground; 3 - Turbine; 4 - Okunevo-15; 5 - Shaman cape; 6 - Shumilikha; 7 , Khake, Inner Mongolia; 8 - Daqiao (Big Bridge) on the river. Wuyer, Helongjiang Province; 9 - Wanhaitun, Heilongjiang Province; 10 - Xinxingxiang, Jilin Province"

- The celts
1386759735_2017-04-2710_59_39.jpg.e16ee9650f6d5e44da487228d67ec17c.jpg


- sarmatian
019_szarmata_clip_image002_0001.jpg

- Avar
Ring pommel sword spread whole eurasia, even to Japan. It is a symbol of nomad elites:
F1.large.jpg


- The Huns
27193243.jpg


- Han dynasty
Chinese-DaDao.jpg



- Rome:
Ring-Pommel-Roman-Sword.jpg

https://swordencyclopedia.com/ring-sword/
Roman-type-Ring-Pommeled-swords-Miks-2009-156.ppm

https://www.researchgate.net/figure...sword-from-Mainz-Miks-2009-132_fig4_366398645



PlZCZ3G.jpg
 
"The snake primarily represents rebirth, death and mortality, due to its casting of its SKIN and being symbolically "reborn". Over a large part of India there are carved representations of cobras or nagas or stones as substitutes. To these human food and flowers are offered and lights are burned before the shrines."
Snake_Skin_Texture_%2821%29.jpg


30252.jpg


images

armour made by ST krotovo artifact in the link below
http://history.novosibdom.ru/files/u5/sibir_34.jpg
[url]https://bigenc.ru/archeology/text/3545398
[/URL]

- sarmatians form Trajan's Column (Cited from: https://www.cointalk.com/threads/constantine-and-the-the-sarmatians.389918/)
f0a93b3cc415e61fa2fde3e47d071d94-jpg.1402064


- sarmatian-style karacena armor in Poland
Karacena.JPG
 

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