Population structure in Italy using ancient and modern samples

y4OKNmZ.png


SR and TP are Siracusa and Trapani?
 
… yes Jovialis, Trapani and Siracusa.
 
Salento and Jovialis: Here are my distances for the new samples (I included all 35). I get close distances from samples all over Sicily and from Abruzzo as well. What is also interesting is that I get really close with W-Sicily7 and 4 from Behar 2013 but W-Sicily 5b is more distant at 6.57 (not horrible). Kind of indicates that in the past, some of the samples selected to be included in population averages for moderns can be skewed if they are solely selected from 1 side of the distribution, i.e. a Bell shaped curve with population mean that is statistically valid (random sample or N large enough for central limit theorem to hold).

Jovialis, regarding your K8 model, I just quickly ran the new Sicilian samples and the goodness of fit average is 0.86, which is really good. It is quite apparent to me that your K8 model approximates what Raveane et al 2019 reported in "Population structure of modern-day Italians reveals patterns of ancient and archaic ancestries in Southern Europe" Figure 2 quite well. I noticed over at Gene expressions some yahoo was taking issue with your model and that poster threw in a few lets say interesting attempts at humor. Keep up the excellent work.



Distance to:PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
1.79596771W-Sicily7_Behar_2013
1.88369318W-Sicily4_Behar_2013
2.74534151SR64_Busby_2015
2.88513431Ag-Sicily5_Behar_2013
2.97045451W-Sicily9_Behar_2013
3.36884253Ag-Sicily8_Behar_2013
3.47981321C-Sicily50_Behar_2013
3.53990113ItalyAbruzzo14_Behar_2013
3.62692707W-Sicily3_Behar_2013
3.71638265TP25_Busby_2015
3.83469686ItalyAbruzzo9_Behar_2013
4.16391643ItalyAbruzzo22_Behar_2013
4.27519590W-Sicily1_Behar_2013
4.36253367SR48R_Busby_2015
4.44958425E-Sicily18_Behar_2013
4.90147937ItalyAbruzzo13_Behar_2013
4.97591198ItalyAbruzzo15_Behar_2013
4.97730851ItalyAbruzzo17_Behar_2013
5.01247444W-Sicily21_Behar_2013
5.05732143W-Sicily5a_Behar_2013
5.29267418ItalyAbruzzo16_Behar_2013
5.51926626SR60_Busby_2015
5.66633038TP05_Busby_2015
5.66649804C-Sicily57_Behar_2013
5.68560463ItalyAbruzzo19_Behar_2013
5.72960732SR23_Busby_2015
5.73702885ItalyAbruzzo21_Behar_2013
5.74471061TP08_Busby_2015
5.80655664TP07_Busby_2015
5.88855670ItalyAbruzzo20_Behar_2013
5.96341345SR44_Busby_2015
5.98609221TP06_Busby_2015
6.03721790ItalyAbruzzo23_Behar_2013
6.09758149TP04_Busby_2015
6.57307386W-Sicily5b_Behar_2013

 
out of curiosity :bigsmile: Ashkenazy and Sephardic samples in our list were collected in:

ashkenazy1w Austria
ashkenazy2e Belorussia
ashkenazy2w Austria
ashkenazy3e Latvia
ashkenazy3w Austria
ashkenazy4e Latvia
ashkenazy4w France
ashkenazy5e Latvia
ashkenazy6w Germany
ashkenazy7e Poland
ashkenazy7w Germany
ashkenazy8e Poland
ashkenazy8w Netherlands
ashkenazy9e Poland
ashkenazy9w Netherlands
sephardic10tur Turkey
sephardic11bel Portugal
sephardic12bul Bulgaria
sephardic13bul Bulgaria
sephardic14bul Bulgaria
sephardic15bul Bulgaria
sephardic16bul Bulgaria
sephardic17bul Bulgaria
sephardic18bul Bulgaria
sephardic19bul Bulgaria
sephardic1tur Turkey
sephardic2tur Turkey
sephardic3tur Turkey
sephardic4tur Turkey
sephardic5tur Turkey
sephardic6tur Turkey
sephardic7tur Turkey
sephardic8tur Turkey
sephardic9tur Turkey
 
... some modern Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, ... The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and...

Code:
Bosnian_10,3.06,0.44,0,0.55,27.00,42.48,0,0.33,4.98,0,21.15,0
Bosnian_11,5.64,0.03,0.96,0,25.33,42.04,0,0,4.77,0,21.23,0
Bosnian_12,5.24,0.63,0.40,0,25.12,43.50,0.64,0,5.50,0,18.96,0
Bosnian_13,5.51,0,0.23,0,25.26,41.18,1.93,0,5.16,0,20.73,0
Bosnian_14,4.40,1.23,0,0.54,25.72,42.67,0,0,4.39,0,21.04,0
Bosnian_15,5.01,0.20,1.81,0,27.25,47.94,0,0,2.84,0,14.89,0.06
Bosnian_16,5.95,0,0.44,0,27.26,39.69,0.52,0,4.98,0,21.15,0
Bosnian_2,4.84,0.29,0,0,25.16,44.53,0.93,0.14,3.38,0.19,20.54,0
Bosnian_3,5.54,0.23,0.75,0.42,26.23,39.63,0.49,0,3.24,0.09,23.39,0
Bosnian_4,4.08,1.33,0.36,0,24.07,44.11,0,0.16,4.94,0,20.95,0
Bosnian_5,4.60,0.64,0,0,26.63,44.10,1.12,0,4.45,0,18.40,0.08
Bosnian_7,4.52,1.31,0.93,0.13,23.41,44.39,0.12,0.08,5.11,0,20,0
Bosnian_8,5.01,0.62,0,0,27.23,42.26,0.73,0.08,5.04,0.09,18.95,0
Kosovo1,5.40,0.63,0.60,0,30.94,24.44,0,0,7.22,0,30.63,0.14
Kosovo11,5.19,1.12,1.28,0,28.15,27.51,0,0,7.60,0.11,29.04,0
Kosovo12,7.44,0,1.12,0,28.84,27.85,1.71,0,7.53,0,25.49,0
Kosovo14,4.96,0,0,0,31.77,28.45,0,0,5.97,0,28.85,0
Kosovo16,6.85,0,0.46,0.39,29.54,26.37,0.27,0,7.17,0,28.95,0
Kosovo18,7.62,0.02,1.15,0,26.29,28.10,0.22,0,9.87,0,26.73,0
Kosovo7,4.68,0.17,0.35,0.54,29.29,26.60,0,0.09,8.87,0,29.41,0
Kosovo8,6.84,0.11,1.01,0,28.83,25.39,0,0,6.35,0.39,31.08,0
Macedonian12,6.37,0.52,0.85,0,23.90,34.46,0,0,7.66,0,26.24,0
Macedonian17b-d,4.48,0.12,1.17,0,27.66,31.85,0,0,7.43,0.72,26.58,0
Macedonian19,5.08,0.81,0,0,28.13,33.31,0.18,0,6.54,0.08,25.86,0
Macedonian20,7.09,0,0.58,0.32,24.55,35.80,0.65,0,5.13,0,25.87,0
Macedonian21,5.84,0.74,0,0.16,27.94,34.32,0.64,0.03,4.07,0.12,26.09,0.05
Macedonian3,5.71,0.48,0,0.03,24.75,42.82,0.02,0,5.45,0.06,20.68,0
Macedonian7,5.82,0,0.51,0.35,26.79,35.95,0,0,6.99,0,23.60,0
Montenegro1,5.47,0,1.35,0.29,27.51,35.26,0.71,0,5.82,0.20,23.41,0
Montenegro14,6.57,0.54,0.61,0,30.38,33.27,0,0,7.70,0,20.93,0
Montenegro15,3.48,0.87,0.56,0,28.64,35.21,0,0,6.61,0,24.63,0
Montenegro17,4.11,0,1.23,0,25.54,37.23,0.02,0,5.81,1.10,24.96,0
Montenegro19,3.56,0.53,1.05,0,28.99,35.17,0,0.09,5.63,0.17,24.82,0
Montenegro20,5.16,0.70,0.68,0.28,29.88,34.38,0.18,0,5.35,0,23.38,0
Montenegro21,4.91,0.81,0,0,28.76,33.68,0.23,0,6.63,0,24.98,0
Montenegro4,5.56,0.28,0,0.42,28.98,40.14,0,0,3.79,0,20.78,0.05
Montenegro5,5.48,1.19,0.29,0.43,28.82,38.25,0,0,5.60,0.61,19.32,0
Montenegro6,5.47,0.48,0.61,0.25,30.05,35.82,0,0,6.85,0.20,20.29,0
Montenegro9,5.99,1.24,0.43,0,28.02,35.38,0.96,0,4.82,0,23.16,0
Serbia1,3.87,0.50,0.47,0,28.19,40.13,1.11,0,4.52,0,21.21,0
Serbia10,5.52,1.41,0.79,0,28.41,33.37,0.52,0,7.09,0,22.90,0
Serbia16,4.65,1.52,0.18,0,27.60,40.31,0.14,0,4.84,0.26,20.49,0
Serbia18,0.53,1.14,0.74,0.79,26.61,37.64,1.15,0,5.43,0,25.93,0.04
Serbia19,4.53,0.66,1.11,0,26.88,40.49,0.51,0,5.61,0.19,20.02,0
Serbia2,3.95,0.88,1.37,0,28.34,35.40,1.08,0,5.53,0,23.44,0
Serbia3,3.16,0.82,0.16,0.23,25.70,39.16,0,0,4.33,0.68,25.75,0
Serbia4,5.99,0.88,0.86,0,27.69,33.32,0.25,0,5.21,0.65,25.14,0
Serbia5,4.24,1.33,0.13,0,27.73,36.76,0,0.34,3.28,0.33,25.86,0
Serbia6,6.50,0.55,0.49,0.99,25.64,39.61,0.23,0,5.81,0,20.20,0
Serbia7,4.86,1.05,1.11,0.44,27.75,37.80,0.17,0,4.40,0.45,21.96,0
Serbia9,6.32,0,0.16,0,26.15,38.03,0.49,0,5.49,0,23.36,0
Serbian_B-H11_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,6.32,0.91,0,0.18,24.73,43.84,1.22,0,5.15,0,17.64,0
Serbian_B-H4_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,3.92,0.72,0.35,0.21,28.27,43.45,0.65,0,3.67,0,18.77,0
Serbian_B-H7_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,2.71,0.28,0,0,28.08,41.92,0,0.05,5.06,0,21.91,0
Serbian_B-H9_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,4.75,0,0,0.63,28.16,41.17,0,0,5.19,1.20,18.89,0

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105090
 
Great work once again, Salento!

Distance to:Jovialis
8.86856245Kosovo1
9.29981720Kosovo8
10.41323197Kosovo16
10.72360014Kosovo7
11.53868277Kosovo11
12.47563225Kosovo18
12.86061429Kosovo12
13.30911718Kosovo14
16.33415746Macedonian17b-d
18.05188356Macedonian19
18.38612248Serbia4
18.67171658Montenegro21
19.03011561Serbia10
19.19075298Macedonian12
19.39474671Macedonian21
19.74296330Montenegro14
20.02962057Montenegro20
20.34746913Montenegro19
20.35888504Montenegro15
20.61361201Montenegro1
20.77116029Macedonian20
21.02077782Serbia2
21.05242266Macedonian7
21.09559670Montenegro9
22.10760503Serbia5
 
out of curiosity Ashkenazy and Sephardic samples in our list were collected in:


ashkenazy1w Austria
ashkenazy2e Belorussia
ashkenazy2w Austria
ashkenazy3e Latvia
ashkenazy3w Austria
ashkenazy4e Latvia
ashkenazy4w France
ashkenazy5e Latvia
ashkenazy6w Germany
ashkenazy7e Poland
ashkenazy7w Germany
ashkenazy8e Poland
ashkenazy8w Netherlands
ashkenazy9e Poland
ashkenazy9w Netherlands
sephardic10tur Turkey
sephardic11bel Portugal
sephardic12bul Bulgaria
sephardic13bul Bulgaria
sephardic14bul Bulgaria
sephardic15bul Bulgaria
sephardic16bul Bulgaria
sephardic17bul Bulgaria
sephardic18bul Bulgaria
sephardic19bul Bulgaria
sephardic1tur Turkey
sephardic2tur Turkey
sephardic3tur Turkey
sephardic4tur Turkey
sephardic5tur Turkey
sephardic6tur Turkey
sephardic7tur Turkey
sephardic8tur Turkey
sephardic9tur Turkey

(y) Salento


Distance to:Duarte
3.4675975394.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.80% Yemen:Yemen1
3.9276901594.60% Portugal:portugal13 + 5.40% Yemen:Yemen1
3.9988172194.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.40% Jordan:Jordan444
4.2548240394.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.40% SaudiA:SaudiA2
4.4210515795.00% Portugal:portugal13 + 5.00% Jordan:Jordan444
4.4843390195.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.40% Yemen:Yemen3
4.4865432095.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.40% Yemen:Yemen6
4.5785627792.60% Portugal:portugal6 + 7.40% Yemen:Yemen1
4.6007685015.60% Corsica:CorsicaS15608 + 84.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.7093272595.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.40% Yemen:Yemen2
4.8070807196.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Yemen:Yemen7
4.821294067.80% TP05_Busby_2015 + 92.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.821294067.80% Trapani:TP05_LazaridisNat2014 + 92.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.822531128.80% TP25_Busby_2015 + 91.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.8323835596.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Yemen:Yemen4
4.8407268495.80% Portugal:portugal13 + 4.20% SaudiA:SaudiA2
4.8462619596.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Lebanon:Lebanon5
4.8546006095.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.40% Syria:syria485
4.8601826896.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Jordan:Jordan485
4.8631574696.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Turkey:tur170
4.8648011896.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Turkey:tur124
4.8657155296.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Jordan:Jordan546
4.867119576.80% W-Sicily21_Behar_2013 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.867119576.80% W-Sicily:21 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.8705601070.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 29.60% Portugal:portugal2
4.8775203296.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Jordan:Jordan603
4.8788678295.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.20% Turkey:tur20
4.8804498995.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.20% Syria:syria520
4.8834353894.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.40% Sephardi:sephardic4tur
4.8911553696.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Armernia:arm8
4.8913145595.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.00% Sephardi:sephardic16bul
4.8933462596.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Turkey:tur110
4.8934285996.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Armernia:arm10
4.8938181696.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Jordan:Jordan384
4.8939373496.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Lebanon:Lebanon8
4.8944156594.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.40% Sephardi:sephardic9tur
4.8976877396.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Jordan:Jordan426
4.8977916896.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Yemen:Yemen8
4.8981691596.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Saudi:saudi1436
4.8990899996.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Syria:syria1
4.9000806697.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.00% Armernia:arm6
4.9004775796.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.20% Armernia:arm5
4.9006264396.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Jordan:Jordan503
4.9023042396.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Turkey:tur277
4.9049653796.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.20% Armernia:arm18
4.9085700096.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Syria:syria10
4.909017036.60% Campania:NaN195ST + 93.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.9105251296.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Syria:syria361
4.9106833597.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.00% Armernia:arm23
4.911498046.80% TP07_Busby_2015 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.911498046.80% Trapani:TP07_LazaridisNat2014 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.9120385696.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Lebanon:Lebanon6
4.912125968.00% TP08_Busby_2015 + 92.00% Portugal:portugal1
4.9123646996.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Turkey:tur37
4.9130229495.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.80% Sephardi:sephardic1tur
4.9148442496.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.20% Armernia:arm26
4.9156307897.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 2.80% Armernia:arm12
4.9157982696.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Jordan:Jordan62
4.916598538.20% SR48R_Busby_2015 + 91.80% Portugal:portugal1
4.9173821997.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 2.80% Armernia:arm20
4.9174494696.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Lebanon:Lebanon2
4.9183339997.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.00% Armernia:arm4
4.918393207.40% SR64_Busby_2015 + 92.60% Portugal:portugal1
4.918393207.40% Siracusa:SR64_LazaridisNat2014 + 92.60% Portugal:portugal1
4.9185325396.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Jordan:Jordan445
4.9186597896.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Jordan:Jordan563
4.9189796996.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.80% Jordan:Jordan382
4.9196953596.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Lebanon:Lebanon4
4.9214707796.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Armernia:arm11
4.9232684795.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.20% Turkey:tur262
4.9234442796.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.20% Armernia:arm19
4.9238857095.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.20% Turkey:tur52
4.9245702294.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 5.40% Sephardi:sephardic12bul
4.9254037796.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Greece_Macedonia_o:GreeceMaced1
4.927401666.80% C-Sicily50_Behar_2013 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.927401666.80% C-Sicily:50 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.928112406.80% Ag-Sicily8_Behar_2013 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.928112406.80% Ag-Sicily:8 + 93.20% Portugal:portugal1
4.928536516.40% W-Sicily5a_Behar_2013 + 93.60% Portugal:portugal1
4.928536516.40% W-Sicily:5a + 93.60% Portugal:portugal1
4.929109176.40% W-Sicily1_Behar_2013 + 93.60% Portugal:portugal1
4.929109176.40% W-Sicily:1 + 93.60% Portugal:portugal1
4.9297103296.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Syria:syria8
4.9302147596.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Syria:syria298
4.9302659096.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Jordan:Jordan560
4.9311690396.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Armernia:arm9
4.9316069496.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Turkey:tur84
4.9339902595.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.60% Greece_Kos:GreeceKos8
4.9351309996.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.00% Turkey:tur2
4.9357158196.80% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.20% Armernia:arm17
4.936465296.60% Ag-Sicily5_Behar_2013 + 93.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.936465296.60% Ag-Sicily:5 + 93.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.9369989195.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.80% Sephardi:sephardic6tur
4.9373369197.00% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.00% Armernia:arm3
4.9398824496.40% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.60% Jordan:Jordan646
4.941753616.60% SR60_Busby_2015 + 93.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.941753616.60% Siracusa:SR60_LazaridisNat2014 + 93.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.941777535.60% Calabria:ALP582 + 94.40% Portugal:portugal1
4.9422468296.60% Portugal:portugal1 + 3.40% Turkey:tur197
4.9434792295.20% Portugal:portugal1 + 4.80% Sephardi:sephardic18bul
 
Last edited:
I've sort of lost the plot so I'll have to go back and try to find the other coordinates. Thanks Salento. :)

Distance to:Angela
12.14671972Kosovo1
13.38750910Kosovo14
13.95295668Kosovo16
14.44534527Kosovo8
14.51025844Kosovo7
15.26153334Kosovo12
15.55925448Kosovo11
17.84257268Kosovo18
18.42842098Macedonian17b-d
18.79448323Montenegro14
19.14214460Montenegro20
19.14937075Montenegro21
19.21753106Macedonian19
19.42374578Serbia10
19.50516598Serbia4
20.09329490Montenegro19
20.14152924Macedonian21
20.42779479Montenegro15
20.78610834Serbia2
20.99903807Montenegro6
21.13484327Montenegro9
21.17840882Montenegro1
22.25042022Serbia5
22.25897347Macedonian7
23.02014770Macedonian12

Not my group, clearly.
 
Not that much better:

Distance to:Angela
10.29025753ItalyAbruzzo21_Behar_2013
11.90679638ItalyAbruzzo13_Behar_2013
11.98841107TP08_Busby_2015
12.71835681TP06_Busby_2015
12.85875966ItalyAbruzzo22_Behar_2013
12.90065115SR48R_Busby_2015
13.13537209TP25_Busby_2015
13.16600547ItalyAbruzzo17_Behar_2013
13.45773384W-Sicily4_Behar_2013
13.75745616ItalyAbruzzo19_Behar_2013
13.77992017W-Sicily7_Behar_2013
13.78993836TP04_Busby_2015
13.80142022ItalyAbruzzo15_Behar_2013
14.15748565ItalyAbruzzo20_Behar_2013
14.25281727ItalyAbruzzo9_Behar_2013
14.25840805ItalyAbruzzo14_Behar_2013
14.26076085ItalyAbruzzo16_Behar_2013
14.36989562ItalyAbruzzo23_Behar_2013
15.08224121SR64_Busby_2015
16.08740190Ag-Sicily5_Behar_2013
16.16724466TP05_Busby_2015
16.77179179W-Sicily1_Behar_2013
16.82153382C-Sicily50_Behar_2013
16.84593126SR60_Busby_2015
16.93869239W-Sicily9_Behar_2013


A lot of Abruzzo is clearly more northern than the rest of the South. It makes sense. Also interesting how similar northern Puglia is to it.

What incredible variation we have in Italy. In other parts of the world they kill each other when they're genetically like 2nd cousins.

Political boundaries in Italy don't match the genetic boundaries.
 
More in the ballpark, but still not great. Perhaps because there's no Emilian or Eastern Ligurian samples? Still don't understand the Corsica matches. Some French ancestry in some of those samples? I'm very far west on PCAs. Or perhaps because some of the Corsicans are from the coast and have ancestry from Liguria and northern Toscana? Like Napoleone, whose oldest family seat is across the Magra from where my mother was born?


Is there a way I can examine these samples more closely? Are they on any of the PCAs by number?

Distance to:Angela
3.03352930Corsica:CorsicaS04208
3.74296674TSI30
4.07762186Corsica:CorsicaS29908
4.12169868Lombardy:BGD31_Lombardy
4.16088933Corsica:Corsica29708
4.31811301Tuscany:Tuscany98
4.32551731Corsica:CorsicaS03308
4.59341921Corsica:CorsicaS10208
4.62110376Trentino-Alto-Adige:ALP114
4.66352871Corsica:corsica29008
4.72634108Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01162
4.77855627N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01155
4.89772396Corsica:Corsica24508
4.92195083Lombardy:BGD301_Lombardy
4.96589368Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01163
5.14806760Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01167
5.52170264N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01172
5.63329389Corsica_o:Corsica14708
5.71635373Corsica:Corsica19508
5.76627263Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01168
5.76965337Corsica:Corsica03708
5.85776408Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont149
6.09634317Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont43
6.09717968Corsica:CorsicaS13808
6.18154511Tuscany:VO65
6.22679693N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01177
6.30558483Tuscany:Tuscany65
6.39665538Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont119
6.43815191Umbria:pG08
6.44818579Tuscany:Tuscany27
6.46058047Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01164
6.47928237Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01161
6.54887013Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01166
6.55823909N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01174
6.85763079Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont98
6.89233632N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01152
6.89848534Corsica:corsica1308
6.93375800Tuscany:MURLO114
7.01978632Tuscan_HGDP:HGDP01169
7.12763635Veneto:KF1800772
7.15986033Corsica:CorsicaS15608
7.16769140Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont145
7.28999314Tuscany:Tuscany38
7.40563299Veneto:ALP040
7.46905617Umbria:pG12
7.48586668Lombardy:BGD28_Lombardy
7.58625731N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01157
7.61442710Tuscany:Tuscany54
7.70445326N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01156
7.73679520N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01171
7.75944586Liguria:ALP099
7.84105223Lombardy:BGD103_Lombardy
8.03954601Tuscany:Tuscany93
8.10570787Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont136
8.10839072Veneto:ALP116
8.15638400Marche:MarACW030D
8.40005952Tuscany:Tuscany74
8.41772535Tuscany:VO59
8.45947398Marche:MarABI020D
8.50290539N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01173
8.52858722N_Italy_HGDP:HGDP01153
8.76107870Lombardy:ALP288
8.85215228Lazio:pG28
8.95054188Marche:MarADC050D
8.97648038Marche:MarABU050D
9.06816409Umbria:pG11
9.19212163Albanian:AL12
9.21218215Veneto:KF1803109
9.25663546Piedmont:ItalyPiedmont63
9.31194931Veneto:ALP209
9.31813286N_Italy_HGDP:HG
DP01147
9.58208746Veneto:KF1800751
9.59945311Marche:MarABG010D
9.89644886Tuscany:VO109
9.95424533Marche:MarABP050D

Well, I now officially claim all the greats of Florence from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance and beyond as my ancestors! :)

My bucket list had more of the Greek islands on it (and mainland), Istanbul and the ancient cities of Asia Minor, Israel, and now I guess I have to go to Corsica. :) Of course I'm going back once or twice a year again to Liguria and the Lunigiana (N.W. Toscana), as, even after all these years, that's home.

Btw, are these Piemonte samples the ones from the border area between Piemonte and Liguria? Would make perfect sense as they're really Ligurian.
 
Well, those people hiding out in the foothills of the Apennines and the Apennines themselves have kept a lot of their Copper Age EEF ancestry. It shows up for me in other analyses as well.

For those who've been following the discussion about how much Germanic ancestry there might be in people like the N.W. Tuscans, I guess it's about 10%. :)


Target: Angela
Distance: 6.8659% / 0.06865937
24.6Sardinia_HGDP
19.0Tuscany
12.4Veneto
10.8Basilicata
8.4GermanyB
6.2Greece_Thessaly
3.0Greece_NorthEast
2.4Romania_o
2.2Germany
2.0Greece_Crete
1.6Hungary
1.4Greece_Macedonia_o
1.2Slovenia
1.0Cyprus
0.8Greek_Thessaloniki
0.8Marche
0.8Piedmont
0.6Greece_Central
0.4Spain
0.2Apulia
0.2Turkey
 
Not that much better:

Distance to:Angela
10.29025753ItalyAbruzzo21_Behar_2013
11.90679638ItalyAbruzzo13_Behar_2013
11.98841107TP08_Busby_2015
12.71835681TP06_Busby_2015
12.85875966ItalyAbruzzo22_Behar_2013
12.90065115SR48R_Busby_2015
13.13537209TP25_Busby_2015
13.16600547ItalyAbruzzo17_Behar_2013
13.45773384W-Sicily4_Behar_2013
13.75745616ItalyAbruzzo19_Behar_2013
13.77992017W-Sicily7_Behar_2013
13.78993836TP04_Busby_2015
13.80142022ItalyAbruzzo15_Behar_2013
14.15748565ItalyAbruzzo20_Behar_2013
14.25281727ItalyAbruzzo9_Behar_2013
14.25840805ItalyAbruzzo14_Behar_2013
14.26076085ItalyAbruzzo16_Behar_2013
14.36989562ItalyAbruzzo23_Behar_2013
15.08224121SR64_Busby_2015
16.08740190Ag-Sicily5_Behar_2013
16.16724466TP05_Busby_2015
16.77179179W-Sicily1_Behar_2013
16.82153382C-Sicily50_Behar_2013
16.84593126SR60_Busby_2015
16.93869239W-Sicily9_Behar_2013


A lot of Abruzzo is clearly more northern than the rest of the South. It makes sense. Also interesting how similar northern Puglia is to it.

What incredible variation we have in Italy. In other parts of the world they kill each other when they're genetically like 2nd cousins.

Political boundaries in Italy don't match the genetic boundaries.

Angela if you don't mind me asking, what are the ranges of those distances, from my screen looks like 11 to about 16/18, etc.
 
Salento: My results for Western Balkans Samples (Post 860). Excellent work again.

Distance to:PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
12.79894136Kosovo1
13.89447012Kosovo8
14.43572305Kosovo7
14.64423777Kosovo16
15.63217515Kosovo11
16.38913970Kosovo18
16.76973166Kosovo12
17.18742273Kosovo14
20.23436681Macedonian17b-d
22.03268481Macedonian19
22.52220682Serbia4
22.53221915Montenegro21
22.72660555Serbia10
23.15786475Montenegro14
23.33456449Macedonian12
23.65436746Macedonian21
23.83446664Montenegro20
24.10174060Montenegro15
24.17500362Montenegro19
24.54264248Montenegro1
24.81982272Serbia2
24.96276026Macedonian7
25.09975896Montenegro9
25.13141460Macedonian20
25.85560094Montenegro6

 
Angela if you don't mind me asking, what are the ranges of those distances, from my screen looks like 11 to about 16/18, etc.

Of course I don't mind. Sorry it's hard to read: 10.29 (Abruzzi) to 16.9 (West Sicily).

I have some better West Sicily samples, though: 12-13 and:

11.98841107TP08_Busby_2015
12.71835681TP06_Busby_2015

That's 11.9 and 12.7.

There's a lot more variety in these Southern Italian samples than I expected.
 
Of course I don't mind. Sorry it's hard to read: 10.29 (Abruzzi) to 16.9 (West Sicily).

I have some better West Sicily samples, though: 12-13 and:

11.98841107TP08_Busby_2015
12.71835681TP06_Busby_2015

That's 11.9 and 12.7.

There's a lot more variety in these Southern Italian samples than I expected.

Thanks Angela. Just a friendly suggestion, did you adjust your gradient when you ran the Oracle program. I just set mine to 100 to clear up the resolution. It works on my computer like a charm.

Yes, there is some variety in those Samples. In my post 958, I am closer to some Abruzzo samples than some of the ones from Sicily and closer to some areas of Sicily for which none of my Great-Grandparents (1 Grandfather) were from (3rd closest is Syracuse SR64).
 
... some modern Serbia, Kosovo, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, ... The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and...

Code:
Bosnian_10,3.06,0.44,0,0.55,27.00,42.48,0,0.33,4.98,0,21.15,0
Bosnian_11,5.64,0.03,0.96,0,25.33,42.04,0,0,4.77,0,21.23,0
Bosnian_12,5.24,0.63,0.40,0,25.12,43.50,0.64,0,5.50,0,18.96,0
Bosnian_13,5.51,0,0.23,0,25.26,41.18,1.93,0,5.16,0,20.73,0
Bosnian_14,4.40,1.23,0,0.54,25.72,42.67,0,0,4.39,0,21.04,0
Bosnian_15,5.01,0.20,1.81,0,27.25,47.94,0,0,2.84,0,14.89,0.06
Bosnian_16,5.95,0,0.44,0,27.26,39.69,0.52,0,4.98,0,21.15,0
Bosnian_2,4.84,0.29,0,0,25.16,44.53,0.93,0.14,3.38,0.19,20.54,0
Bosnian_3,5.54,0.23,0.75,0.42,26.23,39.63,0.49,0,3.24,0.09,23.39,0
Bosnian_4,4.08,1.33,0.36,0,24.07,44.11,0,0.16,4.94,0,20.95,0
Bosnian_5,4.60,0.64,0,0,26.63,44.10,1.12,0,4.45,0,18.40,0.08
Bosnian_7,4.52,1.31,0.93,0.13,23.41,44.39,0.12,0.08,5.11,0,20,0
Bosnian_8,5.01,0.62,0,0,27.23,42.26,0.73,0.08,5.04,0.09,18.95,0
Kosovo1,5.40,0.63,0.60,0,30.94,24.44,0,0,7.22,0,30.63,0.14
Kosovo11,5.19,1.12,1.28,0,28.15,27.51,0,0,7.60,0.11,29.04,0
Kosovo12,7.44,0,1.12,0,28.84,27.85,1.71,0,7.53,0,25.49,0
Kosovo14,4.96,0,0,0,31.77,28.45,0,0,5.97,0,28.85,0
Kosovo16,6.85,0,0.46,0.39,29.54,26.37,0.27,0,7.17,0,28.95,0
Kosovo18,7.62,0.02,1.15,0,26.29,28.10,0.22,0,9.87,0,26.73,0
Kosovo7,4.68,0.17,0.35,0.54,29.29,26.60,0,0.09,8.87,0,29.41,0
Kosovo8,6.84,0.11,1.01,0,28.83,25.39,0,0,6.35,0.39,31.08,0
Macedonian12,6.37,0.52,0.85,0,23.90,34.46,0,0,7.66,0,26.24,0
Macedonian17b-d,4.48,0.12,1.17,0,27.66,31.85,0,0,7.43,0.72,26.58,0
Macedonian19,5.08,0.81,0,0,28.13,33.31,0.18,0,6.54,0.08,25.86,0
Macedonian20,7.09,0,0.58,0.32,24.55,35.80,0.65,0,5.13,0,25.87,0
Macedonian21,5.84,0.74,0,0.16,27.94,34.32,0.64,0.03,4.07,0.12,26.09,0.05
Macedonian3,5.71,0.48,0,0.03,24.75,42.82,0.02,0,5.45,0.06,20.68,0
Macedonian7,5.82,0,0.51,0.35,26.79,35.95,0,0,6.99,0,23.60,0
Montenegro1,5.47,0,1.35,0.29,27.51,35.26,0.71,0,5.82,0.20,23.41,0
Montenegro14,6.57,0.54,0.61,0,30.38,33.27,0,0,7.70,0,20.93,0
Montenegro15,3.48,0.87,0.56,0,28.64,35.21,0,0,6.61,0,24.63,0
Montenegro17,4.11,0,1.23,0,25.54,37.23,0.02,0,5.81,1.10,24.96,0
Montenegro19,3.56,0.53,1.05,0,28.99,35.17,0,0.09,5.63,0.17,24.82,0
Montenegro20,5.16,0.70,0.68,0.28,29.88,34.38,0.18,0,5.35,0,23.38,0
Montenegro21,4.91,0.81,0,0,28.76,33.68,0.23,0,6.63,0,24.98,0
Montenegro4,5.56,0.28,0,0.42,28.98,40.14,0,0,3.79,0,20.78,0.05
Montenegro5,5.48,1.19,0.29,0.43,28.82,38.25,0,0,5.60,0.61,19.32,0
Montenegro6,5.47,0.48,0.61,0.25,30.05,35.82,0,0,6.85,0.20,20.29,0
Montenegro9,5.99,1.24,0.43,0,28.02,35.38,0.96,0,4.82,0,23.16,0
Serbia1,3.87,0.50,0.47,0,28.19,40.13,1.11,0,4.52,0,21.21,0
Serbia10,5.52,1.41,0.79,0,28.41,33.37,0.52,0,7.09,0,22.90,0
Serbia16,4.65,1.52,0.18,0,27.60,40.31,0.14,0,4.84,0.26,20.49,0
Serbia18,0.53,1.14,0.74,0.79,26.61,37.64,1.15,0,5.43,0,25.93,0.04
Serbia19,4.53,0.66,1.11,0,26.88,40.49,0.51,0,5.61,0.19,20.02,0
Serbia2,3.95,0.88,1.37,0,28.34,35.40,1.08,0,5.53,0,23.44,0
Serbia3,3.16,0.82,0.16,0.23,25.70,39.16,0,0,4.33,0.68,25.75,0
Serbia4,5.99,0.88,0.86,0,27.69,33.32,0.25,0,5.21,0.65,25.14,0
Serbia5,4.24,1.33,0.13,0,27.73,36.76,0,0.34,3.28,0.33,25.86,0
Serbia6,6.50,0.55,0.49,0.99,25.64,39.61,0.23,0,5.81,0,20.20,0
Serbia7,4.86,1.05,1.11,0.44,27.75,37.80,0.17,0,4.40,0.45,21.96,0
Serbia9,6.32,0,0.16,0,26.15,38.03,0.49,0,5.49,0,23.36,0
Serbian_B-H11_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,6.32,0.91,0,0.18,24.73,43.84,1.22,0,5.15,0,17.64,0
Serbian_B-H4_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,3.92,0.72,0.35,0.21,28.27,43.45,0.65,0,3.67,0,18.77,0
Serbian_B-H7_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,2.71,0.28,0,0,28.08,41.92,0,0.05,5.06,0,21.91,0
Serbian_B-H9_in_Bosnia-Hertzegovina,4.75,0,0,0.63,28.16,41.17,0,0,5.19,1.20,18.89,0

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105090
Ok, these "academic samples" from Kosovo are not as weird as the Albanian ones.

Kosovo7 is literally my sibling it's scary, whereas Kosovo14 looks like Albanians from Montenegro.

And as always, the Montenegro samples are super cherry picked. They left at least 30-40% of the population of Montenegro out and some are clearly from Serbia or Bosnia but of Montenegrin heritage.
 
Thanks Angela. Just a friendly suggestion, did you adjust your gradient when you ran the Oracle program. I just set mine to 100 to clear up the resolution. It works on my computer like a charm.

Yes, there is some variety in those Samples. In my post 958, I am closer to some Abruzzo samples than some of the ones from Sicily and closer to some areas of Sicily for which none of my Great-Grandparents (1 Grandfather) were from (3rd closest is Syracuse SR64).

As far as I recall behar samples were gathered in London and by individuals who self-reported their ethnicity (and this explains the high number of Romanian individuals with high south asian admixture), and the Busby samples are recycled from Hellenthal et al 2015 who gathered for south Italy and Sicily new samples from anonymous donours (https://www.science.org/action/downloadSupplement?doi=10.1126/science.1243518&file=hellenthal.sm.pdf), and for the same reservations expressed for some Tuscan samples I do not think all these samples represent the genuine genetic variation present in Sicilians and south Italians, and it also explains why the samples from Italian authors gathered in situ form much tighter clusters (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-01802-4 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-82591-9 for example).
 
As far as I recall behar samples were gathered in London and by individuals who self-reported their ethnicity (and this explains the high number of Romanian individuals with high south asian admixture), and the Busby samples are recycled from Hellenthal et al 2015 who gathered for south Italy and Sicily new samples from anonymous donours (https://www.science.org/action/downloadSupplement?doi=10.1126/science.1243518&file=hellenthal.sm.pdf), and for the same reservations expressed for some Tuscan samples I do not think all these samples represent the genuine genetic variation present in Sicilians and south Italians, and it also explains why the samples from Italian authors gathered in situ form much tighter clusters (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-01802-4 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-82591-9 for example).

Leopoldo: Thanks for the note. Here is what I don't quite understand. I have been able to go back to Sicily and get birth, marriage and death certificates dating back to the early 1800's both Paternal and Maternal lineages. It seems to me that Italian researchers when taking a DNA sample from someone in Sicily, Puglia, Campania, Tuscany, or wherever in modern Italy can ask the Donor to provide his or her birth record, which has the parents with their family names, and then get the parents wedding civil record, which has both their parents and document that the person donating sample has family history dating back to to the 1800's which would provide a higher confidence that the donor represents a population that has long-term ties to the area (and not do to some recent migrant moving into the region with no historic ties to the region).

However, the variation in these samples from Sicily might in reality not be outside the normal distribution and could all be relative to the mean within 2 SD's of it and not in the 5% tails, 2.5 left or 2.5% right. So while there is some variation, I don't want to suggest that some of these samples are outliers and thus not within, statistically, the genetic variation one would expect to find if you plotted them and looked at the data in the context of a Bell Shaped curve (which is kind of how I visualize the data sometimes to wrap my head around it).

Thanks again Leopoldo, PT
 
Leopoldo: Thanks for the note. Here is what I don't quite understand. I have been able to go back to Sicily and get birth, marriage and death certificates dating back to the early 1800's both Paternal and Maternal lineages.It seems to me that Italian researchers when taking a DNA sample from someone in Sicily, Puglia, Campania, Tuscany, or wherever in modern Italy can ask the Donor to provide his or her birth record, which has the parents with their family names, and then get the parents wedding civil record, which has both their parents and document that the person donating sample has family history dating back to to the 1800's which would provide a higher confidence that the donor represents a population that has long-term ties to the area (and not do to some recent migrant moving into the region with no historic ties to the region).

As I know they don't ask for birth or baptismal certificates. At least not always. Many times ancestry is simply self reported. And it is not always the researchers/geneticists directly who collect the samples, and samples are collected following very different procedures from time to time.
 

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