The Genetic Prehistory of the Baltic Sea Region

Jovialis

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While the series of events that shaped the transition between foraging societies and food producers are well described for Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here, we report genome-wide DNA data from 38 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~9500 to 2200 years before present. Our analysis provides genetic evidence that hunter-gatherers settled Scandinavia via two routes. We reveal that the first Scandinavian farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated. The range of Mesolithic Western hunter-gatherers extended to the east of the Baltic Sea, where these populations persisted without gene-flow from Central European farmers during the Early and Middle Neolithic. The arrival of steppe pastoralists in the Late Neolithic introduced a major shift in economy and mediated the spread of a new ancestry associated with the Corded Ware Complex in Northern Europe.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-02825-9
 
[FONT=Lora, Palatino, Times, Times New Roman, serif]But we steel dont know haplogroup I1 ethnogenesis, so looking at auDNA of Scandinavian farmers can we hypothetized if I1 came with some HG or with some Farmers ? Are the Scandinavians Farmers in ancient admixture a mix between SHG and EEF with little EHG or is their a change in the HG admixture between Mesolithic and Neolithic times ? ( Like for exemple SHG decrease and WHG-EHG increase ? ).[/FONT]
 
Modern Eastern Baltic populations cluster with Baltic BA on the PCA plot and exhibit among all modern populations the highest shared genetic drift with ancient Baltic populations (Supplementary Fig. 2), but show substantial differences to samples from the Bronze Age. The statistic D(Lithuanian, Baltic BA; X, Mbuti) reveals significantly positive results for many modern Near Eastern and Southern European populations (Supplementary Fig. 6a). Limited gene-flow from more south-western neighbouring regions after the Bronze Age is sufficient to explain this pattern, as nearly all modern populations besides Estonians, especially for Central and Western Europe, have a higher amount of farmer ancestry than Lithuanians.

I thought this part from the results section was particularly interesting. Goes to show that the PCA as a tool alone, does not tell the whole story.
 
The problem is as always they compare ancient dna with modern, so we dont know if this is the result of farmers linking middle-east and baltic, or prehistoric links with baltic like scythians or iranians that give genetic input to middle-east. I know why they doing that, but i dont understand why they try to interprete the results.
 
I thought this part from the results section was particularly interesting. Goes to show that the PCA as a tool alone, does not tell the whole story.

there is something else
haplogroup N
they arrrived after Baltic BA
the authors don't say how this affected the autosomal of the Baltic people
I guess they (N) didn't come from the neighbouring southwest
 
In autosomals Baltic_MN CCC display a EHG-like colours and it was truly a hunther-gatherer culture; thereafter Baltic_LN displays a segmentation similar to other CWC regions (European hunther, EEF, Caucasus), but the supposed source of Yamnaya displays half European hunther, half Caucasian, so where it's supposed that Baltic CWC got such EEF? from Yamnaya no, so the steppe source is not the (unique) source of genes, and so maybe IE languages. Steppe LMBA also displays the EEF component, but coming from...? and such culture was by sure IE. Armenia ChL + Yamnaya could fit quite well as source, but we lack Russian samples yet.
 
In autosomals Baltic_MN CCC display a EHG-like colours and it was truly a hunther-gatherer culture; thereafter Baltic_LN displays a segmentation similar to other CWC regions (European hunther, EEF, Caucasus), but the supposed source of Yamnaya displays half European hunther, half Caucasian, so where it's supposed that Baltic CWC got such EEF? from Yamnaya no, so the steppe source is not the (unique) source of genes, and so maybe IE languages. Steppe LMBA also displays the EEF component, but coming from...? and such culture was by sure IE. Armenia ChL + Yamnaya could fit quite well as source, but we lack Russian samples yet.

the oldest CWC saples had Yamna but no EEF, the later samples have EEF besides Yamna
CWC is not PIE any more, it is probably proto Iranic-Indic, Celtic probably has nothing to do with CWC
 
CWC develops German and Balto-Slav, Sintashta Greek and Indo-Iranian... but the source of all it (proto-IE) might have EFF which lacks Yamnaya. Two migrations (with and without EEF are not the best explanation)
 
CWC develops German and Balto-Slav, Sintashta Greek and Indo-Iranian... but the source of all it (proto-IE) might have EFF which lacks Yamnaya. Two migrations (with and without EEF are not the best explanation)

it says could
The presence of direct contacts to the steppe could lend support to a linguistic model that sees an early branching of Balto-Slavic from a Proto-Indo-European language
there is no evidence of slav at that time in CWC........it could also be just germanic and baltic
 
CWC develops German and Balto-Slav, Sintashta Greek and Indo-Iranian... but the source of all it (proto-IE) might have EFF which lacks Yamnaya. Two migrations (with and without EEF are not the best explanation)
Do you assume German origin in CWC because of the geographic expansion of CWC ? It's pretty sur that the R1b from Scandinavia that develop the centum part of german languages is coming from a central european, unetice related people, i'm thinking more about the Battle of Tollense kind of people coming from Bohemia.
 
there should be more subclades in the Y-DNA
we know from Mathieson that CCC were a specific subclade, R1a1-YP1272
this paper learns nothing about Y-DNA
I hope Genetiker will come in
 
CWC develops German and Balto-Slav, Sintashta Greek and Indo-Iranian... but the source of all it (proto-IE) might have EFF which lacks Yamnaya. Two migrations (with and without EEF are not the best explanation)

EEF is a very long shot and to old
the same way you could almost argue for WHG
 
@halfalp, I simply follow certain IE branching, with my limited knowledge of Englush, German and Russian is which makes more sense to me, adding to it the archaeological and R1a combo.

@bicicleur, the EEF share is there and clear, some explanation must have.

finding "Caucasian" J1 in mesolithic Russia it's possible that there were migrations from the Caucasian refugium, so that the EHG + CHG combo requested for IE could have popped up in Russia also...
 
None of our male Bronze Age individuals carry Y-haplogroup N, which is found in modern Europeans in highest frequencies in Finland and the Baltic states34. Instead, we observe a high frequency of R1a Y-haplogroups.

We suggest that the Siberian and East Asian related ancestry in Estonia, and Y-haplogroup N in north-eastern Europe, where it is widespread today, arrived there after the Bronze Age, ca. 500 calBCE, as we detect neither in our Bronze Age samples from Lithuania and Latvia. As Uralic speaking populations of the Volga-Ural region34 show high frequencies of haplogroup N34, a connection was proposed with the spread of Uralic language speakers from the east that contributed to the male gene pool of Eastern Baltic populations and left linguistic descendants in the Finno-Ugric languages Finnish and Estonian44, 45. A potential future direction of research is the identification of the proximate population that contributed to the arrival of this eastern ancestry into Northern Europe.

None of male Bronze Age individuals from this study carry haplogroup N and the authors concluded that haplogroup N in north-eastern Europe arrived there after 500 calBCE. It's interesting to observe that Uralic-speaking populations with haplogroup N arrived from Siberia later than the hunter-gatherer population with R1a and they were non-existent during the Bronze Age in Northern Europe.
 
It seems so, it could be that Uralic N were reindeer herders which occupied areas unsuitable for agriculture and other herding animals in a more cold period? the native population in such areas would be reduced and language replacement would be more easy.
 
I've always taught haplo N arrived in Finland around 600 BC.
It was a climate shift which marks the end of the Nordic BA abd the end of agriculture that far north.
The Nordic BA people left their farms and moved south, eventualy becoming the Germanic tribes.
Haplo N HG and reindeer herders filled the void.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordic_Bronze_Age#Climate


The Nordic Bronze Age was initially characterized by a warm climate that began with a climate change around 2700 BC. The climate was comparable to that of present-day central Germany and northern France and permitted a relatively dense population and good opportunities for farming; for example, grapes were grown in Scandinavia at this time. A minor change in climate occurred between 850 BC and 760 BC, introducing a wetter, colder climate and a more radical climate change began around 650 BC.[3]
 

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