Ancient genomes reveal social and genetic structure of Late Neolithic Switzerland

Anfänger

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Ethnic group
Iranian
Y-DNA haplogroup
R1b-Z2103
mtDNA haplogroup
U7a4
Ancient genomes reveal social and genetic structure of Late Neolithic Switzerland

Abstract

Genetic studies of Neolithic and Bronze Age skeletons from Europe have provided evidence for strong population genetic changes at the beginning and the end of the Neolithic period. To further understand the implications of these in Southern Central Europe, we analyze 96 ancient genomes from Switzerland, Southern Germany, and the Alsace region in France, covering the Middle/Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age. Similar to previously described genetic changes in other parts of Europe from the early 3rd millennium BCE, we detect an arrival of ancestry related to Late Neolithic pastoralists from the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Switzerland as early as 2860–2460 calBCE. Our analyses suggest that this genetic turnover was a complex process lasting almost 1000 years and involved highly genetically structured populations in this region.




41467_2020_15560_Fig1_HTML.png





https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-15560-x


 
Y-Haplogroup transition from Neolithic to Bronze Age (Supplementary Note 4):


Bildschirmfoto 2020-04-20 um 13.58.30.jpg


A lot of R1b in the Bronze Age. Very likely that Bell Beaker R1b is from the Western Corded Ware Horizon. Interestingly there is also I2 in the Bronze Age.

The Western Corded Ware Culture might be speakers of Centum-Indoeuropean that later become Germanic, Italic and Celtic.


First sample with R1b is Aesch25(2864-2501BCE).


Bildschirmfoto 2020-04-20 um 14.18.09.jpg
 
full mtdna list that been found in the 96 remains in this study( Alsace south germany Switzerland ) :(y)
MT HG
H1+152
K1a+195
K1a3a
H1
X2b+226
U5a1c1
U5a1c1
K1a2
H10+(16093)
H3
H1
H1
K2b1a
U8b1b
J2b1a2
J2b1a
K2b1a
X2b+226
H1
H3
J1c3
H5
U5b2b2
J1c3
U5b2b5
H4a1a
K1a
K1a+195
J1c3
K1a+195
U2e2a1d
T2b
U2e2a1d
H3+16189
H11a+152
K1a+195
U2e2a1d
H11a+152
J1c3
H11a+152
J1c4
J2b1a
H4a1
K1a2b
K1a+195
K1a2b
K1a+195
H1
K1b1a
K
T2b3d
H83
H+16129
H+16129
U4a1a
U5b1+16189
K1a3a
H1c
W3a1
W3a1
H5a1
H76a
U5a1
H+16129
N1b1b
K1a1a
X2b4
na
na
na
H3ap
K1a4a1a
K1a+195
H1
J2b1a2
J2b1a2
H7d
H1+16311
K1a4a1
K1a4a1
H1+16311
H5a
K1a1
H3
K1a4a1
X2b4
U3a1
H5
U3a1
J1c1b
U4a2f
B4c1b2c2
K1a4a1
K2b1
T2b
U8b1b1
N1n1n
H1





p.s
nice paper
thanks for sharing (y)
one individual have my mtdna clade h3ap
nice stuff :shocked:

supplement table 1:
late neolithic individual from Switzerland
126110 oberbipp horgen RA42 - MTDNA H3AP 3340-3097 bc

i believe my clade probably spread from iberia to central europe
it was found in bronze age iberia before
 
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Your welcome kingjohn, thanks for sharing the MtDNA-Haplogroups.

The Indoeuropeanisation of this part of Centraleurope we are talking about took a long period of time and not sudden population replacement like previuos papers suggested. Interessting statement by the authors:


"Our analyses suggest that this genetic turnover was a complex process lasting almost 1000 years and involved highly genetically structured populations in this region."


See also the chapter "Timing and duration of the genetic turnover"


i believe my clade probably spread from iberia to central europe
it was found in bronze age iberia before

Maybe because it was part of the Bell Beaker culture so there was contact and mixing between Iberia and Centraleurope ? Oh i see that the date for the sample is too old to have spread with BBC.
 
full mtdna list that been found in the 96 remains in this study( Alsace south germany Switzerland ) :(y)
MT HG
H1+152
K1a+195
K1a3a
H1
X2b+226
U5a1c1
U5a1c1
K1a2
H10+(16093)
H3
H1
H1
K2b1a
U8b1b
J2b1a2
J2b1a
K2b1a
X2b+226
H1
H3
J1c3
H5
U5b2b2
J1c3
U5b2b5
H4a1a
K1a
K1a+195
J1c3
K1a+195
U2e2a1d
T2b
U2e2a1d
H3+16189
H11a+152
K1a+195
U2e2a1d
H11a+152
J1c3
H11a+152
J1c4
J2b1a
H4a1
K1a2b
K1a+195
K1a2b
K1a+195
H1
K1b1a
K
T2b3d
H83
H+16129
H+16129
U4a1a
U5b1+16189
K1a3a
H1c
W3a1
W3a1
H5a1
H76a
U5a1
H+16129
N1b1b
K1a1a
X2b4
na
na
na
H3ap
K1a4a1a
K1a+195
H1
J2b1a2
J2b1a2
H7d
H1+16311
K1a4a1
K1a4a1
H1+16311
H5a
K1a1
H3
K1a4a1
X2b4
U3a1
H5
U3a1
J1c1b
U4a2f
B4c1b2c2
K1a4a1
K2b1
T2b
U8b1b1
N1n1n
H1





p.s
nice paper
thanks for sharing (y)
one individual have my mtdna clade h3ap
nice stuff :shocked:

supplement table 1:
late neolithic individual from Switzerland
126110 oberbipp horgen RA42 - MTDNA H3AP 3340-3097 bc

i believe my clade probably spread from iberia to central europe
it was found in bronze age iberia before

Well, my U2e2 is one final letter different, but it confirms what I knew: it reached Italy with Indo-European admixed people. So, that's a double whammy as my father is R1b U-152.

Still don't identify with them at all.
 
Your welcome kingjohn, thanks for sharing the MtDNA-Haplogroups.

The Indoeuropeanisation of this part of Centraleurope we are talking about took a long period of time and not sudden population replacement like previuos papers suggested. Interessting statement by the authors:



See also the chapter "Timing and duration of the genetic turnover"




Maybe because it was part of the Bell Beaker culture so there was contact and mixing between Iberia and Centraleurope ? Oh i see that the date for the sample is too old to have spread with BBC.

It other words it was a caste system, with the males of the "natives" being disadvantaged.

Given all the papers from Krause I also think there was a difference in terms of immunity to plague, and given what we see from Covid 19, that might very well have affected men more than women. Plus, anyone that thinks this happened without violence doesn't know anything about human nature.
 
It other words it was a caste system, with the males of the "natives" being disadvantaged.
Given all the papers from Krause I also think there was a difference in terms of immunity to plague, and given what we see from Covid 19, that might very well have affected men more than women. Plus, anyone that thinks this happened without violence doesn't know anything about human nature.
the 'caste system' you're refering to was probably a world-wide phenomenon
everywhere since the paleolithic we see Y-DNA kinship and much more mtDNA diversity
the caste system as it exists in India is indogenious to India, it is supposed to have originated in the upper Ganges area ca 3 ka where Indic herders settled in areas populated with local farmers
 
It other words it was a caste system, with the males of the "natives" being disadvantaged.

Given all the papers from Krause I also think there was a difference in terms of immunity to plague, and given what we see from Covid 19, that might very well have affected men more than women. Plus, anyone that thinks this happened without violence doesn't know anything about human nature.

I Agree. There was definitely some form of caste involved. I think Indian style caste-system is maybe a little different because it still exists today and is unique to India and the autosomal impact is rather small. To me this looks like "Colonization" similar to what the Spanish did in the Americas and it is clear that the Spanish were not very peaceful to the natives.

Here is an interesting paper about this time:
https://www.cambridge.org/core/jour...Tw5_LYUnw8YvQzm-w3kL6GIc0NWALi4LC2iLgFPdrN6A#

Again, like the last paper about the early polish CWC. Light eye colour goes down when the steppe people arrive. Light eye colour and hair colour really look like traits of the neolithic farmers of Europe.
 
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The patrilocal fact was well established before Steppes folk arrived, I think it was already present in genuine Neolithic. And some clannic system too, or at least this clannic system began with Megalithers?
 
Yes there is a lot of J1c, but I figure my J1c2, not found there, was more with the Funnelbeaker farmers, given its North Sea and British Isles focus. And they've finally found a sample of my male-line haplogroup in the BC years. A distance up the Rhine from where my great-great-great-grandfather was born in Feilbingert in the northern Rhenish Palatinate, but much closer than the Belarusian refuge some had theorized for it.
 
Well
Another clade under h3 was found in bell beaker
From east germany h3ao .....
h3 realy doesn't look indo european it was found in middle neolithic east germany salzmunde,
in middle neolithic poland clade h3d, and in middle neolithic france just h3...
As far as i know up untill now wasn't found in corded ware remains .... ( but i maybe wrong )
it would have been nice if the lab would write the mutation they found for each individual...
Because now i need to confirm it with the lab...
Like i did with the spanish paper ...
and they not always answere ...🤔
 
The patrilocal fact was well established before Steppes folk arrived, I think it was already present in genuine Neolithic. And some clannic system too, or at least this clannic system began with Megalithers?

among megalithic for sure, but probably before
watch the neolithic Y-DNA in the paper, all G2a2-PF3239, probably even all L166, the same as the 5 ka ötzi
this subclade probably occupied a large area, form Northern Italy till Southern Germany before steppe ancestry arrived

https://www.yfull.com/tree/G-PF3239/
 
I Agree. There was definitely some form of caste involved. I think Indian style caste-system is maybe a little different because it still exists today and is unique to India and the autosomal impact is rather small. To me this looks like "Colonization" similar to what the Spanish did in the Americas and it is clear that the Spanish were not very peaceful to the natives.

Here is an interesting paper about this time:
https://www.cambridge.org/core/jour...Tw5_LYUnw8YvQzm-w3kL6GIc0NWALi4LC2iLgFPdrN6A#

Again, like the last paper about the early polish CWC. Light eye colour goes down when the steppe people arrive. Light eye colour and hair colour really look like traits of the neolithic farmers of Europe.

Yes, we're in agreement about that. The only mass migration I can think of off hand where a "local" male haplogroup was adopted and flourished was with the Anatolian farmers, although G2a2 certainly took over in the Near East. Perhaps there just weren't enough of them in the beginning and they needed strong backs to do the farming. Also, although there is always, in my opinion, a certain level of "class" distinction in human societies, it was nothing to what happened later with the accumulation of agricultural surplus, and then the invention of metals.

I think we shouldn't underestimate the other factors, however, like prior population levels, and the effect of disease in decimating the native population, as we saw in the New World. Even those who survived would have been weakened and traumatized.

Think of more recent invasions. The Romans conquered most of their known world, killing and enslaving a lot of people in the process, so they were by no means saints, but they had no interest in exterminating all the males or creating a permanent caste system. Once the "natives" accepted they were now part of the empire, they were gradually enfranchised, and their local elites, the local social structure remained intact. They just wanted the trade and the taxes. Of course, population levels were high, and in the beginning there was no plague, although plagues hit later, but they affected all equally.

So, the lack of inclusiveness would have differed depending on the particular group involved and their situation. The Langobards were worse than the Goths, and imposed a caste system which lasted for almost a thousand years, but they didn't have the plague to help them and preceding population levels were higher, plus they were much fewer in number and the fields had to be tilled, so the y Dna change was much less. The Scythians were much more inclusive * than the Sarmatians etc. for reasons we may never know. The Huns were perhaps the worst of all? Of course they killed a huge percentage of the women as well, totally depopulating certain areas.

A depressing picture indeed.

As for the light eye and hair color, I remember when the first report was issued of the Corded Ware warrior in Poland, indicating he was "much darker" than modern Poles, and the howls of protest.

I'm not quite sure I'd say the light hair and eyes combination were the predominant trait of the Neolithic farmers of Europe. It certainly isn't true of the first arrivals from Anatolia, although there were some light eyed people among them, perhaps from their minority substrate of Balkan type HG? There were some light haired and eyed people among the SHG as well, and the EHG had a lot of SLC45A2 which further lightened the skin, although they were still brown eyed and haired, or at least a good number of them were** . Somehow, and for some reason the combination did come together in Europe. Perhaps it was in Globular Amphora, or perhaps in more northern regions among people incorporated by steppe people. It's still murky to me how and why it rose to prominence, but I think the idea that the steppe people brought it to Europe can be laid to rest. Instead, they picked it up in Europe and then brought it back out east with them. So, those "lighter" Andronovo people used as "proof" of the fairness of the steppe people was incorrect.

Dear, dear, first milk drinking and then blonde hair and blue eyes aren't signs of the "superior" Aryans. If Hitler had been freeze dried and resurrected he'd shoot himself in despair. Goebels and that monster wife of his as well. She even killed her own children, so she'd have no problem with it. I just read somewhere that Hitler, Goebbels and Himmler had thought about perhaps exterminating all dark haired people. I guess it had been a while since he had looked in a mirror and actually "seen" himself. What is it about us as human beings that we let such mad men rule us?

Ed.
*corrected to say inclusive, although I'm sure our members knew that.

**further clarification
 
Last edited:
Yes, we're in agreement about that. The only mass migration I can think of off hand where a "local" male haplogroup was adopted and flourished was with the Anatolian farmers, although G2a2 certainly took over in the Near East. Perhaps there just weren't enough of them in the beginning and they needed strong backs to do the farming. Also, although there is always, in my opinion, a certain level of "class" distinction in human societies, it was nothing to what happened later with the accumulation of agricultural surplus, and then the invention of metals.

I think we shouldn't underestimate the other factors, however, like prior population levels, and the effect of disease in decimating the native population, as we saw in the New World. Even those who survived would have been weakened and traumatized.

Think of more recent invasions. The Romans conquered most of their known world, killing and enslaving a lot of people in the process, so they were by no means saints, but they had no interest in exterminating all the males or creating a permanent caste system. Once the "natives" accepted they were now part of the empire, they were gradually enfranchised, and their local elites, the local social structure remained intact. They just wanted the trade and the taxes. Of course, population levels were high, and in the beginning there was no plague, although plagues hit later, but they affected all equally.

So, the lack of inclusiveness would have differed depending on the particular group involved and their situation. The Langobards were worse than the Goths, and imposed a caste system which lasted for almost a thousand years, but they didn't have the plague to help them and preceding population levels were higher, plus they were much fewer in number and the fields had to be tilled, so the y Dna change was much less. The Scythians were much more exclusive than the Sarmatians etc. for reasons we may never know. The Huns were perhaps the worst of all? Of course they killed a huge percentage of the women as well, totally depopulating certain areas.

A depressing picture indeed.

As for the light eye and hair color, I remember when the first report was issued of the Corded Ware warrior in Poland, indicating he was "much darker" than modern Poles, and the howls of protest.

I'm not quite sure I'd say the light hair and eyes combination were the predominant trait of the Neolithic farmers of Europe. It certainly isn't true of the first arrivals from Anatolia, although there were some light eyed people among them, perhaps from their minority substrate of Balkan type HG? There were some light haired and eyed people among the SHG as well. Somehow, and for some reason the combination did come together in Europe. Perhaps it was in Globular Amphora, or perhaps in more northern regions among people incorporated by steppe people. It's still murky to me how and why it rose to prominence, but I think the idea that the steppe people brought it to Europe can be laid to rest. Instead, they picked it up in Europe and then brought it back out east with them. So, those "lighter" Andronovo people used as "proof" of the fairness of the steppe people was incorrect.

Dear, dear, first milk drinking and then blonde hair and blue eyes aren't signs of the "superior" Aryans. If Hitler had been freeze dried and resurrected he'd shoot himself in despair. Goebels and that monster wife of his as well. She even killed her own children, so she'd have no problem with it. I just read somewhere that Hitler, Goebbels and Himmler had thought about perhaps exterminating all dark haired people. I guess it had been a while since he had looked in a mirror and actually "seen" himself. What is it about us as human beings that we let such mad men rule us?

I liked too much what you’ve written Angela . Year by year we are discovering more infos about the phenotype of these ‘Aryan invaders’ and Hitler and his company remain a shame for Europe ... a band of sick people that destroyed our continent and that believed in an unscientific ‘Aryan image’ (blond , light-eyed people) ....
 
Yes, we're in agreement about that. The only mass migration I can think of off hand where a "local" male haplogroup was adopted and flourished was with the Anatolian farmers, although G2a2 certainly took over in the Near East. Perhaps there just weren't enough of them in the beginning and they needed strong backs to do the farming. Also, although there is always, in my opinion, a certain level of "class" distinction in human societies, it was nothing to what happened later with the accumulation of agricultural surplus, and then the invention of metals.

I think we shouldn't underestimate the other factors, however, like prior population levels, and the effect of disease in decimating the native population, as we saw in the New World. Even those who survived would have been weakened and traumatized.

Think of more recent invasions. The Romans conquered most of their known world, killing and enslaving a lot of people in the process, so they were by no means saints, but they had no interest in exterminating all the males or creating a permanent caste system. Once the "natives" accepted they were now part of the empire, they were gradually enfranchised, and their local elites, the local social structure remained intact. They just wanted the trade and the taxes. Of course, population levels were high, and in the beginning there was no plague, although plagues hit later, but they affected all equally.

So, the lack of inclusiveness would have differed depending on the particular group involved and their situation. The Langobards were worse than the Goths, and imposed a caste system which lasted for almost a thousand years, but they didn't have the plague to help them and preceding population levels were higher, plus they were much fewer in number and the fields had to be tilled, so the y Dna change was much less. The Scythians were much more exclusive than the Sarmatians etc. for reasons we may never know. The Huns were perhaps the worst of all? Of course they killed a huge percentage of the women as well, totally depopulating certain areas.

A depressing picture indeed.

As for the light eye and hair color, I remember when the first report was issued of the Corded Ware warrior in Poland, indicating he was "much darker" than modern Poles, and the howls of protest.

I'm not quite sure I'd say the light hair and eyes combination were the predominant trait of the Neolithic farmers of Europe. It certainly isn't true of the first arrivals from Anatolia, although there were some light eyed people among them, perhaps from their minority substrate of Balkan type HG? There were some light haired and eyed people among the SHG as well. Somehow, and for some reason the combination did come together in Europe. Perhaps it was in Globular Amphora, or perhaps in more northern regions among people incorporated by steppe people. It's still murky to me how and why it rose to prominence, but I think the idea that the steppe people brought it to Europe can be laid to rest. Instead, they picked it up in Europe and then brought it back out east with them. So, those "lighter" Andronovo people used as "proof" of the fairness of the steppe people was incorrect.

Dear, dear, first milk drinking and then blonde hair and blue eyes aren't signs of the "superior" Aryans. If Hitler had been freeze dried and resurrected he'd shoot himself in despair. Goebels and that monster wife of his as well. She even killed her own children, so she'd have no problem with it. I just read somewhere that Hitler, Goebbels and Himmler had thought about perhaps exterminating all dark haired people. I guess it had been a while since he had looked in a mirror and actually "seen" himself. What is it about us as human beings that we let such mad men rule us?

many of these monsters who were high in nazi leadership were dark haired
the only monster who looked like the "aryan" model they want
was haydrich ......
great question angela ....
 
Again like the last paper about the early polish CWC. Light eye colour goes down when the steppe people arrive. Light eye colour and hair colour really look like traits of the neolithic farmers of Europe.
Analysis of functional SNPs. We analyzed the frequencies of
several phenotypic SNPs (Table 1, “Methods”). Derived alleles for
SLC24A5 associated with light skin pigmentation in Europeans
were found in all individuals with this position covered. The
frequency of SLC45A2 also causing lighter skin pigmentation
tends to increase and the frequency of HERC2 associated with
light eye-color tends to decrease towards the Final Neolithic.
but not light skin?
these phenotype markers are so confusing
not all studies point in the same direction
as I recall from former studies :
WHG = blue eyes
EHG = blond hair
EEF = light skin
 
Wow
The tubingen lab
Was fast in answer 👍
One of the researches confirm
To me that RA42 individual indeed carry mutation 10915c
and he is indeed h3ap 😉
I think all the mtdna types i posted above of the 96 remains are real deal 👍
 
many of these monsters who were high in nazi leadership were dark haired
the only monster who looked like the "aryan" model they want
was haydrich ......
great question angela ....

And it was persistently rumored, even in his youth, that he was part Jewish. Who knows how much that accounted for the fact that he was the worst of them; part of his desire to be the most brutal being, perhaps, to prove it wasn't true.

You couldn't make stuff up as stupid as this.

Sorry, no more off topic.
 
Analysis of functional SNPs. We analyzed the frequencies of
several phenotypic SNPs (Table 1, “Methods”). Derived alleles for
SLC24A5 associated with light skin pigmentation in Europeans
were found in all individuals with this position covered. The
frequency of SLC45A2 also causing lighter skin pigmentation
tends to increase and the frequency of HERC2 associated with
light eye-color tends to decrease towards the Final Neolithic.
but not light skin?
these phenotype markers are so confusing
not all studies point in the same direction
as I recall from former studies :
WHG = blue eyes
EHG = blond hair
EEF = light skin

Yes, it is hard to get a clear picture about phenotype because it´s complex. I think skin colour really isn't a big deal it´s adaption to environment and result of farming diet. Coming to 2 traits that are complicated that are light eye colour and hair colour. So we find the mutation for blue eyes in all WHG, one CHG(Satsurblia) and IIRC even in two samples from Neolithic Anatolia(they were even blond?) and later GAC,TRB and CWC have both, blue eyes and light hair in sizable frequency. For reasons I don't know it goes up in Northeastern Europe in farmer and later steppe people. Last week I read a lot of papers about the CWC from Baltic, Poland and Central Europe and I´ve come to conclusion that it is very likely that they got it from GAC. Right from the beginning CWC men mated overwhelmingly with local women and that might be the reason why CWC is lighter pigmented than Yamnaya. These men had the opportunity to choose the women they wanted keep that in mind. Another reason that is usually overlooked is that there are modern populations without steppe ancestry that have some blond and blue eyed individuals, these are Kartvelian speakers from the Caucasus. Laz people,Georgians, Armenian Hemsheni etc. In Turkey there is the stereotype that people from Trabzon are usually the lightest Turks, blond and blue eyed. About the EHG and KITLG gene IIRC KITLG is not even needed for people to have blonde hair because its frequency in Northeuropeans is 20% but there are more blondes in populations from Northern Europe and maybe even GAC and TRB have picked it up from Balkan HG or other HG like Angela wrote. I am not saying that I know it 100% but for me the picture is getting clearer paper after paper. Maybe in future papers we will find groups of Yamnaya that were blonde and blue eyed but we have a lot of samples and this culture is heavily sampled.
 

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