K12b Dodecad K12b - Maltese results

Oracle should be interpretated with combined population, not just with only one population. Maltese people have not just only surnames from Agrigento but from all over the island, and it was part of the Contea di Modica for lot of time. And part of Maltese surnames are not present in Sicily but localized, like Fenech, Said or Mercieca.
 
On MDLP K23, most Maltese I have seen score "Sicily_Agrigento" or "Sicily_West" in their top 5, which makes sense as the vast majority of their ancestry, and their surnames come from there. The most common surnames in Malta (Farruggia, Camilleri, Vella, Spiteri, Attard) are typically found in Agrigento and Caltanissetta or have variants there, and sometimes even Palermo, so it is these regions that Maltese people will be closest to.

On GEDmatch's "One to Many," nearly every person from Agrigento or Caltanissetta I have put in there has close relatives (this high IBD sharing) in Malta. Even the people from inland Caltanissetta, so Maltese might have ancestry from deep inland and not just the coasts. I know a Maltese guy who has one of the surnames mentioned above and he can trace back to Agrigento in the 1700s. Remember also that Sicilians came to Malta with these surnames, so if you can figure out when the surnames originated, it had to be after that, that they traveled to Malta.

Very few Maltese have tested themselves on Oracle, Ponto is one and he has posted his GEDmatch id (here http://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...Greek-Peleponessus/page17?p=505781#post505781). This is his personal MDLP K23 (I can remove the post if he don't want to see his personal results):

He does not get Agrigento or Sicily West but Sicily East as first Sicilian population.

#PopulationPercent
1Caucasian37.72
2European_Early_Farmers20.54
3Near_East12.14
4European_Hunters_Gatherers9.12
5North_African8.92
6South_Central_Asian7.72
7Subsaharian1.23
8Austronesian0.82
9Australoid0.63
10Archaic_Human0.37
11East_Siberian0.34
12Archaic_African0.23
13East_African0.19
14Paleo_Siberian0.05

Single Population Sharing:

#Population (source)Distance
1Sephardic_Jew ( )4.28
2Turk_Jew ( )4.58
3French_Jew ( )4.59
4Italian_Jew ( )4.9
5Ashkenazi_Jew ( )5.17
6Sicilian_East ( )5.2
7Ashkenazi ( )6.71
8Sicilian_Agrigento ( )6.76
9Sicilian_Siracusa ( )6.9
10Cretan ( )7.11
11Moroccan_Jew ( )7.54
12Sicilian_West ( )7.61
13Romanian_Jew ( )7.79
14Syrian_Jew ( )7.9
15Maltese ( )7.91
16Greek_Peloponnesos ( )8.35
17Sicilian_Trapani ( )8.64
18Greek_Thessaloniki ( )8.98
19Tunisian_Jew ( )9.08
20Greek_Thessaly ( )9.59

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source)Secondary Population (source)Distance
1 87.6%Greek_Smyrna ( )+12.4%Saharawi ( )@1.52
2 83.7%Greek_Smyrna ( )+16.3%Algerian ( )@1.59
3 82.7%Greek_Smyrna ( )+17.3%Shaigi_Sudan ( )@1.6
4 86.9%Greek_Smyrna ( )+13.1%Berber_WGA ( )@1.64
5 85.9%Greek_Smyrna ( )+14.1%Morocco_South ( )@1.72
6 82.3%Greek_Smyrna ( )+17.7%Tunisian ( )@1.8
7 90.7%Cretan ( )+9.3%Morocco_South ( )@1.9
8 89.2%Cretan ( )+10.8%Algerian ( )@1.93
9 88.5%Cretan ( )+11.5%Shaigi_Sudan ( )@1.98
10 84.1%Greek_Smyrna ( )+15.9%Moroccan ( )@2.14
11 74.4%Maltese ( )+25.6%Iraqi_Jew ( )@2.15
12 91.5%Cretan ( )+8.5%Berber_WGA ( )@2.18
13 76.8%Maltese ( )+23.2%Jew_Tat ( )@2.18
14 75.5%Maltese ( )+24.5%Iranian_Jew ( )@2.19
15 72.8%Maltese ( )+27.2%Georgian_Jew ( )@2.26
16 92.1%Cretan ( )+7.9%Saharawi ( )@2.28
17 71.6%Maltese ( )+28.4%Assyrian_Iraqi ( )@2.32
18 54.3%Sicilian_Agrigento ( )+45.7%Syrian_Jew ( )@2.36
19 80.2%French_Jew ( )+19.8%Turk_Adana ( )@2.36
20 67.9%Moroccan_Jew ( )+32.1%Azov_Greek ( )@2.38

 
The Maltese Islands were part of Sicily for 440 years. So all the policies and events were those of Sicily as a whole. Until recently The Maltese Islands were more or less considered as a military strategic out post, mainly because of its excellent harbors. Because of the instability of the time It was in the interest of Federico II to strengthen Malta's defenses by sending Norman and Sicilian defenses and make sure the policies took place.

Prof. Wettinger who is a well respected local Medieval historian goes on to say that "there is no doubt that by the beginning of Angevin times [i.e. shortly after 1249] no professed Muslim Maltese remained either as free persons or even as serfs on the island."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Malta
Carlo II d'Angi? removed the last muslim presence of Lucera. By the way, do you know if there were in Malta other mainland Italian migrations other than Celanesi?
 
Oracle should be interpretated with combined population, not just with only one population. Maltese people have not just only surnames from Agrigento but from all over the island, and it was part of the Contea di Modica for lot of time. And part of Maltese surnames are not present in Sicily but localized, like Fenech, Said or Mercieca.

This is also very interesting. We know example the origins of Said and Sultana are of different origins probably more linked to Turkish exiles. We have surnames that start with Bu, like Busutil, Buhagiar, Butiegig, Bugeja Mamo Bugibba (now extint) apart from Mintoff, Xuereb,Sciberras and so on who probably trace back to Muslim Malta. Prior to dna one was assuming that these surnames would be the older Maltese population derived from genetically North African or Middleastern stock. However in most instances DNA is proving a trend otherwise with the few being tested so far (of these surnames) being G and J2 with a southern European link. This indicates the fact that indigenous inhabitants have actually converted to Islam and not a result of direct migration from North Africa and Middle east, with the surnames being created during Aglabaid and fatmid rule.
 
Carlo II d'Angi� removed the last muslim presence of Lucera. By the way, do you know if there were in Malta other mainland Italian migrations other than Celanesi?

I dont know of any other migrations during the Latinisation and Christinazation programmes of the 13th Century, but with the arrival of the Knights and again the growing economy round the harbor there is a good number of church records of marriages between locals and Sicilians and southern Italians (I think a number from Naples) and some French and Spanish too. I would consider this period as the later migration period after the 13th century events. This would give the later wave of surnames that are still present today.
 
This is also very interesting. We know example the origins of Said and Sultana are of different origins probably more linked to Turkish exiles. We have surnames that start with Bu, like Busutil, Buhagiar, Butiegig, Bugeja Mamo Bugibba (now extint) apart from Mintoff, Xuereb,Sciberras and so on who probably trace back to Muslim Malta. Prior to dna one was assuming that these surnames would be the older Maltese population derived from genetically North African or Middleastern stock. However in most instances DNA is proving a trend otherwise with the few being tested so far (of these surnames) being G and J2 with a southern European link. This indicates the fact that indigenous inhabitants have actually converted to Islam and not a result of direct migration from North Africa and Middle east, with the surnames being created during Aglabaid and fatmid rule.
Yes, most of muslims were indeed indigenous converted not transplanted north africans. The same Lucera has very few E-M81.
 
Oracle should be interpretated with combined population, not just with only one population. Maltese people have not just only surnames from Agrigento but from all over the island, and it was part of the Contea di Modica for lot of time. And part of Maltese surnames are not present in Sicily but localized, like Fenech, Said or Mercieca.
This is why I asked for Oreo Cookie/Sikelliot's sources for the following comment:

"The most common surnames in Malta (Farruggia, Camilleri, Vella, Spiteri, Attard) are typically found in Agrigento and Caltanissetta or have variants there, and sometimes even Palermo, so it is these regions that Maltese people will be closest to."

It is inaccurate and misleading. The following surnames are present all over the island: Camilleri, Farruggia, and Vella.

http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...alia?cognome=Camilleri&x=28&y=16#.WRWuvYwrKyJ
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...alia?cognome=Camilleri&x=28&y=16#.WRWuvYwrKyJ
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...-italia?cognome=Spiteri&x=34&y=4#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Spiteri is also present in various areas, although mostly in Licata.
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...-italia?cognome=Spiteri&x=34&y=4#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

The only one that is specific to Agrigento is Attard, which is exceedingly rare. Who knows where it or any of these names were present 800 years ago?
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...i-italia?cognome=Attard&x=44&y=5#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Modern distributions are not the best way to go if you have records available which tell you the origin.
 
This is why I asked for Oreo Cookie/Sikelliot's sources for the following comment:

"The most common surnames in Malta (Farruggia, Camilleri, Vella, Spiteri, Attard) are typically found in Agrigento and Caltanissetta or have variants there, and sometimes even Palermo, so it is these regions that Maltese people will be closest to."

It is inaccurate and misleading. The following surnames are present all over the island: Camilleri, Farruggia, and Vella.

http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...alia?cognome=Camilleri&x=28&y=16#.WRWuvYwrKyJ
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...alia?cognome=Camilleri&x=28&y=16#.WRWuvYwrKyJ
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...-italia?cognome=Spiteri&x=34&y=4#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Spiteri is also present in various areas, although mostly in Licata.
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...-italia?cognome=Spiteri&x=34&y=4#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

The only one that is specific to Agrigento is Attard, which is exceedingly rare. Who knows where it or any of these names were present 800 years ago?
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...i-italia?cognome=Attard&x=44&y=5#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Modern distributions are not the best way to go if you have records available which tell you the origin.
Attard derives from Attardo. But this guy doesn't understand that Sicilians moved and intermarried with people from all over the island during the centuries...so surnames are present everywhere now.

http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...=cognomi&cognome=attardo&x=0&y=0#.WRXSXlTyjIU
 
It is inaccurate and misleading. The following surnames are present all over the island: Camilleri, Farruggia, and Vella.

The only one that is specific to Agrigento is Attard, which is exceedingly rare. Who knows where it or any of these names were present 800 years ago?
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...i-italia?cognome=Attard&x=44&y=5#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Modern distributions are not the best way to go if you have records available which tell you the origin.

Example for the surname Attard there is this description.

“In questa famiglia ritroviamo essere stato in feudo il territorio chaimato la Saccaya, di cui ne fu’ investito Francesco Attardo dal Re’ Federico, come si legge in un registro della Regia Cancellaria degl’ anni 1360, fino al 1366, a. fogl. 432, il qual feudo gli fu’ conceduto per se, e suoi legittimi eredi da lui discendenti, sotto servigio militare d’un Balestriere. Nell’ Alicata Citta della Sicilia risiede un ramo principale cola’ trasferito da Malta con la perosna di Gio Maria Attardo, I successori del quale ivi hoggi con molta honorevolezza nobilmente vivono. In Malta fiorisce al presente nella medesima famiglia il P. Maestro Pietro Attardo Domenicano Consultore del S. Officio molti stimato & accreditato nel suo Ordine si’ per I carichi, e religiosa osservanza, come per la dottrina speculative, lungamente dimostrata nelle publiche Cattedre. ” (From Abela’s “Della Descrittione di Malta del Commendatore Abela” (1647))

https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_O16hNFXY25MC

here it is described as such by prof Wettinger... and Actardo was a Germanic personal name which has become one of the main surnames of the two islands right down to the present day and had certainly already been closely associated with casali Actard



https://vassallohistory.wordpress.com/vassallo/the-origin-of-the-maltese-surnames/

Attard(o) is the 8th most popular name on the Islands. Camilleri, Farrugia and Vella are the 2nd and 3rd and 4th most popular names. Spiteri is the 9th.
 
This is why I asked for Oreo Cookie/Sikelliot's sources for the following comment:

"The most common surnames in Malta (Farruggia, Camilleri, Vella, Spiteri, Attard) are typically found in Agrigento and Caltanissetta or have variants there, and sometimes even Palermo, so it is these regions that Maltese people will be closest to."

It is inaccurate and misleading. The following surnames are present all over the island: Camilleri, Farruggia, and Vella.

http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...alia?cognome=Camilleri&x=28&y=16#.WRWuvYwrKyJ
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...alia?cognome=Camilleri&x=28&y=16#.WRWuvYwrKyJ
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...-italia?cognome=Spiteri&x=34&y=4#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Spiteri is also present in various areas, although mostly in Licata.
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...-italia?cognome=Spiteri&x=34&y=4#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

The only one that is specific to Agrigento is Attard, which is exceedingly rare. Who knows where it or any of these names were present 800 years ago?
http://www.gens.info/italia/it/turi...i-italia?cognome=Attard&x=44&y=5#.WRWuvYwrKyJ

Modern distributions are not the best way to go if you have records available which tell you the origin.


http://italia.indettaglio.it/eng/cognomi/cognomi_sicilia.html

They all predominate in those provinces. This gives numbers.

Attardo is highest in Palma de Montechiaro.
Vella in Gela but also in many towns in Agrigento, Palermo, Caltanissetta.
Farruggia in Agrigento, Gela, Aragona in that order, then other western Sicilian towns.
Spiteri in Licata and Favara.
Portelli, another common one, from all along the south coast, Scicli in Ragusa to Gela, but also in Messina.
Camilleri is mostly Palermitan but also found in Agrigento and Caltanissetta.

So yes they can be found all throughout the island but they are by and large concentrated very heavily in Agrigento, Caltanissetta, and Palermo. You can type them in there and see the numbers, I tried to link you but it doesn't save the page when you search on it.
 
Gela is South Eastern Sicily city not Western. Licata is Southern Central. Camilleri is a Southern Sicilian surname, not Palermitan because inhabitans of Palermo have ancestors from all over the island (and Italy).

http://www.cognomix.it/mappe-dei-cognomi-italiani/CAMILLERI/SICILIA

The second province were Attardo peaks is Siracusa.

http://www.cognomix.it/mappe-dei-cognomi-italiani/ATTARDO/SICILIA

Vella is common all over the island except Enna and Messina provinces.

http://www.cognomix.it/mappe-dei-cognomi-italiani/VELLA/SICILIA

I add other common surnames in Malta like Bonnici, who is almost exclusively of Siracusa and Catania

http://www.cognomix.it/mappe-dei-cognomi-italiani/BONNICI/SICILIA

And Abela

http://www.cognomix.it/mappe-dei-cognomi-italiani/ABELA/SICILIA

As you can see, the latin surnames of Malta are from all over Sicily, not just Agrigento and Caltanissetta provinces.
 
It just seems obvious to me that given that the "Maltese" surnames are concentrated along the southern coast, the most likely point of departure from Sicily to Malta was there even if they are found elsewhere.

Another two peaking in Gela are Azzopardi ("Zuppardo") and Scicluna ("Scicolone", derived from the town Scicli in Ragusa province).
 
Here are (for the first time I think) the Dodecad 12b results for of a friend from Malta (all known ancestors from Malta). Not surprisingly, his results are quite similar to Sicilians but with a higher African component (North/West/East=8.0% vs 5.0%) quite similar to Portuguese (8.5%).

ComponentMalteseSicilian_D
Caucasus34.836.5
Atlantic_Med25.330
Southwest_Asian13.211.9
North_European11.511.9
Gedrosia6.84.5
Northwest_African6.14.1
Sub_Saharan1.00.2
East_African0.90.7
South_Asian0.20.1
East_Asian0.20.0
Southeast_Asian0.10.0
Siberian0.00.0

Same for Dodecad Globe 13:

ComponentMaltese Sicilian_D
Mediterranean36.440.6
West_Asian24.923.6
Southwest_Asian19.517.3
North_European1516.5
East_African1.70.5
West_African1.31
Palaeo_African0.00.2
Australasian0.50.2
East_Asian0.50.1
Siberian0.20.0
South_Asian0.00.0
Amerindian0.00.0
Arctic0.00.0


B09kWU9.jpg
 
Maleth knows a great deal about Maltese history. Perhaps he'll chime in, and correct me if necessary, but the Knights engaged in the slave trade. Some of it may have come from Africa. That might explain the differences, although they are small.
 

Dodecad K12b 4-Ancestors Oracle
This program is based on 4-Ancestors Oracle Version 0.96 by Alexandr Burnashev.
Questions about results should be sent to him at: [email protected]
Original concept proposed by Sergey Kozlov.
Many thanks to Alexandr for helping us get this web version developed.

The GEDmatch version of Oracle may give slightly different results from Dienekes version. The GEDmatch version uses FST weighting in its calculations.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Atlantic_Med 35.43
2 North_European 31.73
3 Caucasus 18.92
4 Gedrosia 7.19
5 Southwest_Asian 5.01
6 Northwest_African 1.64


Finished reading population data. 223 populations found.
12 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 N_Italian_Dodecad @ 10.754071
2 North_Italian_HGDP @ 13.897596
3 O_Italian_Dodecad @ 14.276514
4 French_HGDP @ 14.957365
5 French_Dodecad @ 15.008798
6 Romanians_Behar @ 15.771966
7 TSI30_Metspalu @ 16.440754
8 Bulgarian_Dodecad @ 17.053511
9 Bulgarians_Yunusbayev @ 17.141352
10 Baleares_1000Genomes @ 17.607548
11 Galicia_1000Genomes @ 17.678137
12 Tuscan_HGDP @ 17.976521
13 Extremadura_1000Genomes @ 18.569544
14 Mixed_Germanic_Dodecad @ 18.880589
15 Portuguese_Dodecad @ 18.963093
16 Hungarians_Behar @ 19.319050
17 German_Dodecad @ 19.339350
18 C_Italian_Dodecad @ 20.204691
19 Cataluna_1000Genomes @ 20.442408
20 Dutch_Dodecad @ 20.850052

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% British_Dodecad +50% Greek_Dodecad @ 1.446007


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Dutch_Dodecad +25% O_Italian_Dodecad +25% Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.828508


Using 4 populations approximation:
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 German_Dodecad + Mixed_Germanic_Dodecad + N_Italian_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.393276
2 Bulgarian_Dodecad + Cornwall_1000Genomes + French_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.500826
3 British_Dodecad + Bulgarian_Dodecad + French_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.610817
4 Bulgarian_Dodecad + French_HGDP + Irish_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.640883
5 Bulgarian_Dodecad + French_Dodecad + Irish_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.665206
6 British_Dodecad + Bulgarian_Dodecad + French_HGDP + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.677554
7 German_Dodecad + Orkney_1000Genomes + Sicilian_Dodecad + TSI30_Metspalu @ 0.683037
8 Bulgarian_Dodecad + Cornwall_1000Genomes + French_HGDP + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.691684
9 C_Italian_Dodecad + Mixed_Germanic_Dodecad + Norwegian_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.719428
10 Ashkenazy_Jews_Behar + British_Isles_Dodecad + Dutch_Dodecad + O_Italian_Dodecad @ 0.722368
11 Bulgarian_Dodecad + French_HGDP + Orcadian_HGDP + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.760813
12 Cornwall_1000Genomes + French_Dodecad + Romanians_Behar + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.765977
13 Argyll_1000Genomes + Hungarians_Behar + North_Italian_HGDP + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.773724
14 Ashkenazi_Dodecad + British_Isles_Dodecad + Dutch_Dodecad + O_Italian_Dodecad @ 0.781435
15 German_Dodecad + Mixed_Germanic_Dodecad + N_Italian_Dodecad + S_Italian_Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.794302
16 German_Dodecad + Orkney_1000Genomes + Sicilian_Dodecad + Tuscan_HGDP @ 0.804098
17 British_Dodecad + German_Dodecad + O_Italian_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.808714
18 Argyll_1000Genomes + Bulgarians_Yunusbayev + French_HGDP + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.818413
19 Argyll_1000Genomes + German_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad + TSI30_Metspalu @ 0.826889
20 Dutch_Dodecad + Dutch_Dodecad + O_Italian_Dodecad + Sicilian_Dodecad @ 0.828508

Done.
 
Maleth knows a great deal about Maltese history. Perhaps he'll chime in, and correct me if necessary, but the Knights engaged in the slave trade. Some of it may have come from Africa. That might explain the differences, although they are small.

Sorry just spotted this now. Thanks for the comment. Indeed you are right Angela. The Knights engaged in a considerable slave trade activity mainly due to their very well know maritime (Corso) activities. We know that when General Napoleon Bonaparte took over from the Knights, he had abolished slavery and freed some 2000 North African Slaves (presumingly mostly Tunisians). It is well presumed that most of these Slaves had remained on the Island converted to Christianity and also married local women. Some would have also returned to their native lands. This could well explain any possible North African component genetically.

https://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20070410/letters/slavery-in-malta.20844
 
Gedrosia5.89 Pct
Siberian1.29 Pct
Northwest_African5.99 Pct
Southeast_Asian-
Atlantic_Med25.73 Pct
North_European10.91 Pct
South_Asian-
East_African1.59 Pct
Southwest_Asian13.16 Pct
East_Asian-
Caucasus35.33 Pct
Sub_Saharan0.1 Pct
Dodecad 12b results
 
Those results are similar to mine, which is expected as I am Maltese born of Maltese born people going back as far as I can find. Those results can be distorted by marriage practices and chance. One man or woman could have given me all my North European, and that has come to me through genealogy collapse, i.e cousin marriages. I have done a lot of dna testing and I am related distantly to every Maltese person, also most half Maltese people, and a lot of quarter Maltese people. There has been little non paternal events, as surnames and their Y haplogroups are identical. I can tell from your haplogroup E-V13 your surname is not Schembri, Agius, Muscat, Vella, Micallef, Farrugia, Abela, Zammit....Portelli is R1a for example.
 
Maltese Dna

Dear Ozzie

Most Maltese people if not all are somewhat related. We are all mostly descended from 25000 people who inhabited Malta in 1530 when the Knights of Malta took possession of the islands.
My interest is in history especially social and most specifically the Middle Ages, a period we know very little of. Exploring the DNA of the Maltese population will help unravel some of the questions we are still posing in respect of this period.
I have very little knowledge of how DNA works so I hope you do not mind if I pick your brain with a couple of questions.

First of all you are right that my true surname is not included in the ones you mention, although quite a number are represented in the family tree through maternal lineage, which is not surprising because they include some very common names such as Farrugia and Vella.
But more importantly and intriguing to me is how can you tell that my haplogroup is E-V13 ? and what surnames would you associate with this particular haplogroup ?

Thanks for replying

Sincere regards
Franck
 
Muslim conversos

When the Arabs invaded Malta in 870 AD North Africa was populated mainly by Berbers, and the descendants of the Phoenicians and Romans. It is very likely that when Malta was repopulated around 1050, if we are to take Al-Hamyari's account as the Bible truth, meaning the island was uninhabited for nearly 200 years, possible but unlikely, given the strategic position, the main influx would have come from Sicily. These Sicilians would have some Arab, Berber and Jewish blood but most of them would have been the conversos descendants of the original Sicilian natives. The last Muslim stronghold in Spain fell in 1492, and their history there is very well documented, studying Spanish parallels can shed valuable light on Maltese early Mediaeval history, where we are lacking in valuable documentation. Professor Wettinger laid the foundations and broadened horizons regarding misconceptions sieving the truth from folklore.
 

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