Similar words between Latin and Gaulish Celtic

Maciamo

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How much did the ancient Romans understand the Gauls when Caesar set on his 9-year campaign? Would the language have appeared outlandish to Latin ears, like Basque is to us today, or on the contrary rather familiar like Romance and Germanic languages are to English speakers? Or maybe somewhere in between? Latin is an Italic tongue and as such shares a lot with Celtic languages, as the two only split from one another in the Late Bronze Age. Some linguists even classify Italic languages as a branch of Celtic. In any case 2000 years ago there were several Italic languages or dialects and many more varieties of Celtic. Chances are that Cisalpine Gaulish was more remote to Goidelic tongues of Ireland than to nearby Italic languages.

Without entering too much into details, I would like to concentrate here on basic everyday vocabulary that would have been mutually intelligible between Romans and Gauls. As there were various dialects of Gaulish sometimes two variants of the same word are mentioned.

Nouns

LatinGaulishEnglish
EquusEpos/ekwosWar horse
CaballusCaballosWorkhorse
CarrusCarrosWagon
CassisCassiHelmet
GladiusGladios/cladiosSword
Lancea/hastaLanciaSpear/lance
DamnumDauneiDestruction, damage
Nomen, nominoAnuanaName
TribusTreboTribe
VirUiroMan
PaterAterFather
MaterMatirMother
RexRixKing
ReginaRiganQueen
BuccaBoccaMouth
DeusDivos/devosGod
ArgentumArgento/argantonSilver
StannumStannoTin
CanisCunosDog
CattusCattosCat
TaurusTarvosBull
Sus, PorcusSuccos, PorcomPig
CapraGabro(s)Goat
BetullaBetullaBirch
MareMoriSea
DiesDiosDay
NoxNox, nouxNight
UnusOinoOne
DuoDuoTwo
TresTreis/tri/tidresThree
QuattuorPetuar/petro/petruFour
QuinquePempe/pimpeFive
SexSuexsSix
SeptemSextanSeven
OctoOctu/oxtuEight
NovemNauanNine
DecemDecan/decamTen
CentumCanto/ContoHundred


Adjectives/adverbs/conjunctions

LatinGaulishEnglish
EtEticAnd
ExEsOut(side)
Intra, intusEntaraInside
Itum, Item, Idem, EtiamEtiAlso, too
Ita, sicIsocLike, as
NuncNuNow
NovusNovioNew
SenexSenoOld
MagnusMarosBig, large
Medius, MediumMedioMiddle
RectusCert (c & r inversion)Right
Rutilus, CocusRud, cocosRed


Verbs

LatinGaulishEnglish
BattuereBat-Beat, hit
BibereIbereDrink
CantareCantareSing
Cambi(a)reCambiareEx(change)
DareDereGive
Gnatus, GenitusGnatos, GenosBorn
LegareLegareBequeth, offer
SedereSedereSit
VenireBenireCome
VertereVertere/vartere/vortereTurn

Note that many words are identical appart from the -us ending becoming -os in Gaulish. But since both languages use similar declensions, these ending would have changed depending on their function in a sentence anyway, so that for a singular masculine word in -us, it would have become -um (Latin) -on (Gaulish) in the accusative, -i (for both) in the genitive and -ō (Latin) -u (Gaulish) in the dative. The similarity of grammar would have made it easy to learn each others language.
 
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While making research for the list above I realised that a few words in English actually have Gaulish/Celtic roots.

GaulishEnglish
AballoApple
BeberBeaver
OxsoOx
RedoRide
Andero(s)Under


Other Gaulish words are related to Germanic languages rather than Latin.

GaulishEnglishOld German/English
abofab/af
BeccusBeakBecca
Bri'uaBridgeBruwwi
DoriDoorDor/duru
DunumTownTuna/tun
DuxtirDaughterDhuter/dohtor
IouinYoungJung
LandaLand/fieldLand
LibuLoveLubo/lufu
OlloAllAl/Eall
RectuRight (law)Rehtan/rihte
RoudoRedRoti
SonnoSunSunna/sunne
SamSummerSumar/sumor
ViduWoodWitu/wudu
Vistu/vid/vissuWisdom/wise
 
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some other similarities between gaulish and germanic words would include:

duxtir=daughter

bri'ua = a bridge, Proto-Germanic *bro'wo', *bruwwi' 'a bridge

isarno=Iron,
Proto-Germanic *isarn

sam=summer

sedlon =saddle, German Sattel

suadu- (pleasant) akin to "sweet"
 
some other similarities between gaulish and germanic words would include:

duxtir=daughter

bri'ua = a bridge, Proto-Germanic *bro'wo', *bruwwi' 'a bridge

isarno=Iron,
Proto-Germanic *isarn

sam=summer

sedlon =saddle, German Sattel

suadu- (pleasant) akin to "sweet"

Gaulish duxtir and its Germanic counterpart (see English "daughter") is inherited from Proto-Indo-European. See also Greek thygatēr (θυγατηρ) and Persian dokhtar (دختر).

The word iron in Germanic was no doubt borrowed from Celtic. According to Ringe, the root *īsarno- is vrddi construction (lengthened e-grade), regularly shifted in Celtic.

The word for 'saddle' may also be a borrowing, or a shared inheritance.
 
We have to be cautious and base ourselves on more words;
some of the Maciamo 's list are loans of Latin to Celtic; the contrary surely occurred for other words;
and the numeral figures are not a good sample to to with: too much closeness between a lot of parent languages (numbers tied to trade in some way).
This topic had been spoken about already some years ago, and I had made a list of Latin and Galish words and the proximity between both languages was not so evident; even with evident cognates, a small number of phonetic diverging evolutions are enough to create bad understandablility in spoken languages.
 
Gaulish duxtir and its Germanic counterpart (see English "daughter") is inherited from Proto-Indo-European. See also Greek thygatēr (θυγατηρ) and Persian dokhtar (دختر).

The word iron in Germanic was no doubt borrowed from Celtic. According to Ringe, the root *īsarno- is vrddi construction (lengthened e-grade), regularly shifted in Celtic.

The word for 'saddle' may also be a borrowing, or a shared inheritance.


for 'saddle' rather a borrowing, I think, we would have waited a word in *'sat-l-' or *'set-l-' if it was a cognate ?
 
if we search we 'll find a lot of cognate words in Slavic(s) too, left the phonetic evolution aside; and for some words, this evolution didn't create too much difference. Only an allover lexicon comparison could give us a taste of the respective distances between these languages. It wonder if Germanic isn't the more "central" between all, for vocabulary, if we exclude old loans to Latin by the others?
 
We have to be cautious and base ourselves on more words;
some of the Maciamo 's list are loans of Latin to Celtic; the contrary surely occurred for other words;
and the numeral figures are not a good sample to to with: too much closeness between a lot of parent languages (numbers tied to trade in some way).
This topic had been spoken about already some years ago, and I had made a list of Latin and Galish words and the proximity between both languages was not so evident; even with evident cognates, a small number of phonetic diverging evolutions are enough to create bad understandablility in spoken languages.

Exactly my thoughts on the subject, too.
 
We have to be cautious and base ourselves on more words;
some of the Maciamo 's list are loans of Latin to Celtic; the contrary surely occurred for other words;
and the numeral figures are not a good sample to to with: too much closeness between a lot of parent languages (numbers tied to trade in some way).
This topic had been spoken about already some years ago, and I had made a list of Latin and Galish words and the proximity between both languages was not so evident; even with evident cognates, a small number of phonetic diverging evolutions are enough to create bad understandablility in spoken languages.

Yeah, I think a broader comparison that also included modern Celtic languages (e.g. Breton, Irish and Welsh) would be useful - having said this, the Brythonic languages in particular have a share of Romance loanwords that replaced native Celtic ones (e.g. words for "bridge", "fish" and "people" were Romance borrowings). I agree that phonologically Latin and Gaulish were not so similar. One difference you notice immediately, of course, is that Latin had /kw/ (qu) in places where Gaulish usually had /p/. An example is Latin "equus" and "quinque" versus Gaulish "epos" and "pimpe". Celtiberian, which preserved the /kw/ sound, was more similar to Latin that regard.
 
@Taranis;
Agree concerning Brittonic: the Roman long presence with a more evolved society for comfort/cosiness, technics and new religion has produced a lot of loanwords in Brittonic;
modern Welsh and/or Breton: cadair/kado(a)r : chair - magwyr/moger : wall - ffenestr/fenestr : window - (y)stafel : room (< stabula) -
eglwys/ilis : church - allor/altar : autel - porth/porzh : harbour/port (a big part of the lexicon) -
 
I put again here what I had posted then:
I doesn't exclude some synonyms common to both languages;

GAULISHLATINENGLISH
cattosfelescat
ibos?- eburostaxusyew
cambacurvuscurve
talofrons, frontisforehead, front
tâxomelesbadger
caliavoslepillus, silexlittle stone
brigaaltitudo, munimentumhill, height,
brogregio-nis, paguscountry, region
magoscampus, planitiesplain, open fields
lanonterra, planitiesplain, open fields
mathsus, suis, porcuspig
nantovallis, valliculavalley, dale
noviosnovus, recensnew
senovetus, senilisold
(s)asiamsecalerye
mârosmagnus, procerusbig, large
mediomedium, mediushalf, middle
epos, marca-equus, caballushorse
areprae, anteahead
versuperon
vindoalbus, candiduswhite
rixrex, regisking
isarnoferrumiron
carrucaaratrumplough
vernoalnuselder tree ?
morimaresea
upsello/uxellosummus, superiorhigh, superior
nerto/narituviresstrenght
-samo-issimsuperlatif
sonnosol, solissun
viduarbor, lignumwood, timber
budvictoria, praedavictory, win,
tuttogens, gentispeople, folk
gabroscapragoat
labar-loquor-speak-
ambicircum, circaaround
isca, dobro-aquawater
bonaterminus, fines,boundary stone
cladiosensis, gladiussword
ritomvadum (portus)ford
genos?- gnatosnatusborn
pennoscaput, capitishead
garr-*crus, crurisleg
cavan-noctua, bubo, bubonischat-huant
bron-pectus, sinusbossom
braca-bracaebreeches
drutospissus, densusdense (thick,fat...)
nemetontemplum, fanum, aedestemple
tarvostaurusbull
alloalius, alterother
sedlonsedes, sellaseat
bardospoeta, bardusbard, poet
gaesalancealance
ratisfilix, filicisfern
doulafoliumleaf
betullabetullabirch
beccosrostrum, culmenbeak, tip, peak
leugaleuca
carpentomplaustrumcart
cambi-mutat-, permutat-(ex)change-
cocos, rudruber, rutilus, cocus ?red
treiclepes,pedisfoot
aballomalumapple
dorojanua, ostium, portadoor
trebotribusfolk, tribe
berulacardamina, nasturciumwatercress
brucosmyricaheather
blatofrumenta, triticum, farinawheat, meal
bedo-fossa (sepulcrum?)ditch, grave
artosursusbear
abonnaflumen, amniculusriver
andervaccacow
catupugna, proeliumfight
voberaplaustriamarsh
bennoacume, vertextip, peak
cumbavalliculasmall dry valley
biberfiber, castorbeaver
bagfagus, faginumbeek
ambactosobses, obsidisservant, hostage
anuananomenname
allossecundus, altersecond, other
matubonusgood
ater-paterfather
bnanom<<ban-femina, mulierwoman
curmicervisiabeer, ale
cert-recte, justusright
cintuxprimusfirst
dada-give !
diosdiesday
duxtir + gnatafilla + natadaughter + born
etiitem, quoquealso, too
exopraeter, exceptaexcepted
mapo-, gnatefilius, natuson
ininin
isocsic, italike, as
carata*amataloved (fem.)
bratu*judictum, sententiajudgment
lubiama- love !
lugoscorvusraven, crow
matirmatermother
nanefameshunger
nepi/neponquidam, aliquissomebody
nununcnow
poncquandowhen
regu-offerre, praebere, da-offer, give
rigan-reginaqueen
toncnamanjus jurandumoath, pledge
vo sub under
verosuperior
 
Moesan, what is the source of your list?

I see a large number of them that are latinized, others where I feel they may be transcribed erroneously.
 
Moesan, what is the source of your list?

I see a large number of them that are latinized, others where I feel they may be transcribed erroneously.


I think I took them in more than a source and when I think, some of them could have been found in A.DAUZAT 's work about French words eymology, some of Celtic origin passed through Late Latin, so surely some of them were latinized. I 'll precise the diverse source to you; it was not a scientific work with chronologic forms or ... I 'm more attached to roots than to declinations, as you have maybe guessed on my previous posts about ancient languages.
 
Taranis, here under a list of words I think I found in one of the Xavier DELAMARRE works about Gaulish.
But I have not the Latin translations to compare word by word spite some correlations can be found sometimes. Before I disentangle my first list, I hope it could help some forumers here.

allos second
anatia souls
ancios narrow
ambi(tou)tos co-citizens
anderon young women
anmat(u) not good
anuana names
areitalo region, district, countryside
artuas high places
atom/atos edge
ava grand-daughter
barnaunom judged persons
batoron fighters
biiete be !
bionti they are
bnanom women
bocca mouth
brictom charm
briwtia magy
budduton kiss
cambion change
cammanom way, path
cantam (circular) pan, enclosure
karnitu stoned (put/covered with stones)
catili plates
certiognu with right reasons
cintux first
conscilitom to carve, to prune ?
Crixos (personal name) curly (?)
cue and
curmi beer
da ! - give! -
daga good (fem.)
daunei destruction
decametos tenth
derce eye
di(ios?) day
dunon high place > fortress ? -
duxtir daughter
edi is (v.)
entara inside
es outside
eti also, too
exa coming from, out of
exucri ! - go out ! -
gabi takes, receives (v.)
geneta, gnatha daughter
gobedbi with the smiths
gob- smith
ibetis ! - do drink ! (v.)
ifadem stallion
in in
incarata not loved (hated?)
incors ! - shut ! (v.)
inte noviio in a new mode
internon among, amidst
isoc so
linda drinks (n.)
loncate you are swallowing (food)
lubi! - do love ! -
luge oath, promise
mugos crow, raven
macarni food
macasiam fence
mar(os) big, great
mat(u) good
matir mother
meion small, little
mid month
molatus praise
mon my
namet(os) ninth
nane hunger
naritu strenght, force
neddamon neighbours
nemeton sanctuary
nepi, nepon somebody
Nertocomar(os) (personal name : « great by his strength »?)
nu now
oilam young ewe
ollon big, large
onobiia streamy waters ? (water+live?)
oscues somebody
oxtumetos eighth
pape/papi/papon… every
petuar four(th)
pimpetos fifth
pissiiumi I shall see (v.)
ponc when
porcom pig
rigani to the queen
risu writing (?)
sedlon sit, chair...
sesit he has linked/tied
sextametos seventh
silabur silver
sindiu today
sleitom stricken/struck
so this (pron.)
sosin this ? - that ? -
tarvos/taurom bull
tidres three
toncnaman oath, promise
tousei sum, amount
toutios citizen
trinox three nights stage
tu[FONT=Liberation Serif, serif]θ[/FONT]os citizen
ulano ful satisfaction
veadia female weaver
veia strength
velor I want (v.)
ver-, ur- superiority prefix
vertai outside
vertatos outside
vidlu by (clair)voyance
vimpi pretty
vo under (adv. + prefix)


I can (with time) put the new Celtic tongues words inherited (with semantic evolution) or cognates to this list words.
As everybody can expect, a lot of these words can be found among Greek, Germanic and Slavic languages, and not too much denser in Latin.
 
a small list with diverse neo-Celtic languages cognates: I have not tried to put all the meanings, by lack of place. Just for the fun, as a little taste of...Vaclav BLAZEK [vatslav blazhèk] has written (compiled?) diverse Gaulish words with comparisons with other languages. I 'll try to copy some interesting pages. Vaclav BLAZEK [vatslav blazhèk] has written (compiled?) diverse Gaulish words with comparisons with other languages. I 'll try to copy some interesting pages.


cattosfelesG/I cat, W cath, Br kazh cat
ibos?- eburostaxus

cambacurvusG/I cam, W cam, Br kamm bent, lame + wrong
talofrons, frontisW tâl, Br tal forehead, front, Fr talus
tâxomeles

caliavoslepillus, silex? W caill, Br kell testicule, Fr caillou little stone
brigaaltitudo, munimentumW bre, Br bre hill, W bri, Br bri respect, fame
brog- > brogaregio-nis, pagusOI mruc, W bro region, Br br country, region
magoscampus, planitiesW i maes, Br er maes outside, maes, field(s)
magos -id-OI *magh
lanonterra, planitiesW llan, Br lan hallowed place
mathsus, suis, porcus

nantovallis, valliculaW nant, vale, valley, Br (n)ant furrow
noviosnovus, recensG nodha, I nua, W newydd, Br newez new,
senovetus, senilisG/I sean, Crn hen, Br hen old, ancient
(s)asiamsecale

mârosmagnus, procerusG/I môr, W mawr, Br meur great, big
mediomedium, mediusI meàn middle W i mewn inside
epos,equus, caballusG/I each horse, W ebol, Br ebeul colt, foal
marcaequus, caballusG marcadh to ride, W march, Br marc’h horse
areprae, ante

versuperW gwr-, Br gour- super- (prefix)
vindoalbus, candidusG/I fionn fair, white W gwyn Br gwenn white
rixrex, regisG/I ri(gh) king, OW/Obr rhi/ri lord, king
isarnoferrumG/I iarann,W haearn,Br houarn (<ho-iarn) iron
carrucaaratrumG/I càr car, chariot, W car, Br karr car, cart
verno-salnusG/I feàrn-, W/Br gwern alder-trees
morimareG/I muir, W môr, Br mor sea
upsello/uxellosummus, superiorW uchel, Br uhel high
nerto/narituviresG/I neart, W nerth, Br nerzh strength, force
-samo-issimW -af, Br -añ(v) < -ham+ superlative suffix
sonnosol, solis

viduarbor, lignumG fiodh wood, timber, W gwydd, Br gwez trees
budvictoria, praedaW budd, Br buz+ profit, bote
tuttogens, gentisI tuath country, W tud+ Br tud people, parents
gabroscapraG/I gabhar, W gafr, Br gavr goat
labar-loquor-G/I labhair to speak, W llafar, Br lavar speach
ambicircum, circaW am about, around
isca, aquaG/I uisce/uisge water, rain (Whisky)
dobro- -id-I dobhar, W dwfr/dwr, Br dour water
bonaterminus, fines,W bôn base, trunk Br bon landmark, milestone
cladiosensis, gladiusG/I claidheamh, W cleddyf, Br kleze(ñv) sword
ritomvadum (portus)W rhyd, Br roudouz ford
genos?- gnatosnatusW geni, Br genel/ganiñ to be born
pennoscaput, capitisG/I ceann, W pen, Br penn
garr-*crus, crurisW/Br gar leg
cavan-noctua, bubo, bubonisBr kaouenn owl > Fr « chat-huant » (*chouan)
bron-pectus, sinusW bron, Br bronn breast
braca-bracaeBr bragoù ~breeches
drutospissus, densusBr druz dense, abundant, fat
nemetontemplum, fanum, aedesG/I neamh, W nef, Br neñv heaven
tarvostaurusG/I tarbh, W/Br tarw bull
alloalius, alterG/I eile, W/Br (ar)all (an)other
sedlonsedes, sellaG/I sui(dhe) to sit, W sedd, Br sez seat
bard-os°poeta, bardusG bàrd, W bardd, Br barzh bard, poet
gaesalancea

ratisfilix, filicisW rhad grace, blessing
doulafoliumG/I duille(ag), W deilen/dalen, Br deilenn leaf
betullus*betullaG/I beith(e), W bedw, Br bezw beech trees
becc-os°rostrum, culmenBr beg beak, mouth, cape
leugaleucaG lîog, Br lew
carpent-om°plaustrum

cambi-mutat-, permutat-Br (es)kemm (ex)change
cocosruber, rutilus, cocus ?W coch, Cn kogh red, scarlet
rudruber, rutilus, cocus ?G/I ruadh, W rhudd, Br ruz red, scarlet
treiclepes,pedis

aballomalumG ubhal, I ull, W afal, Br aval apple
dorojanua, ostium, portaG/I doras, W dôr, Br dor door
trebotribusG/I treabh tribe,W tref town,Br trev p.of paroch
berulacardamina, nasturcium

bruc-os°myrica

blato*frumenta, triticum, farinaW blawd, Br bleud meal, flour
bedo-fossa (sepulcrum?)W bedd, Br bez tomb, grave
artosursusW arth, Br arzh bear
abonnaflumen, amniculusG/I abhainn, W afon, Br aven+
andervaccaBr annoar/onner heifer
catupugna, proeliumI cath, W cad, Br kad fight
voberaplaustria

bennoacume, vertex

cumbavalliculaW cwm valley, Br komm coombe
biberfiber, castor

bagfagus, faginum

ambactosobses, obsidisBr ambazh hostage + shy
anuananomenG/I ainm, W enw, Br anw
allossecundus, alter

matubonusG/I ma(i)th, W/Br mad good
ater-paterG/I athair father
bnanom<<ban-femina, mulierG/I bean, W. benyw woman
curmicervisiaW cwrw (< cwrf), Br korev beer
cert-recte, justusG/I ceart right, correct
cintuxprimusW cyntaf, Br kentañ first
dada-

diosdiesG/I dia, W dyw, Br doue god
duxtir filla + nata

etiitem, quoque

exopraeter, excepta

mapo-, gnatefilius, natuG/I mac, W/Br mab son
ininW yn, Br e(n)
isocsic, ita

carata*amataG/I cara(id) friend, W caru Br kared to love
bratu*judictum, sententiaG bràth, W brawd sentence, Br breud trial
lubiama-

lugoscorvus

matirmaterG/I mathair mother,W modryb,Br moereb aunt
nanefamesW newyn, Br naon hunger
nepi/neponquidam, aliquisW neb,Br neb person, whoever
nununcI nuair when (conj.)
poncquandoG/I cuin W pan, Br pa when (conj.)
regu-offerre, praebere, da-W rho(dd)i, Br roiñ/reiñ to give
rigan-reginaW rhiant parent (< authority?)
toncnamanjus jurandumW tyngu to swear, Br tonkañ to destine
vo sub G/I fo-, W go-, Br gou- sub-, under-
verosuper ?Br gour- super-, sur-
 
We have to be cautious and base ourselves on more words;
some of the Maciamo 's list are loans of Latin to Celtic; the contrary surely occurred for other words;

It doesn't matter for my purpose whether some words have been borrowed from Latin to Celtic or the other way round. I just want to estimate roughly how much the Romans and Gauls would have been able to understand each others, say at the time of Julius Caesar (before, during or just after the Gallic Wars).

Based on the above vocabulary I'd say that most basic words are similar. The very different words are usually those that are less common, like say heather, fern, yew, watercress, marsh, badger, boundary stone, pledge or hostage.

But legionaries could easily make themselves understood if they wanted to ask some to "come sit inside now" to discuss the purchase of "a wagon with two workhorses filled with 10 new spears and 5 old swords" or "exchange a warhorse for the tribal king's silver helmet", or buy "a bull, a pig and a goat to bequeath to the gods". All those words would be almost identical.
 
It doesn't matter for my purpose whether some words have been borrowed from Latin to Celtic or the other way round. I just want to estimate roughly how much the Romans and Gauls would have been able to understand each others, say at the time of Julius Caesar (before, during or just after the Gallic Wars).

Based on the above vocabulary I'd say that most basic words are similar. The very different words are usually those that are less common, like say heather, fern, yew, watercress, marsh, badger, boundary stone, pledge or hostage.

But legionaries could easily make themselves understood if they wanted to ask some to "come sit inside now" to discuss the purchase of "a wagon with two workhorses filled with 10 new spears and 5 old swords" or "exchange a warhorse for the tribal king's silver helmet", or buy "a bull, a pig and a goat to bequeath to the gods". All those words would be almost identical.



Partially agree, partially only.
All that depends of the time chosen. I haven't sufficient knowledge to date every word (surely a lot of the crossed loans were made after the conquest by Rome and not before, spite Julius Caesar wrote there was not a place in Gaul were there was not a Roman merchant! ; That said, even if based on the spelling we can devine common origin of certain words, the genuine pronounciation of these words could have been very mistaking respective to every of both languages. Are you sure that in a normal speaking way a Roman can recognize 'equus' under the form 'epos'? Even the same written consonants could have been pronounced in a very different way. We are reasoning as knowledged persons (in part) interested in philology/linguistic examinating written texts. I can assure you that in oral dialectology practise we see very more difficulties than in writings. After all, Jules mentioned interpreters for him (but not between certains Gaulish and Britonnic tribes), if I don't mistake.
 
Partially agree, partially only.
All that depends of the time chosen. I haven't sufficient knowledge to date every word (surely a lot of the crossed loans were made after the conquest by Rome and not before, spite Julius Caesar wrote there was not a place in Gaul were there was not a Roman merchant!

I think that most of the similar words listed above have a shared Italo-Celtic or more broadly Indo-European root (e.g. numbers, family members). I updated the list in post #1 yesterday and now have 57 common words that are very close. How many of these would you say are loanwords from Celtic to Latin or vice versa?

Then, even if there are a few loanwords, by the time of the Gallic Wars the Romans had already conquered most of Cisalpine Gaul for about 150 years and Gallia Narbonensis for 70 years. That's enough generations for a few useful loanwords to have circulated in both directions.

That said, even if based on the spelling we can devine common origin of certain words, the genuine pronounciation of these words could have been very mistaking respective to every of both languages.

Doutful. Both Latin and Gaulish share very similar phonemes. They didn't have difficult vowels like modern French or Danish or tricky consonants like θ, δ, ç (voiceless palatal fricative).

Are you sure that in a normal speaking way a Roman can recognize 'equus' under the form 'epos'?

They should. After all the q to p transition also took place in some Italic languages like Sabine, Picentine and Oscan, which Romans would be familiar with, at least through personal names, which we see in names of gentes such as Pompeius (Oscan), Pompilius (Sabine) or Pomponius (Sabine), whose names derive from number five (pompe in Sabellic dialects, closer to the Gaulish pempe than to Latin quinque). I am sure that the word for horse across most Osco-Umbrian regions as well as Cisalpine Gaul (meaning over half of Italy) was closer to epos than equus.

Even the same written consonants could have been pronounced in a very different way.

Doubtful. Consonants are still basically the same in all Romance languages today after over 1500 years of divergence. And Romance languages were adopted by various Italic and Celtic speaking populations conquered by the Romans from tiny Latium. Many local words survived this Romanisation until today (hundreds of Gaulish words have survived in French), yet consonants haven't changed in practically any Romance language and dialect.

We are reasoning as knowledged persons (in part) interested in philology/linguistic examinating written texts. I can assure you that in oral dialectology practise we see very more difficulties than in writings. After all, Jules mentioned interpreters for him (but not between certains Gaulish and Britonnic tribes), if I don't mistake.

It's always better for leaders to have interpreters so as to avoid misunderstandings on important diplomatic negotiations or treaties, which could have catastrophic consequences. I was just saying that basic exchanges in the street could be conducted between Gauls and Romans without too much difficulty, a bit like between Spanish and Italian speakers today.
 
@Maciamo

Interesting challenge!
I ‘ll answer in disorder : This is not a lost of time because it could show how even same family languages can become not understandable in say 1500 years, spite having been written by some
elites. This is showed on ‘You Tube’ by more than an example.

Maciamo: It's always better for leaders to have interpreters so as to avoid misunderstandings on important diplomatic negotiations or treaties, which could have catastrophic consequences. I was just saying that basic exchanges in the street could be conducted between Gauls and Romans without too much difficulty, a bit like between Spanish and Italian speakers today.


Moesan: Spanish and Italian : I doubt it would be possible for basic Italian and Spanish not knowledged speakers to understand each other, only in some short statements, and not for all everyday needs, how basic could be these needs.
hombre : uomo – mujer : moglie – hijo : figlio – hermano : fratello – sobrino : nipote - primo : cugino niño : bambino - ternero : vitello – carnero : castrato – morueco : montone - cordero : agnello -
oveja : pecora – perro : cane – ave/pajaro : ucello -
espaldas : dorso – ojo : occhio – hombro : spalla – pierna : gamba – anca : coscia -
lluva : pioggia – hierro : ferro – cobre : rame – plata : argento -
bruno : moreno – amarillo : giallo – limpio : pulito – sucio : sporco – lleno : pieno – viejo : vecchio -
ventana : finestra – patio : cortile – huerto : giardino – mesa : tavola – vaso/copa : bicchiere -
aceite : olio – carretera : strada – manzana : pomo/mela – dia : giorno -
mirar : guardare – comer : mangiare – matar : uccidere/ammazzare – tomar/coger : prendere/pigliare esperar/aguardar : attendere/aspettare – entender : comprendere – salir : uscire/sortire – subir : salire llorar : piangere …
Here above we have different roots or same roots (IE > Italic cognates very often) with strong phonetic evolution; I have not tried to explore the resources of “fake-friends”, they are not so seldom. Surely, these romance languages show a lot of cognates words from Latin, of Italic or imperial Latin origin, but this does not prove that the inter-understanding is so easy. Evidently, some approximative synonyms plus imagination can help in a slow and tiring exchanges of sentences, as can help mimics and hands language. But we have to keep in mind that spoken and written languages are not the same, and that a lot of so called “Romance” abstract words are in fact Latin medieval loans: they are easy to understand in the whole “Romania” of today and in high level English, but they were not in the basic everyday language of Spanish and Italian speakers, and this intellectual lexicon exchanges were not the rule between Gaulish Celts and Romans before our era, IMO. And what we do, me and others, is listing words. But in today language, even close language of the same “family” which show an allover close enough lexicon, have not the more common synonyms as first choice. So, yes, kind of a hard and limited understanding. For Gaulish and Latin we see on the lists of words that it was very harder !


Maciamo: I think that most of the similar words listed above have a shared Italo-Celtic or more broadly Indo-European root (e.g. numbers, family members). I updated the list in post #1 yesterday and now have 57 common words that are very close. How many of these would you say are loanwords from Celtic to Latin or vice versa?
Moesan: The problem of our lists is that I do not know when they came into Latin! For what I think I know concerning your list, carrus, gladius are of Gaulish origin, maybe argentum too, for betulla I know the root bet- is Celtic, the suffix I do not know… Porcom is a Latin form by origin (Scotland Gaelic oircean/uircein without *P-), and I think Cocos is also from latin; there are a lot of words in Celtic languages for ‘pig’, ‘swine’ and similar meanings. In my list, bardus, carpentum are of Gaulish origin.
Some of the cognates you notice are mistaking: rect (L) > < cert, nomen/nomino (L) > < anuana (G) BI; for magnus and maros I’m not sure they are cognate: look at Germanic (Asx) more, merely (*mar-) # main (*magin-); again: Gaulish -gnato(s) seems reserved to personal names (“born from ...”), for ‘son’ Gaulish had also mapo(s) Breton, Welsh & Cornish mab, Irish & Scottish Gaelic mac (← *makw- ?)


Maciamo: Then, even if there are a few loanwords, by the time of the Gallic Wars the Romans had already conquered most of Cisalpine Gaul for about 150 years and Gallia Narbonensis for 70 years. That's enough generations for a few useful loanwords to have circulated in both directions.
I have not a sufficient knowledge of the facts to answer with credibility. It seems that Gauls and Celtic people in general didn’t write before they met Romans and Greeks (they wrote I think in Latin, Etruscan, Greek graphies; I think the list we have, in despite they are heterogenous, show a rather late stage of Gaulish, so with integrated lonwords int it. Poor answer of mine.


Maciamo: Doutful. Both Latin and Gaulish share very similar phonemes. They didn't have difficult vowels like modern French or Danish or tricky consonants like θ, δ, ç (voiceless palatal fricative).
Moesan: It is kind of an act of faith; I suppose that everytime when speakers of a tongue borrow a new spelling they make approximations; we see that with the Gaulish written in Etruscan alphabet : no distinction of voiced/unvoiced BI. Even when sounds are closer, it remains differences: French and British people do not pronounce vowels and consonants the same way, even when they try to do: all that is proxi’s. It is almost sure that the tendency we see now among Iberia Romance tongues to lenition in the voiced consonants as been preceded since a long time among Celtic languages, not only for voiced but for unvoiced too: it explains the today stage of Celtic languages and French, particuliarly Oïl French. Based on standard Italian and central-southern dialects on a side and neo-Celtic languages we could suppose Latin was very less tightly pronounced than Gaulish (surely already sandhi/provection phenomenons and lenitions of initial after final vowels) spite articulating stronger the intervocalic consonants: I would say: in the Celtic phrases words were surely more tightly linked one together. Word by word, it seems on the reading of the little we can find about its phonology and the evolutions in neo-Celtic languages, the consonants and groups of consonants were very more unstable than in Latin; the -ct, -pt implosives were unstable, and it seems that in some dialects, initial sr- became fr-, what we found in today Brittonic dialects (it seems an argument for a link tighter between Gaulish and Brittonic than believed before); I know some recent evolutions are not the proof of the previous stage of languages: diverging evolution (hazard + substrata/superstrata) but already… I recall today natural Breton speakers (don’t read or write) are surprised when you tell them they pronounce some words differently according to environment: a lot are not aware of it!
ad/dadt/(s)zad – penn/benn/fenn – kalon/galon/(H)c’halon - gwaed/waed/kwaed -
plus, not written, in phrases: mad: > [eñv zo mat] : [mad eo] – mab: [map] > [e mab on] – e-raog:
[e-rowk] > [e-rowg e vreur] pemzeg [pemzek] + gwas [gwas] > pemzeg gwas[pemzek kwas]-
Maciamo: They should. After all the q to p transition also took place in some Italic languages like Sabine, Picentine and Oscan, which Romans would be familiar with, at least through personal names, which we see in names of gentes such as Pompeius (Oscan), Pompilius (Sabine) or Pomponius (Sabine), whose names derive from number five (pompe in Sabellic dialects, closer to the Gaulish pempe than to Latin quinque). I am sure that the word for horse across most Osco-Umbrian regions as well as Cisalpine Gaul (meaning over half of Italy) was closer to epos than equus.
Moesan: word by word an knowledged person can recognize some cognates differentiated only by this mutation. Yet, in a speech made with a normal speed it becomes very hard if we have several words with this mutation, even more if they are short words, at explosive position. The more the common syllabes in a word, the easier the identification. I doubt common people speaking Latin would have been aware of the dialects of other Italic speakers comporting this mutation and other differences too, indeed. A few famous personal names are not enough to built a system of intelligible correspondences. I doubt there has been a real inter-understanding between Italic of both groups, so it would have been even harder between Latin and Gaulish speakers.
Maciamo: Doubtful. Consonants are still basically the same in all Romance languages today after over 1500 years of divergence. And Romance languages were adopted by various Italic and Celtic speaking populations conquered by the Romans from tiny Latium. Many local words survived this Romanisation until today (hundreds of Gaulish words have survived in French), yet consonants haven't changed in practically any Romance language and dialect.
Moesan: I have partly answered this just above. The evolution among who we can suppose to be the closer speakers of Celtic to Gaulish ones show that they changed and that these changes are not born out of the air, there was surely already trends towards these changes, and writings are not always the best witnesses. In Welsh of th 7th/8th C. ancient -t- were written -d- as ancient -d- ; I doubtthe ancient -d- were still pronounced [d]; how could have Welsh speakers known whose of them were to become later -dd- [[FONT=Liberation Serif, serif]đ[/FONT][FONT=Liberation Serif, serif]] (english [/FONT][FONT=Liberation Serif, serif]th[/FONT][FONT=Liberation Serif, serif]at)[/FONT] ? The same confusion occurred for voiceless/voiced/spirantised consonants in Old Breton where the logical evolution and the conservation of an old system of degrees was not reflected in the between orthographic system which lacked new signs. Contrary to what you write, I think Gaulish had already spirantised consonants, but here we need more clues if possible. It is reflected in the different spellings of a same name spite with the same alphabet. ATWThe pronounciation of ancient tongues is based upon comparisons and deductions.
 
sorry
I insist to say that to understand modern written languages of same family with a lot of international words (technics, medecine, culture etc...) for an educated and knowledged person is not the same as to understand the same languages, but spoken and more "trivial" for people who are not interested in languages.
 

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