To what degree is it possible that G2a's are well adapted to high altitudes?

G2a's in Greece remained in tact from approximately 7000 BC (Thessaly) up until the Bronze Age so even though there was an IE impact on the mainland the G's remained present (albeit in a diluted sense) throughout Dark Ages and beyond. I do think that in Greece G2a's were isolated mountain people particularly in Thessaly and the Peloponnese.
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G2a terribly not suited for war? For me, a controversial statement. This haplogroup includes, for example, the Circassians (Adygs), who from 1763 to 1864 continuously led with the superior Russian army in Europe and the world at that time - at that time. This despite the fact that the Circassians were sorely lacking weapons, a centralized command, they also fought with Turkey, fought among themselves. In fact, these were medieval knight squads. Great warriors and riders. Yes, as a result of genocide with the loss of 90% of the population and territories. But why is everyone passionate about the idea of ​​the ancient G2a genocide? Is there any evidence of this?

I agree 100%. I was taking a stab at the foolishness of the current narrative of G2a being pacifist hippies.

Factually, Khabib Nurmagomedov (from the town with the highest concentration of G2a on earth) and a ton of other noteworthy fighters as well as some of the most dangerous combatants in modern warfare all come from that region. So in my opinion, they were wiped out specifically because they were so dangerous to the R1b's.
 
I think we should be careful making determinations about the past when, in actuality, we know so little. Some room should be left for doubt in any conclusion we come to.

There are several means by which the G2a population in Europe may have declined. Wholesale slaughter is one, and it might be true, but I think an equally likely scenario is that an R1a/R1b invasion of mainly bachelors (that's what I've read it was composed of) took a large percentage of the native female population as wives, leaving the native G2a males with little chance of leaving a succeeding generation of their own.

I'm not so found of the disease scenario since native female haplogroups did not seem to suffer as a result of the Steppe invasion.
 
I think we should be careful making determinations about the past when, in actuality, we know so little. Some room should be left for doubt in any conclusion we come to.

There are several means by which the G2a population in Europe may have declined. Wholesale slaughter is one, and it might be true, but I think an equally likely scenario is that an R1a/R1b invasion of mainly bachelors (that's what I've read it was composed of) took a large percentage of the native female population as wives, leaving the native G2a males with little chance of leaving a succeeding generation of their own.

I'm not so found of the disease scenario since native female haplogroups did not seem to suffer as a result of the Steppe invasion.

I think wholesale slaughter and an invasion of polygamous bachelors of the warrior caste are not mutually exclusive.

The comparison I like to use is the Wild West of the United States. It's so similar to the PIE invasion of Europe it's astounding. Male bachelor's with domesticated horses and guns expand westwards encountering Stone Age to Chalcolithic Native American tribes. This would be akin to being a PIE warrior and having a domesticated horse and bronze weaponry. Successive waves of bands of men push west. They are eventually followed by settlers in covered wagons. Ironically, the PIE's were known to use ox and later horse drawn carriages to transport themselves into newly conquered territory.

I think of the PIE expansion into Europe much like the movie The Revenant. The PIE bachelor warriors were like Leonardo Di Caprio's character. The main difference is that the PIE men would have been polygamous. However, even if they were not, they would likely be followed by settlers or else Europe would be a continent of bastards. We only see this being (possibly) the case with the high R1b in the Basque region but no PIE cultural or linguistic continuity (ie it might be one place where the men were slaughtered but no settlers followed and thus the "bastard" R1b males carried on a non PIE culture despite having the Y-chromosomal genetics from their marauding fathers). However, the Basque region R1b could be due to a much more ancestral clade that moved up north from the Maghreb before the domestication of the horse and were just isolated in their mountains. So the Basque example must be taken with a grain of salt. What we do know, is that if the Neolithic Farmer and Paleolithic Hunter Gatherer men weren't killed, then they likely would have fathered more children than we see now ie we would see a smattering of haplogroups in all areas not mainly just R1b/R1a. Some people argue in favor of high fertility but there is no evidence to suggest R1b men are more fertile. There is much more evidence to suggest they killed all the G2a/I1/I2 males and we know they were polygamous so it would follow that their wives were taken. We also don't see a complete genetic wipe of the female mtDNA so that further suggests the males were killed and the females spared. Now, could there have been 1 male to 15 females in the Neolithic due to land ownership advantages and thus not many G2a males had to be killed to achieve the downstream Y DNA results we see now? Yes that is entirely possible.

The original conquering men would have been predisposed to adventure seeking and violence and have a low propensity for fathering or actively fathering multiple children they sire with multiple wives. This is actually a very common phenomenon in people with anti-social personality disorder and/or psychopathy in modern times. We can assume that if a given population will have let's say 1-2% of the people who subjectively score high on the ASPD and/or psychopathy scale and that a hallmark of the PIE culture is the warrior caste (see "berserkers" [not just a Nordic thing, read about even Celtic, Italic, Dorian, Slavic, or Persian berserkers or similar]) and the warrior caste is deliberately set apart via Dumezil's Trifunctional Hypothesis (which seems very logical), then we can imagine these brutal psychopathic blood thirsty warriors clearing mass amounts of territory in meritocratic war bands (covering large territory due to horses and being extra effective due to bronze weaponry), followed by the craftsman, husbandmen, and priests who would be the ones to actually populate, raise the many children of the warriors, and actually establish sedentary civilizations that later bloomed into the Halstatt Culture, Tocharians, and Indo-Aryans etc.
 

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