Haplogroup J2, Greeks, Phoenicians and Mesopotamians.

Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

Contour map of the frequency and variance distribution in Greece of haplogroup J2a-M410.

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"Euboea (/juːˈbiːə/; Greek: Εύβοια, Evvia; Ancient Greek: Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow, seahorse-shaped island; it is about 150 kilometres (93 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). Its general direction is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos........Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was originally known under other names in ancient times, such as Macris and Doliche from its shape, Ellopia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euboea

GR_Evia.png
 
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks. (Mycenaeans)

"The majority of the haplogroups (R1a-M17, G2a-P15, I2-M438, J1-M267 and J2b-M102) shows times since expansion which ranges from approximately 4,5Kya to 2,7Kya, compatible with Bronze Age and the development of the Helladic civilizations, more specifically with the spread of Mycenaean culture (Montjoy 1998)."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

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"Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (ca. 1600–1100 BC). It takes its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in Argolis, Peloponnese, southern Greece. Other major sites included Tiryns in Argolis, Pylos in Messenia, Athens in Attica, Thebes and Orchomenus in Boeotia, and Iolkos in Thessaly, while Crete and the site of Knossos also became a part of the Mycenaean world. Mycenaean settlement sites also appeared in Epirus, Macedonia, on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant, Cyprus, and Italy."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece

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Gold Mycenaean Death Mask

 
Haplogroup J2, Greeks and Phoenicians.

"In summary, our data are in agreement with a major discontinuity for the peopling of southern Europe. Here, haplogroup J constitutes not only the signature of a single wave-of-advance from the Levant but, to a greater extent, also of the expansion of the Greek world, with an accompanying novel quota of genetic variation produced during its demographic growth."
Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

"Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
Romanian History and Culture.
http://romanianhistoryandculture.webs.com/modernromaniansydna.htm

"J2 - This haplogroup originated during the Neolithic in Central Asia, and spread across the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It may have been brought to Britain by prehistoric farmers, Greek or Phoenician traders and Sephardic Jews among the Normans and the Flemish - as well as by Roman troops and settlers."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project.
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/

"J2 has been well studied and can be split into several clades but whose mode of individual distribution is not well understood. Many influences such as Greek and Roman would have played a part."
Wells Family DNA Project.
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wellsfam/dnaproje/haplogroupJ.html

"Haplogroup J2 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J2a, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J2b, defined by the M12 genetic marker. A subclade of haplogroup J2a, defined by the M92 marker has been implicated in the ancient Greek colonization."
Leslie H. Kyle II.
http://kylehistory.x10.mx/dna.htm
 
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Yes Sile; agreed. We can see those north-African Phoenician (Carthaginian) colonies from northern Libya all the the way to northwestern coastal Morocco. We can see how western Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica were also once under the dominance, not to mention Madeiras islanders and canary islanders with which I have T1a1a3 matches (and a few Moroccans and an Algerian). We can see that the Phoenicians passed through the egyptian Nile and the Red Sea also passing east Africa's Swahili coast and basically contouring all of Africa (for those Atlantic Ocean island skeptics).
 
The Phoenicians would also have reached bay of biscay at cantabria/Asturias and have attained southernmost England via trading posts.
 
It's weird because most Horn of Africa tribe members say they descend from Quraysh tribe of Saudi Arabia, same for Madagascar tribes, same for many Indian tribes (Hyderabad region) high in T, same for many groups that migrated out of Hejaz to the levant/Syria/Jordan/Iraq region etc. No such stories for Europeans with T, likely a Phoenician or Jewish origin, or due to ancient Neolithic gene flow.
 
Haplogroup J2 and Phoenicians. (Carthage)

"J2 is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region and its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC)."
Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080293

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"Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies of Phoenician colonization have demonstrated that haplogroup J2 frequency was amplified in regions containing the Phoenician colonies of Iberia and North Africa in comparison to areas not containing Phoenician colonies."
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69

"Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all contributed to the presence of J2a in Iberia. The particulary strong frequency of J2a and other Near Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b, T) in the south of the Iberian peninsula, suggest that the Phoenicians and the Carthagians played a more decisive role than other peoples."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

"Ancient Carthage (from Phoenician Qart-ḥadašt) was a Semitic civilization centered on the Phoenician city-state of Carthage, located in North Africa on the Gulf of Tunis, outside what is now Tunis, Tunisia. It was founded in 814 BC. Originally a dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre, Carthage gained independence around 650 BC and established a hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the Mediterranean, North Africa and what is now Spain which lasted until the end of the 3rd century BC. At the height of the city's prominence, it was a major hub of trade with political influence extending over most of the western Mediterranean. For much of its history, Carthage was in a constant state of struggle with the Greeks on Sicily and the Roman Republic, which led to a series of armed conflicts known as the Greek-Punic Wars and Punic Wars. The city also had to deal with the potentially hostile Berbers, the indigenous inhabitants of the entire area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Carthage was destroyed and then occupied by Roman forces. Nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies fell into Roman hands from then on."
Ancient Carthage.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthaginian_Republic


"The Punics (from Latin pūnicus, pl. pūnici) were a group of western Semitic-speaking peoples from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician settlers, but also to North African Berbers. Unlike other Phoenicians, Punics had a landowning aristocracy who established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Sahara traderoutes. In later times one of these clans conquered a Hellenistic-inspired empire in Iberia, possibly having a foothold in western Gaul."
Punics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punics

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Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca (247 – 183/182 BC) was a Punic
Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the
greatest military commanders in history.


"The unique colonization pattern of the Phoenicians and the isolation of some of their colonies (Ibiza, Sardinia, Malta) have made it easy to identify their genetic signature. The Phoenician population was already very mixed 3000... years ago : E-V22, J1, J2, J2a4b, J2a4b1, G2a, R1a and R1b1a. E-V22 and R1b1a are quite specific to Levantines (Syrians, Lebanese, Druzes, Jews, Palestinians)."
Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations
 
Haplogoup J2 and Maritime Civilisations. (Greeks and Phoenician)

"All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"When looking at the diffusion of Haplogroup J2a, M410, westward into Europe, one aspect of this westward spread becomes quite clear. M410+ ancestors used a maritime and coastal route to move west."
M172 Blog - Pronou...nced Westward Maritime Diffusion of J2a (M410), 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/pronounced-westward-maritime-diffusion.html

"The J2f-M67 clade is localized to Northwest Turkey. It is well known that during this period, Northwest Anatolia developed a complex society that engaged in widespread Aegean trade referred to as “Maritime Troia culture,” involving both the western Anatolian mainland and several of the large islands in the eastern Aegean, Chios, Lemnos and Lesbos (Korfmann 1996)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"J2 is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region and its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC)."
Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0080293

"According to Di Giacomo’s (2004) study, the high diversity of haplogroup J2 in Turkish and southern European populations suggests that this branch of haplogroup J originated around the Aegean, not the Middle East. Additionally, it appears that much of J2 was confined to the coastal Mediterranean areas, indicating that maritime trade, rather than earlier Neolithic agricultural expansions, may have helped spread J2 throughout the Mediterranean world."
A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

"The strong western (-0.82) but weak southern (-0.37) orientation of J2 is unexpected if J2 came to Germany from the Balkans, but is consistent with a maritime mode of propagation of this haplogroup."
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/04/haplogroup-correlations-in-germans.html

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"A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans."
Trireme
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trireme
 
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The Phoenicians would also have reached bay of biscay at cantabria/Asturias and have attained southernmost England via trading posts.

Its well known that the Phoenicians had a trading post in Brittany with the Veneti and also another in southern Ireland.
 
Geneticist Dr. Spencer Wells speaks of his project "Quest of the Phoenicians". Also, he speaks of his parter in the project, Lebanese Dr. Pierre Zalloua. They take DNA samples from the Phoenician home land "Lebanon" and their colonies.


"In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."

Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia
 
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Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html

Attalos_II_Meret_%C3%96wazov_Antalya.jpg

Statue of Attalus II. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_II_Philadelphus
 
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html

Attalos_II_Meret_%C3%96wazov_Antalya.jpg

Statue of Attalus II. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_II_Philadelphus

RHAS
Thank you! It is exciting and it is a lot of job with documents.
 
Haplogroup J2 and Minoans. (Greek)

"The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
The Minoans, DNA and all.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/the-minoans-dna-and-all/

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012)."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

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Sea-Traders from Crete. (Painting by John Duncan.)

"The world`s maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a4d (M319) appears to be native to Crete."
Eupedia.com 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

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The Prince of the Lilies or the Lily prince, is a celebrated ancient Minoan fresco on the Greek island of Crete dated to circa 1550 BC (the new palace period between 1700 and 1450 BC).

"It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

 
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Haplogroup J2 and Minoans. (Greek)

"Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html

"Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia)."
The Sacred Bull.
http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/

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"In addition to Hg J-M410, Hg G-P15 chromosomes, which are also common in Anatolia, have been implicated in the colonization and subsequent expansion of early farmers in Crete, the Aegean and Italy."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

"Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic, 2008.
http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF

"An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

 
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Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"When the fact that Hungarians are a mix of Central Asian and Mediterranean DNA is combined with the linguistic and cultural evidence I present in my book, the only logical conclusion for the origins of the Uralic peoples is the Indian subcontinent, in the region of the Hindu Kush."
Magyar Origins - Hungarian DNA is not from North Asia.
http://www.magyarorigins.com/hungariandna.html

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Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"When the fact that Hungarians are a mix of Central Asian and Mediterranean DNA is combined with the linguistic and cultural evidence I present in my book, the only logical conclusion for the origins of the Uralic peoples is the Indian subcontinent, in the region of the Hindu Kush."
Magyar Origins - Hungarian DNA is not from North Asia.
http://www.magyarorigins.com/hungariandna.html

Are you kidding me!!!

Not just Hungarians, but also all Indo Europeans are from India, and probably everyone else with American Indians included of course, lol.
 

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