Vlach haplogroups & deep ancestry?

It looks like people from those area socialized naturally, were desinvolte,sincere, loved to party intensely, without a doubt,an instinctive carpe diem,preserved in the Romanian word for party,petrecere,Latin pertraicere,which literally meant something very intense,that changes you completely and from which you will never return.
These parties helped them to succeed naturally in life,to be very fast,creative,really charismatic,with initiative,sociable, sincere.

http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/historians/notes/campania.html

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeii
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osci#

https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/petrece#Romanian

https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/traicio#Latin
 
Vlach haplogroups & deep ancestry?

I deleted my previous post because of inaccurate map that I posted... my bad.
 
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In reality,the number of preserved Latin elements should be even bigger in the south,because in Northern Italy the Byzantine-Greek influence was way more institutionalized and constant,under the form of Exarchate of Ravenna-Ostrogothic Kingdom,even if I am talking about a shorter span.
 
Well Dacia was Roman province from 107–275.Genetically both Italians and Romanians have very little to nothing in common except Latin based language.
Romanians live next to Slavs for thousands years and are very similar genetically.
Romanians used Old Church Slavonic in churches until 19th century,had Slavic names even in present.
Romanian language was much more Slavic influenced until it's reformation,making it more Latin.
Wallachia was more under Bulgarian rule than ever was Roman.
Overall Vlachs and Slavs had similar/same history and there wasn't culture bariers,except one being more agriculturalist other more pastoralists.
These Vlachs are very fast even now,check some Moravian clips,where they claim to have already reached a million.
Despite mobility, certain centers and settlements have always been here and there,otherwise Serbia wouldn't have had a number of Romanian placenames(apart from Timok),like Catun,Surdul(The Deaf),Vlasina,Vlasotinoce etc,with definitely a well-structured economy,for instance,my father's village produces the best plum brandy from the entire Wallachia,branded Two Velvet Eyes,Dobrin's Eyes or simply Tuica de Pitesti and has one of the main pottery workshops,with a variety of goods ,such as TEST(TZEST),from Latin TESTUM,which is an OVEN for BAKING BREAD,the oldest piece was discovered in the Olt county and dates from the 10th c.
 
The increased levels of I2a ,30% in the lineages,suggests a mainly Moldavian origin of the Moravian Valachs,since the article hypothesis, an Ukrainian input due to the migration from Transylvania can be easily overruled ,because even now people from the Western Carpathians are overwhelmingly Dinaric.Moldavians score 48% in Piatra-Neamt probably because the early rulers like Bogdan and Dragos and their successors have kept some contacts with the Serbian royalty,while the relations with the Polish Kingdom,that has occupied the largest part(including Ukraine) of the Western Carpathians,are well-known.
The Moldavian colonization have reached Silesia,with over 600 villages recorded by the Polish acts until 1600(Polish source).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131682/#!po=40.1408
Even if the level of Serbian borrowings is overally low,we recognize some additional words for the Northern Romanian dialects, which are proportional to the Western Romance elements and the n-r rhotacism.
According to the Romanian and Hungarian historians,the n-r rhotacized speech,which was integrated into the Northern Romanian dialects,was used by the Vlach speakers that lived around the Ibar and possibly Lower Sava and Western Romania,while the lack of it is recorded on the Morava valley.
This data from the Early Serbia was used as a criteria for placing Aromanian,that shares the lowest number of n-r rhotacism with Wallachian,on the Morava around Nis,however it is clearly connected to the Northern Romanian dialects at some extent,so a more western position is indicated,perhaps near/towards Ulpiana,that would explain the additional elements ,common with the Southern Italian dialects and the least Western Romance influence.
 
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Some Vlachs in Balkans were asimilatted by south Slavs, Albanians and Greeks.
Vlachs which migrated from Bulgaria, southeastern Serbia and southern Balkans to modern southern Romania from 12th to 14th century asimilatted a lot of Slavs in modern Romania. Because of that Romanian language is genetic are heavy Slavic influenced, in Romania there is a hundreds Slavic toponyms.
Some Vlachs are slavized, albanized and helenized, but some Slavs are vlachized.
Romanians are not only one Vlachs which absorbed Slavic population, Aromanians also absorbed some Slavs but less than Romanians.
Aromanians have 17% I2a1b and 10% R1a, which means that Aromanians have 27% Slavic Y DNA.
Romanians have 28% I2a1b and 18% R1a, which means that Romanians have 46% Slavic Y DNA.
Many Vlacho-Romanian rulers from middle age had Slavic names such as:
Vlad the Impaler (Vlad is from a short form of Slavic names Vladimir and Vladislav) [video]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad[/video]
Bogdan III the One-Eyed (Bogdan is name of Slavic origin, very popular among south Slavs, Russians and Ukrainians) [video]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogdan_III_the_One-Eyed[/video]
Radu I of Wallachia (Rad means work on many Slavic language, name Rade is very popular among Serbs and name Radek is very popular among Czechs) [video]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radu_I_of_Wallachia[/video]
Mircea I of Wallachia (name Mircea derivated from Slavic word Mir which means peace, Slavic names Miroslav and Mirko also derivated from Mir) [video]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mircea_I_of_Wallachia[/video]
Speaking of freestyle liberty fighters or hajduks,their deeds are remembered in this fragment of a movie,the action takes place in the Habsburg Empire,shortly after the disintegration of the first Romanian state,created by the Wallachians at 1600,not that easily, fighting against the Ottomans, Poles,Hungarians, Habsburgs,and,of course,Moldavians.
It's about the leftovers of the Wallachian army,that,although remain without a goal,start to feel somehow sentimental and decide to turn back home.
We do have this Western Wallachian actor that starts to sing a very beautiful song"At the beginning of spring/Girls are coming/To take a fresh air /Naked, to be fair/I just wanna be a yarn/To bite them,to kiss them, till dawn/Seems that I don't need anything else...


https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KkrDXMz5wWE
 
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Although rhotacism is a well-known Latin compound, for the Romanian speech we encounter the following phonological shift, it is the story of certain d,that turns to r,so common in Napolitano, but it was not observed so far.

Latin admissarius,Romanian armasar

The assimilation doesn't cause too many problems, because it was triggered by the rhotacism, for example,Latin fenestra,Romanian fereastra.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neapolitan_language
 
In the present post I will refer to a very important article that literally changed the lives of the Western Carpathian people, Valaska namely,without a doubt,one of the most representative symbols of the above-mentioned communities.
With an alternative name that leaves little room for interpretations, Shepherd's Axe,replicated, just like the Romanian-Vlach originals, into a softer metal-free staff,it represents the key item for certain outstanding personalities,such as Juraj Janosik.
We can easily identify the Roman traditions here,present in both dolabra and securis versions,since many events have exceeded the geographical barriers .


https://www.google.ro/amp/s/aaroncr...014/02/12/robbing-the-rich-juraj-janosik/amp/


http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rogerulrich/tools_woodworking.html


https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/securis



https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shepherd's_axe
 
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Aromanian or Romanian, they call themselves Vlach.

The Vlach people are primarily pastoralists involved in the raising of livestock, they have inhabited the mountains of Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and the former Yugoslavia and profess the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith. Traditionally they spoke a proto-Romanian language and those Vlach who reside in Greece, Albania and the former Yugoslavia have taken the side of the Greek in wars and scuffles with other ethnic groups.
Vlach-expansion.jpg

This figure illustrates two of the three origin theories as proposed by Bosch et al. (2005), namely that the Vlachs originated from either the Dacians or the Thracians along the Danube.

In a landmark study Bosch et al. (2005) concluded, 'The homogeneity of the Balkan populations prevented testing for the origin of the Aromuns, although a significant Roman contribution can be ruled out.'

'All the Balkan populations analysed here were genetically homogeneous with the exception of some Aromun samples. This was particularly evident with the Y chromosome, as both haplogroup and 19 STR haplotype based data showed significant differences among the Aromun groups. Therefore, it seems that the Aromun populations do not constitute a homogeneous group separated from the rest of the Balkan populations, but that they present relative heterogeneity, especially for paternal lineage composition, between themselves.'

Bosch et al. (2005) posit the following theories regarding the possible origins of the Vlach:
1. Latinized Greeks
2. Descendants of Dacians who lived north of the Danube
3. Descendants of Thracians who lived south of the Danube

This is what Encyclopedia Britannica has about Vlachs:

Vlach
European ethnic group
Written By:

See Article History

Alternative Titles: Armãn, Aromanian, Macedo-Vlach, Macedoromanian, Rãmãn, Vlah
Vlach, also spelled Vlah, autonyms Armãn and Rãmãn, also called Aromanian, Macedoromanian, and Macedo-Vlach, any of a group of Romance-language speakers who live south of the Danube in what are now southern Albania, northern Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, and southwestern Bulgaria. Vlach is the English-language term used to describe such an individual. The majority of Vlachs speak Aromanian, but inhabitants of a few villages on both sides of the border between Greece and southeastern Macedonia speak Meglenoromanian and call themselves Vla (plural Vlaš). There is also a Vlach diaspora in other European countries, especially Romania, as well as in North America and Australia.
Estimates of the number of Vlachs and of Aromanian speakers vary widely. The only official figures for those declaring Vlach ethnic affiliation come from the Republic of Macedonia (2002), 9,695, with 6,884 declaring Vlach their mother tongue; Albania (2011), 8,266, with 3,848 claiming Aromanian as their mother tongue; and Bulgaria (2011), 3,684 ethnic Vlachs. Estimates for Romania vary between 30,000 and 100,000. Estimates for Greece vary even more.
Etymology of the term Vlach

The name Vlach comes from a Celtic tribal name recorded by Caesar as Volcae and by Strabo and Ptolemy as Ouólkai, and it was transferred from Latin to Gothic as *walhs. In Gothic, from which it entered Slavic, the ethnonym took on the meaning “foreigner” or “Latin speaker.” The form Vlach reflects South Slavic metathesis, while the name of the former Romanian kingdom of Walachia reflects East Slavic treatment.
In Serbia the term Vlach (Serbian Vlah, plural Vlasi) is also used to refer to Romanian speakers, especially those living in eastern Serbia. Formerly, the term was used for any Romanian speaker. The term Cincar (plural Cincari) is used in Serbia for Aromanians. That term is not favoured by Aromanians, but some in Serbia use it to distinguish themselves from Romanians. It has its origins as a nickname based on the Aromanian pronunciation of the word for “five”—tsints—as opposed to the Romanian word cinci (pronounced “chinchi”). In Greece the term Kutsovlach (“lame Vlach”) is sometimes used, but many find it offensive.
Aromanians themselves use the ethnonym Armãn (plural Armãni) or Rãmãn (plural Rãmãni), etymologically from Romanus, meaning “Roman.” Meglenoromanians designate themselves with the Macedonian form Vla (plural Vlaš) in their own language. In the modern Aromanian orthography used in the Republic of Macedonia, the only country where Aromanian has official status (it is one of the officially recognized minority languages), a tilde (~) is used to indicate schwa (i.e., ã), rather than the breve (ă) of Romanian. In the 21st century both Aromanian and Meglenoromanian were severely endangered languages.
The question of Vlach origins and how that affects their status

Although the origin of Aromanian and Meglenoromanian (and Romanian) from Balkan Latin is beyond question, it is unclear to what extent contemporary Balkan Romance speakers are descended from Roman colonists or from indigenous pre-Roman Balkan populations who shifted to Latin. The question itself is of historical interest, but the potential answers are deployed politically. The term Vlach first occurs in late medieval sources, but scholars cannot be certain whether it is used consistently to refer to Romance speakers or not. There is a thousand-year gap in textual attestations of Romance in the Balkans (from the 6th to the 16th centuries ce). It is therefore not known if speakers of Balkan Latin all left Dacia at the end of the Roman occupation (107–271 ce) and then migrated northward after the Magyar invasions at the turn of the millennium, or whether Romanized Dacians remained north of the Danube and survived waves of subsequent invasion, presumably in the mountains, before expanding. Moreover, since Aromanian and Meglenoromanian are spoken south of the Jireček line—i.e., in the region where Greek rather than Latin was the language of inscriptions—there is a question concerning whether those speakers are Romanized autochthonous populations or peoples who migrated to the current locations during the Middle Ages. There is an additional question of whether Meglenoromanian branched off from Aromanian or Romanian.
Nationalist historians deploy one or the other scenario to justify modern territorial claims or claims to indigeneity. Thus, Hungarian (Magyar) claims to Transylvania assume a complete Roman exodus from Dacia, while Romanian claims assume that Romance continued to be spoken by Romanized Dacians. Most scholars who are not nationally affiliated assume the second scenario. As for the Aromanians, it is entirely reasonable to argue that Roman roads in the southern Balkans were lined with Roman guard posts, thus providing a source of spoken Latin in a region where Greek remained the language of inscriptions. That claim is supported by the observation that written language did not necessarily correspond to spoken language in most of the Balkans in ancient times. Those Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in regions where Greek was the dominant prestige language became pastoralists or town dwellers during the Slavic invasions of the 6th and 7th centuries, if they were not already in one or the other social class at the time of those invasions.
Linguists generally accept a combination of linguistic and historical reconstruction that postulates a unified East Balkan Romance language area both north and south of the Danube that was broken up sometime between the Slavic invasions (6th–7th century) and the first textual references to Vlachs in Byzantine sources (11th century). Moreover, the evidence of shared innovations in Aromanian and Meglenoromanian indicate that the latter branched off from the former, rather than from Romanian. Some Romanian linguists recognize Aromanian as a separate Balkan Romance language, whereas others consider it a dialect of Romanian despite the many differences and the separation of a millennium or more. For example, Aromanian differs from Romanian in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. Some dialects have phonemes not found in Romanian, and others have eliminated older Common East Balkan Romance changes that are preserved in Romanian. The overall syntax and lexicon of Aromanian are closer to Albanian, Greek, and Macedonian than those of Romanian, which in those respects patterns more with Bulgarian. Aromanian has also preserved a much higher proportion of vocabulary of Turkish origin than has Romanian. Aromanian is used and codified as a distinct language in the Republic of Macedonia and in Albania. The Ottoman Empire recognized Vlach as a distinct millet (“nation”; i.e., as a distinct church) on May 23, 1905 (May 10, Old Style); May 23 is treated in Macedonia as the Aromanian national holiday. In Greece the Vlachs, like other Christian minorities, have no language rights. Books of Vlach folklore and linguistic studies have, however, been published there, and occasional folklore performances are permitted.

 
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The coastal Campanian resorts,such as Baiae, were not used by the Rome's elite only for entertainment, in fact, there is clear evidence for existing roads that have linked them with Puteoli,the Empire's most important commercial port, all of these places represented contact zones with the powerful local aristocracy, merchants and landowners,it definitely was enough room for lobby, since these healthy economic relations will soonly become long-lasting,certain mutual influences,including the cultural ones,have been inevitable.


One of the typical examples of these specific contacts is Taurobolium,firstly attested in Puteoli,it becomes an important Imperial cult,the occurrence is definitely not arbitrary, because the term bufalus represents an Oscan development within Latin,having bubalus as a source;b turns to f,like in Sabini-Safineis.


The cult eventually becomes pagan,which explains the negative and restrained semantics of the Romanian popular term buala(Latin bubalus),used as a admonishing formula for driving cattle and in expressions like "Ce bualii(faci)?!", "What the hell(are you doing)?!",another clue that we are dealing with a taboo word comes from the Albanian buall,which preserves the original meaning,a buffalo.


Phonology testifies the Romanian development, with the intervocalic consonant falling, L. caballus,R cal.
However,a rhotacized version ,bour,which is a contamination with bou(bull) of the original buar,has survived in the conservative Moldavian speech,which can indicate that the region's flag dates from the Roman period.
 
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