In medieval times, all cities and most towns were protected by walls or ramparts. With the expansion of cities as a consequence of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, the end of siege warfare, most ramparts were torn down.
Only a dozen cities and towns in France have maintained their complete fortifications. Here are the most attractive ones.
Avignon, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Guérande, Pays de la Loire