The following maps were created based on the data from the Dodecad Project and Eurogenes.
The map of Early European Farmer (EEF), Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) and West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) ancestry uses Eurogenes's EEF-WHG-ANE test. The Steppe and Hindu Kush admixtures are based on Eurogenes Steppe K10. The Gedrosian and Caucasian maps are based on the Dodecad's K=12b admixtures. The Red Sea map uses the K=10a admixtures. The Atlantic admixture is based on Eurogenes K15. All the other maps were are based on the Dodecad's K=12 admixtures.
Note that the 'West European' admixture was renamed 'Northwest European' on Eupedia, as it fits better the overall distribution of this admixture. The African admixture was computed by adding up the Northwest African, East African, Neo African and Paleo African components, which were too minor in Europe on their own. The East Asian admixture combines Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia.
Please be aware that the maps are very approximate due to the scantity of regional data available, and the complete lack of data for some countries at present (including the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, and Macedonia).
Early European Farmer (EEF) admixture
This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Neolithic individual from Stuttgart in Germany, who lived 7500 years ago. The Neolithic sample was tested by Lazaridis et al. (2014). It is supposed to reflect the percentage of similarity with Neolithic farmers who colonised Europe from the Near East. The closest modern populations are the Ashkenazi Jews (93%), Maltese (93%) and Sicilians (90%).
Distribution of the Early European Farmer (EEF) in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) admixture
This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Central Siberian mammoth hunter (known as MA-1), who lived 24,000 years ago and belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R* and mtDNA haplogroup U*. The Paleolithic sample was tested by Raghavan et al. (2014). This admixture was absent from Mesolithic European samples, except in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe, and was completely absent from all Neolithic European samples tested to date. It is thought to have been spread across Europe and the Middle East by the Proto-Indo-Europeans (Y-haplogroups R1a and R1b) from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, and to a lower extent also by Uralic people (Finns, Estonians, Magyars) and Turkic people (Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, Kurds, Turks). The ANE admixture is particularly common today among North Caucasian and Volga-Ural ethnicities, who live in regions strongly associated with the development of Proto-Indo-European cultures in the Early Bronze Age. Within Europe, the highest percentages of ANE admixture are observed among the Lezgins (26.5%), Chechens (26%), North Ossetians (23.5%) Kumyks (23.5%), and Adyghei (22.5%). Frequencies of over 20% of R1b have been found among the Lezgins, Kumyks and North Ossetians.
Distribution of the Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) admixture
This map compares the genes of modern people to the DNA of a Mesolithic hunter-gatherer from the Loschbour cave in Luxembourg, who lived 8000 years ago and belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup I2a1b and mtDNA haplogroup U5. The sample was tested by Lazaridis et al. (2014). It is supposed to reflect the percentage of similarity with the Late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic inhabitants of Western Europe. Nowadays this admixture peaks among the Estonians (49.5%), Finns (47%), Lithuanians (46.5%), Icelanders (45.5%) and Orcadians (45.5%).
Distribution of the West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
This map reflects the percentage of genetic similarity to the Bronze Age populations of the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. It is based on the ancient genomes from the Yamna culture, one of the homelands of the Proto-Indo-European speakers, tested by Wilde et al. (2014) and Haak et al. (2015), but only reflects the Northeast European component of the Yamna ancestry (the Gedrosian component is the Hindu Kush admixture below). The skeletons of Yamna kings/chieftains or nobles found in kurgan burials belonged almost exclusively to Y-haplogroup R1b. Notwithstanding, among modern Europeans it is the Uralic, Baltic, Slavic, Germanic and North Caucasian people wdisplay the highest levels of this specific Steppe admixture, not Western Europeans, who now have the highest percentage of haplogroup R1b. There are several reasons for this. First, Yamna people were almost certainly not pure R1b trbes, as they descended from the Khvalynsk culture, which also had R1a and Q1a. Secondly, ancient samples from the Corded Ware culture, which had a much higher frequency of R1a than R1b, was almost undistinguishable autosomally from Yamna samples. This means that the difference of Y-DNA ratio was probably due to the difference in ruling lineages among the elite of each culture. Thirdly, R1b arrived in Western Europe after over a thousand years of genetic dilution through intermarriages with Balkanic and Central European people. By the time R1b arrived in East Germany around 2500 BCE, only half of their genomes were derived from Yamna. This would be further diluted as R1b men advanced into Western Europe taking local wives. In contrast, the opposite trend occured in the eastern half of Europe. R1b lost its position of dominance and was replaced by R1a and N1c lineages, starting from the Catacomb culture in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, and continuing until the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, Yamna ancestry was passed maternally in the Steppe and in neighbouring populations, which explains the high Yamna admixture from the Baltic to the North Caucasus. An additional explanation for the high Yamna admixture among the Uralic populations is the shared ANE (Ancient North Eurasian) ancestry between Y-haplogroups N and R.
Distribution of the Yamna admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Hindu Kush admixture
This Hindu Kush admixture peaks in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, especially among the Kalash, Brahui, Balochi and Pathan ethnic groups. It probably reflects the ancestral component of eastern Neolithic farmers from Iran (who may have belonged to Y-haplogroup J2). It seems to be correlated especially with Y-haplogroup J2, and to a lower extent also J1. This admixture is almost identical to the Gedrosian admixture from the Dodecad K12b.
Distribution of the Hindu Kush admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Northwest European admixture
The Northwest European admixture appears to be strongly Indo-European and correlates particularly well with the haplogroup R1b-L11, representing essentially the Italic, Celtic and Germanic branches of the Indo-Europeans. In eastern Europe, the Northwest European admixture once merged with the East European admixture represents the Baltic and Slavic branches of the Indo-Europeans.
Distribution of the Northwest European admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
East European admixture
Note the resemblance with the distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup R1a.
Distribution of the East European admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
This admixture peaks in the Basque population and may be correlated to the Mesolithic Western European Hunter-Gatherers.
Distribution of the Atlantic admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Distribution of the Mediterranean admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
West Asian admixture
Note the resemblance with the distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup J2.
Distribution of the West Asian admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
The Caucasian admixture was probably brought to Europe by various West Asian people during the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Bronze Age.
Distribution of the Caucasian admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
The Gedrosian admixture was probably brought to Europe by Y-DNA haplogroup R1b, although its distribution in Asia correlates more with Y-haplogroups G, J2 and L.
Distribution of the Gedrosian admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Southwest Asian admixture
Note the resemblance with the distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup J1.
Distribution of the Southwest Asian admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
Red Sea admixture
The Red Sea admixture peaks in Ethiopia and Somalia, the region of origin of Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b, to which its distribution is closely linked, except in northwestern Europe.
Distribution of the Red Sea (Horn of Africa) admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
This is essentially a Northwest African admixture. Note the resemblance with the distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup E-M81.
Distribution of the African admixture in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa
East Asian admixture
Distribution of the East Asian admixture in Europe and the Middle East
|Comparing maps of autosomal DNA with Y-DNA haplogroups|
It is tempting to make analogies between the distribution of autosomal admixtures and that of Y-DNA haplogroups. While both of them represent the migrations of certain populations and may roughly correspond to the same source populations, it is essential to understand that any correspondance has its limits for a number of reasons.
Whereas Y-chromosomal lineages can be organised in a neat genealogical tree ('phylogenetic tree' is the technical word), it is much harder for autosomes due to the fact that they get mixed up ('recombined') at every generation with other autosomes. To trace back the origins of a population, the idea is to check which modern populations share the same unique mutations spread out on all 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes. That's why they are referred to as "admixtures". The names for each admixture are arbitrary and do not necessarily refer to the source population who spread those genes, but usually the geographic region where it is most common today. For example, the Southwest Asian admixture got its name because this set of mutations is most common in the Arabian peninsula nowadays. But Arabic people descend from nomadic herders who lived around the Zagros and Taurus mountains, around northern Mesopotamia, during the Neolithic period. This is also the case of Y-haplogroup J1, with which the Southwest Asian admixture best correlates. In other words, the so-called Southwest Asian admixture found in a European individual may never have come from Southwest Asia (Arabic peninsula) at all, but rather from Anatolia.
Any admixture can be broken down into a number of more specific admixtures, splitting populations that may otherwise have looked closely related. The Northwest European admixture almost certainly comprises DNA markers from two completely different source populations. That is why it is found at high frequencies among the Finns, the Irish and the Iberians, three populations that do not share a lot in common history or phenotypes. It is also found at lower but still substantial frequencies in the Chuvash people (22%) from the Volga region, and the Adygey people (16%) from the North Caucasus, and the Uyghur people (10%) from Northwest China. In all likelihood, the Northwest European component is composed of markers belonging to the Paleolithic population of northern and western Europe (haplogroup I), as well as an Indo-European element (haplogroup R1b) that originated in the Black Sea region.
The way Y chromosomes and autosomes are transmitted is very different. Y chromosomes are strictly inherited from fathers to sons and never recombine, while autosomes are inherited at 50% through each parent. This will inevitably affect their respective geographic distribution since it is known that in most European societies through the ages male children (usually the eldest sons) were the ones who inherited the land, house, farm or even castle from their parents, and therefore stayed from generation to generation at the same place. Women, on the contrary, were married off to men from neighbouring tribes, villages or towns. They were sometimes sent quite far away, especially in royal and noble families that frequently used daughters to seal alliances with other families, or just sought a suitor of a similar social level which they could not find close to home (or at least not without risking inbreeding). This is still common practice among the high aristocracy nowadays. This explains why maternal lineages (mtDNA) and autosomal DNA is much more evenly spread out geographically than paternal lineages (Y-DNA).
Y chromosomes sometimes disappear for evolutionary reasons. Mutations in one lineage can have a negative incidence on male fertility, causing men to have more female offspring (who do not pass on Y-DNA), have less children (contraction of the Y-DNA lineage), or in extreme cases even become sterile (extinction of the Y-DNA lineage).
Y chromosomes may suffer dramatic decline in frequency due to wars, in the event men from a tribe or ethnic group are killed in large numbers by their opponents, and their women taken by the winners. Since autosomes are also passed on by women, autosomes would survive such a scenario even if all male lineages went extinct (which was probably very rare, but once in history is enough to affect a region permanently).
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