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Distribution of European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups by region in percentage
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|Haplogroups description||Haplogroups timeline||Migration maps||Ancient DNA||Y-DNA by country||Y-DNA Maps||MtDNA by country|
|Haplogroup E1b1b||Haplogroup G2a||Haplogroup I1||Haplogroup I2||Haplogroup J1||Haplogroup J2||Haplogroup R1a||Haplogroup R1b|
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Human mitochondrial DNA can be divided in genealogical groups sharing a common ancestor. These are called haplogroups. In Europe, mtDNA haplogroups cannot be easily associated with ancient ethnicities. However, they can sometimes reveal some potential medical conditions (see diseases associated with mtDNA mutations). Here is a list of defining mutations for European mtDNA haplogroups. Check this page to know more about the mtDNA testing process and how to trace your ancestry.
Note that figures are only indicative. Several sources were used and averages recalculated by merging the data available. Being approximations, numbers were rounded up to 0.5%. Frequencies inferior to 0.25% are indicated as 0%. Highest frequencies for each haplogroup are in bold. Subclades of H and U tend to be underestimated because not all samples were tested for subclade. A non-exhaustive list of the sources used for this page can be found here.
The percentages of haplogroups H1, H3 and U5 is given in addition to the total for H and U. This is useful to assess the proportion of Paleolithic European (Cro-Magnon) lineages, as opposed to later arrivals.
The "Other" category includes mostly the older haplogroups N, R, pre-HV and HV, but also occasionally a few African (L) or Asian haplogroups (A, B, C, D, M, Z).
The largest sample sizes in this data base are Germany (n = 2610), England (n = 1577), Scotland (n = 1413), Ireland (n = 1397), France (n = 878), Italy (n = 808), Norway (n = 703), Finland (n = 580), and Iceland (n = 511). Each country has at least 100 samples.