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Distribution of European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups by region in percentage

Last update : February 2014 (updated Belgium).

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Human mitochondrial DNA can be divided in genealogical groups sharing a common maternal ancestor. These are called haplogroups, and they are used in population genetics to trace back (pre)historical population movements. You can sort each haplogroup in the table by frequencies by clicking on the name of a haplogroup.

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups or subclades can sometimes reveal some potential medical conditions (see diseases associated with mtDNA mutations).

The column for haplogroup U includes U1, U6, U7, U8 and U9. Note that figures are only indicative. The higher the sample size the more accurate the frequencies, although significant regional variations are the norm in larger countries. A non-exhaustive list of the sources used for this page can be found here.

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European mtDNA haplogroup chart


Region/Haplogroup L HV H H1+H3 H5 HV0+V J T1 T2 U2 U3 U4 U5 U K I W X Other Size
Albania 0.3 0.9 47.9 (3) (4) 3.4 7.1 4.3 5.5 1.9 0.6 2.5 6.4 2.8 5.2 1.8 2.5 1.8 5.1 149
Algeria 24.8 1.3 31.3 (12) (1) 7.5 4.4 3.7 1.5 0.6 0.3 0.3 2.1 6.5 3.4 0.1 0.3 1.3 9.7 939
Armenia 0 5.9 29.1 (2) (1.4) 0 9.6 5.5 5 0.9 5 4.1 3.6 8.2 7.3 1.4 0.9 3.6 10 220
Ashkenazi Jews 1.4 5 22.8 (7.5) (2.7) 4.1 6.8 0 4.8 0 1 1 2 2.1 31.8 1.3 1.6 0.8 13.4 836
Austria 0 0.8 44.9 (16.5) (3.7) 1.9 8.8 4 8 1.9 0.8 4.6 8.6 1.4 8.6 1.1 1.3 1.3 2 374
Azerbaijan 0 6 23.3 (6) (0.9) 2.6 6 4.3 9.5 0.9 3.5 3.5 4.3 8.6 4.3 2.6 2.6 3.5 14.6 116
Belarus 0 2 39.1 (11) (2.9) 6 8.9 2.3 5.1 2.3 2 3.1 9.1 6.6 2.3 1.7 3.7 0.3 5.4 350
Belgium/Luxembourg 0.2 0.8 44.6 (27.3) (6.6) 3.3 6 1.6 8.3 0.8 0.8 3.3 4.1 5.5 13.2 1.6 3.3 1.6 1 121
Bosnia-Herzegovina 0.5 1.1 45.8 (5.6) 4.7 8.3 1.8 4.4 0.8 0.8 4.9 8.8 1.1 4.9 3.2 2.9 0.8 5 521
Bulgaria 0.3 3.8 41.9 (9.5) (3.2) 3.6 7.7 4.7 4.7 1.3 2 3.9 6.9 2.5 5.8 1.4 2.5 1.8 5.2 989
Croatia 0 3.7 41.1 (13.5) 5.1 9.7 1.5 5.8 1.7 0.1 1.8 10.3 0.1 5.1 3.2 3.3 1.1 6.4 721
Cyprus 2.4 2.4 30.7 0.2 5.1 1.2 5.4 0 5.4 3.6 1.2 7.2 20.5 3.1 3.5 2.5 11 166
Czech Republic 0.3 1.7 40.2 (15) (4) 2.9 10 4 7.7 1.1 1.7 2.3 9.7 0.6 3.4 2.9 1.1 2 8.4 351
Denmark 0.5 0 47.3 (1.3) 3.6 13.4 1.3 5.8 2.7 0 2.2 5.8 1.4 8.9 2.3 0.9 0.9 3 224
Egypt 21.8 4 15.7 (0.4) 0.4 8.8 5.3 6.1 0.6 3.3 1 1.6 2.9 4.5 2 1 0.6 20.6 491
England 0.2 0 44.7 (20) (4.1) 3.2 11.5 1.6 6.2 1.5 0.6 2.2 9.1 2.7 7.8 4 1.2 1.6 1.9 2333
Estonia 0 0.8 45.8 (20) (3.8) 1.5 10.7 1.5 7.6 1.5 0.8 5.7 13.3 1.1 1.9 1.1 3 0.8 2.7 262
Finland 0 0 36.3 (19) (2.3) 7.3 5.9 2 2.4 0.6 0 1.1 20.7 0.8 4.5 4.2 9.6 1.3 3.3 971
France 0.9 2 44.3 (26.5) (3.1) 5 7.7 1.9 6.2 1.6 1 2.5 8.2 1.4 8.7 2 1.9 0.9 3.8 1216
  • Brittany
  • 0 0 45.6 4.7 6.7 2 8.4 1.3 2.3 2 10.4 1.7 6 3 3.4 0.7 1 298
    Georgia 0 3.8 19.9 (1.5) (1.5) 0.4 3.1 4.6 8.8 1.2 4.6 8.4 4.2 4.6 11.9 0.4 3.1 2.7 18.4 261
    Germany 0.3 0.5 44.8 (16) (4.8) 4 9 2.8 7.8 1 1.1 2.9 8.8 0.8 6.6 2.1 1.7 1.3 4.5 2490
    Greece 0.1 2.7 40.5 (6) (3.7) 1.8 9.5 3.5 6.6 0.7 3.8 2.6 5.2 2.5 5.1 2 1.3 4.2 7.9 996
    Hungary 0.3 0.8 39.2 (16.5) (3.5) 4.9 10.1 2.5 8.7 0.8 0.5 3.3 7.4 1.4 6.8 1.9 5.2 1.1 5.1 367
    Iceland 0.2 3.6 37.7 (23) (3.6) 2.1 13.7 0.5 10.1 0 0 2.8 7.7 0.2 9.8 3.9 0.5 1.5 3.3 998
    Iraq 7.6 9.2 17.2 (1.5) (2.6) 0.2 13.2 5.4 3.5 0.9 5 2.8 1.4 7.3 5.2 0.9 2.1 1.2 16.7 424
    Ireland 0 1.3 44.1 (22.5) (1.3) 5.7 10.7 1.3 5.4 1.3 1 1.3 8.4 0.3 12 3 2.3 0.7 1.2 299
    Italy 0.8 2.9 40.2 (11) (3.9) 3.3 8.1 3.3 8.2 1.6 2.1 1.9 4.6 2.7 7.7 1.4 1.9 2 7.3 2799
  • Sardinia
  • 0.5 4.4 44.3 (31.5) (1) 3.7 13 2.9 10.3 0 0 0 10 1.4 6 1.6 0.4 0.4 0.8 328
    Jordan 13.7 6 25.2 (2) (1.6) 0 6 0.6 6.6 1.1 14.8 1.6 0.6 4.4 4.4 1.6 1.1 1.1 11.4 183
    Kurdistan 2.2 8.5 17.5 (1.7) 0.7 14.8 5 3.5 1.1 2.8 0.6 1.7 15.8 5.1 3.4 2.8 1.1 17 178
    Latvia 0 2.2 42 (7) 2.7 6 1.7 6.3 3.6 2.2 8.7 10 1.2 2.4 4.6 4.1 0.2 2 412
    Lebanon 1.8 3.7 33.8 (6.5) (2.4) 2 7.9 5.7 4.6 0.8 5 1.4 2.2 5.2 8.3 1.7 1.9 2 12.4 787
  • Druzes
  • 2.5 5.9 29.4 (0.3) 0.6 4.8 4.8 0.9 0.6 0.6 0 0.9 8.5 13 3.4 1.1 15 8.2 354
    Libya 27.5 1.1 17.1 (1.5) 7.8 9.7 1.5 4.5 0.4 2.2 0.4 3.4 5.6 5.2 0.4 0 2.2 11.2 269
    Lithuania 0 0.9 45.3 (14) (2.3) 5 6.4 3.2 7 0 1.2 3.8 11.4 1.2 1.5 3.2 2 0.9 7 342
    Macedonia 0.3 0 45 (19) (4) 4.5 7.5 4.5 4 3 1 2 8 2 5 1.5 4 3 4.7 200
    Morocco 20.6 2 28.1 (15.5) (1.2) 7.4 4.7 0.7 4.2 0.5 1 0.7 4 9.9 4.8 0 0.6 2.5 8.3 836
    Netherlands 0.3 0 45 (14) 8 11 2 12 1.5 0 6.5 7.5 0.5 10 2.5 2.5 0.5 0.2
    Norway 0.3 0.2 45.7 (31.5) (3) 3.8 10.5 1 7.6 0.2 1.3 2.7 11.4 1.9 5.4 1.9 1.8 0.5 3.8 628
  • Saami
  • 0 0 3.8 (0) 41.6 0 0 0.4 0 0 0 48 0 0 0 1.4 0 4.6 499
    Palestine 11.3 2 27.4 (2.7) 0.5 9.5 2.7 5.1 0.2 2.4 0.3 1.7 3.9 6.9 0.2 1 2 21.5 409
    Poland 0.1 1 43.9 (14.5) (4.5) 4.9 7.9 2.1 6.9 1.3 0.7 5.2 10.1 1.4 4 1.9 3.6 1.9 3 883
    Portugal 6.4 0.1 43.9 (26) (2.1) 4.8 6.8 3.3 6.3 1.2 0.9 1.7 6.5 3 6.1 2.2 1.8 2 2.9 1448
    Romania 0 2.5 38.8 (3.5) (6.1) 3.5 11.2 6.1 5.1 1.5 1 2.6 8.7 0.5 5.6 0.5 3 2.5 6.6 196
    Russia 0.2 1.8 41.2 (15) (4.9) 4.2 7.8 2.7 6.5 1.4 1.1 3.9 10.4 2.2 3.7 2 1.8 1.3 8 1768
  • Adyghe-Kabardin
  • 0 4.2 25.6 (3.5) (2.2) 0 4.6 3.6 6.2 3.6 7.2 1.9 8.5 3 7.2 2.3 5.2 4.9 12 305
  • Avars (Caucasus)
  • 0 8.2 23 4.9 1.7 0 1.7 0 0 6.4 13.1 8.2 13.1 1.6 8.2 4.9 5 61
  • Bashkirs
  • 0 0 22.1 2.1 6 0.3 2 2.2 0 14.8 7.4 0 2.4 0.5 0.6 0 28 666
  • Chechen-Ingush
  • 0 1.1 25.8 (3.5) (0.4) 0.6 3.2 1.8 12.5 2.9 6.1 3.9 10.4 2.9 5 5.7 3.2 1.4 13.5 279
  • Chuvash
  • 0 0 27.3 (2.5) (2.5) 7.3 5.5 3.6 3.6 0 1.8 16.4 14.5 3.6 7.3 1.8 0 0 7.3 55
  • Dargins
  • 0 9.1 23.6 1.1 10.9 1.8 1.8 3.6 1.8 6.4 13.6 2.8 11.8 6.4 1.1 3.6 0.6 110
  • Karachay-Balkars
  • 0 2.4 25.2 (5.5) (5.9) 0.4 2.8 4.5 5.7 4.5 7.7 1.2 3.2 12.6 4.9 2 8.1 4.5 23.9 246
  • Kumyks
  • 0 3.6 24.1 0.9 8 1.8 9.8 2.7 6.3 6.3 5.3 2.7 2.7 5.3 1.8 0.9 17.9 112
  • Nogays
  • 0.4 3.8 20.7 0.9 2.3 1.1 5 3.8 4.6 1.7 3.1 4.6 1.9 2.7 3.8 4.2 35.4 261
  • Mordovians
  • 0 1 42.2 4.9 7.8 2 7.9 6.9 0 2 15.7 2 0 5.9 0 0 1.7 102
  • North Ossetians
  • 0.7 3 26.1 (3.5) (0.7) 1.3 16.1 4.3 2.3 3.6 3.3 0 6.9 5.6 2.3 1.3 2.3 3 18 305
  • Tatars
  • 0 0.9 30.7 3.9 7.5 2.6 9.2 0.9 2.2 7 10.5 3.1 5.7 0.9 1.8 0 13.1 228
  • Udmurts
  • 0 0 21.8 0 2 14.9 23.8 9.9 0 4 8.9 2 0 0 0 0 12.7 101
    Scotland 0 0.2 44.1 (25) (3.1) 3 12.7 2.2 5.9 1.2 1.1 2.8 8.1 2.4 6.9 4.1 0.6 2.5 2.4 1853
    Serbia 0.5 0.9 41 5.1 6.8 3.4 1.7 1.7 0.9 6.8 9.4 1.5 4.3 3.4 3.4 0 9.2 117
    Slovakia 0.3 1.9 43 (10) (5) 3.2 9.6 1.2 8.1 0.9 0.9 5.5 11.1 1.2 3.8 2.9 2 1 4.1 581
    Slovenia 0 1.1 44.4 (14.5) (8.1) 4.8 9.8 2.5 6.4 1.1 1.7 2.8 9 1.4 5.3 2.8 2.2 1.1 3.7 358
    Spain 2.4 0.7 44.1 (28) (2.6) 7.5 6.6 2.1 6.4 1.1 1.4 1.9 8.1 1.8 6.3 1.1 1.4 1.7 5.5 2506
  • Andalusia
  • 7.4 0.8 44.3 (29.5) 4.8 8.9 2.3 2.6 1 1 1.6 5.7 1.2 6.8 1.3 1.6 3.2 3.1 310
  • Aragon
  • 1.2 1 39.3 5 15.8 0 10.9 0.8 0 1.7 9.6 0 4.2 1.7 0.8 0.8 7.2 119
  • Asturias
  • 0 1 54.1 5.6 9 0 1.1 0 2.2 0 12.3 2.2 7.9 1.1 1.1 0 2.4 89
  • Basques
  • 0.3 0.8 49 (44) (2.8) 7.9 7.6 1.5 6 1 0.3 0.8 11.7 1.9 5.3 0.6 1.1 2.3 1.8 618
  • Cantabria
  • 1.6 2.5 37.6 (27) 19 3.7 0.4 2.5 0.8 1.2 2.9 10.7 2.5 3.7 2.9 0 0 0.4 242
  • Catalonia
  • 3.1 0.5 29.5 7.5 7 1.3 7.6 1.3 2.5 3.8 10.1 3.9 10 1.3 5 2.5 3.1 80
  • Galicia
  • 3.7 1 58.5 (34) 3.8 8.6 1.1 3.7 1.6 0 0.5 5.4 1.5 4.9 0.5 1.6 1.1 0.5 185
    Syria 5.9 2.5 26.2 (0) (1.7) 2.5 8.5 3.4 8.5 0.9 5.1 2.5 1.7 10.2 5.9 0 2.5 0.9 12.7 118
    Sweden 0.6 0.5 45.8 (31.5) (2.2) 5 7.7 2.7 4 0.8 0.6 3 12.1 2.8 6.4 2.8 1.3 1.3 2.5 637
    Switzerland 0.9 0.4 47.9 (15.5) (4.4) 4.9 11.5 2.2 9.3 0.9 0.9 3.1 6.7 0.4 5.3 0.9 1.8 0.4 2.7 225
    Tunisia 28.2 3.1 28.2 (11.5) (2.3) 3.9 4.7 3.1 3.6 0.3 0.5 0.5 2.6 9.6 2.6 0.3 0 0.8 8.2 387
    Turkey 1.3 4.8 30.8 (4.5) (2.4) 0.7 8.9 2.8 4.3 1.3 3.7 1.9 3 6.3 5.6 1.5 1.9 1.9 19.2 463
    Ukraine 0.3 3.5 39 (11.5) (2) 4.3 8.1 2.9 8.4 1.7 0.9 5.8 9.8 0.6 4.9 1.7 2.6 0.9 5.7 346
    Wales 0 0 59.8 (8.7) 4.3 15.3 2.2 1.1 0 0 0 4.4 0 7.6 3.3 0 1.1 0.9 92

    Additional information

    The samples for the Sami people of Lapland come from Norway (n=278), Sweden (n=152) and Finland (n=69) and only include traditional Sami.

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